3We are going to look into the function of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
4Two essential organs of reproduction are located within the head of the animal. The hypothalamus controls:Body temperature, and the drive to eat and drink are just a few functions.It sends and receives neural signals through the nervous system and hormonal messages through the endocrine system.The pituitary gland, sits at the base of the brain.The pituitary is divided into two regions: the anterior and posterior pituitaries.
5The female reproductive organs consist of the ovary, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva. Female reproductive tracts of various farm animals are similar to the cow, but differ primarily in the shape of the uterus and cervix.
6Uterusianrpubs.unl.edu/ beef/g537.htmThe uterus of the cow is bipartite, while the uterine horns are relatively long and well developed.The fertilized embryo moves from the oviduct into the uterine horn, where fetal development begins. The fetus grows within a layer of membranes called the placenta, where it is nourished.
7Ovaries The ovary, is responsible for two basic functions: Production of the female egg or ovum.Production of two primary reproductive hormones, estrogen and progesterone.
8http://www. ansi. okstate The oviduct begins as a funnel-shaped tube that engulfs the ovary. When ovulationoccurs, the ovum is picked up by the infundibulum and channeled into theoviduct (also known as the Fallopian tube), where fertilization takes place ifsperm are present.
9CervixThe cervix has annular rings. It has thick walls that allow a passageway for sperm at mating and expulsion of the fetus at the time of birth.During pregnancy, the cervix is filled with a thick mucus secretion known as the cervical plug, which protects the uterus from infections entering from the vagina.
10The vagina serves as a receptacle for the male's penis. The vagina serves as a receptacle for the male's penis.In the cow, the semen is deposited in the vagina near the cervix during natural mating with the bull.When artificial insemination is used, an insemination instrument is threaded through the vagina and cervix and semen is deposited at the uterine side of the cervix.The external opening of the vagina is called the vulva.
11Estrous CycleThe ovarian changes during a typical 21-day estrous cycle in which pregnancy does not occur.The development and regression of the corpus luteum and of the follicles are continuous processes
12. This cycle of egg development in cattle is called the estrous cycle. The cow is a non seasonal polyestrous species. Which means a cow can have multiple estrous cycles throughout the year. Two prominent structures are present within the ovary, the follicle and corpora lutea.
13HormonesEstrogen, prepares the pre-pubertal heifer and post-partum cow for cyclic sexual activity.Progesterone, secreted by the corpora lutea, suppresses the further development of follicles and the secretion of estrogen. High levels of progesterone and low levels of estrogen prevent a cow from coming into heat. Progesterone is necessary for preparing the uterus to receive the fertilized egg and maintains the proper uterine environment for continuation of pregnancy.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteninizing hormone (LH) are secreted & travel through the blood to the ovary.FSH and LH are mediated by gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) coming from the hypothalamus to signal their release from the pituitary.FSH stimulates the growth, development and function of the follicle, while LH cause the follicle to rupture during ovulation and causes the subsequent development of the corpus luteum.
14Placenta Classification is based on: The gross shape of the placenta and the distribution of contact sites between fetal membranes and endometrium.The number of layers of tissue between maternal and fetal vascular systems.
15A cow has a cotyledonary placenta. Cotyledonary: Multiple, discrete areas of attachment called cotyledons are formed by interaction of patches of allantochorion with endometrium. The fetal portions of this type of placenta are called cotyledons, the maternal contact sites (caruncles), and the cotyledon-caruncle complex a placentome. This type of placentation is observed in ruminants.
16EFISIENSI REPRODUKSI INDEKS REPRODUKSI SERVICE PER CONCEPTION CONCEPTION RATE (CR)CALVING RATECALVING INTERVALDAY OPENSERVICE PERIOD
17Service per Conception (S/C) Dihitung pada kelompok ternak, dinyatakan dalam persenBanyaknya kali kawin sampai dengan terjadinya kebuntinganJumlah straw yang di inseminasikan sampai dengan terjadinya kebuntingan
18Conception Rate (CR)Conception Rate (CR) atau laju konsepsi adalah jumlah (persen) sapi sapi yang bunting setelah kawin atau di inseminasi yang pertama. Angka yang ideal adalah 65%
19Calving Rate (CaR)Calving rate (angka kelahiran) adalah jumlah (persen) ternak yang melahirkan setelah kawin atau inseminasi yang pertama. Angka yang ideal adalah 65%.
20Calving Interval (CI)Calving interval atau jarak beranak adalah waktu antar beranak (beranak yang satu dan berikutnya). Waktu yang ideal adalah satu tahun.
21Day Open (DO)Day open (DO) adalah waktu antara saat beranak dan timbulnya birahi pertama. Waktu yang ideal adalah 21 s/d 42 hari.
22Service Period (SP)Service period (SP) adalah jarak (waktu) antara saat melahirkan sampai dengan bunting kembali. Idealnya adalah 3 bulan.
23KEMAJIRAN MAJIR? MANDUL STERIL KE – MA – JI – RAN KE – MA – JIR – AN INFERTIL/TIDAK SUBUR
24HEWAN TIDAK SUBUR ATAU MAJIR FAKTOR – FAKTOR PENYEBABNYA ADALAH :GANGGUAN HORMONALKESALAHAN PENGELOLAANPENYAKIT KELAMINKELAINAN ANATOMISPENGARUH LINGKUNGAN
25GANGGUAN HORMONAL HORMON BERASAL DARI HIPOTALAMUS : GnRH HIPOFISA ANTERIOR : FSH dan LHOVARIUM : ESTROGEN dan PROGESTERONUTERUS : PROSTAGLANDIN
26INFERTILITAS/STERILITAS OLEH KARENA GANGGUAN HORMONAL ATROPI OVARIUMHIPOFUNGSI OVARIUMKISTA OVARIUM : KISTA FOLIKULER danKISTA LUTEALKORPUS LUTEUM PERSISTEN