Learning Principle 1: you don't need a thorough knowledge of formal English grammar to become a good writer. However, knowing a few basic grammatical terms should help you understand some of the principles of good writing. Prinsip Belajar 1 : anda tidak perlu pengetahuan yang mendalam tentang tata bahasa Inggris untuk menjadi penulis yang baik. Akan tetapi, mengetahui sedikit istilah tata bahasa dasar akan membantu anda memahami beberapa prinsip menulis yang baik.
Grammar (Tata bahasa) A set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures (morphology) of a language.syntaxwordmorphology Terjemah : kumpulan aturan dan contoh terkait sintaks (pengaturan kata-kata dalam kalimat) dan struktur kata (struktur internal dari kata-kata) So, the job of the grammar is to organize words into sentences in many different ways.
Basic Knowledge 1. Parts of Speech (Word Classes) 2. Subjects, Verbs, Objects 3. Adjective, Adverbs 4. Prepositional Phrase 5. Four Basic Sentence Structures 6. Coordination 7. Adjective Clauses 8. Appositives 9. Adverb Clauses 10. Participial Clauses 11. Absolute Phrases 12. Four Functional Types of Sentences
1.Part of Speech (Word Classes) Word ClassesOpenNounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsClosePronounsPrepositionsConjunctionsInterjections
PART OF SPEECH BASIC FUNCTIONEXAMPLES noun names a person, place, or thing (real / abstract) pirate, Caribbean, ship, work pronoun takes the place of a noun Subject: I, you, he, she, it, we, they Object: me, you, him, her, it, us verb identifies action or state of being sing, dance, believe, be adjective modifies a nounhot, lazy, funny adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb softly, lazily, often preposition shows a relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and other words in a sentence up, over, against, by, for conjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses and, but, or, yet interjection expresses emotionah, whoops, ouch
Important notes: 1 Satu kata bisa masuk ke dalam word class yang berbeda, tergantung letak dalam kalimat Contoh: Bosco showed up for work two hours late. [The noun ”work ” is the thing Bosco shows up for.] He will have to work until midnight. [The verb ”work” is the action he must perform.] His work permit expires next month. [The adjective(attributive noun ) ”work” modifies the noun permit.]
2. Subject, Verb, Object Bagian-bagian mendasar dari suatu kalimat adalah Subject, Verb dan (seringkali, tapi tidak selalu) Object Subject biasanya adalah NOUN (kata yang menamai orang, tempat atau sesuatu) Verb ( Predicate ) biasanya mengikuti Subject dan menerangkan tindakan atau kondisi yang ada Object menerima tindakan dan mengikuti Verb. Object biasanya berupa NOUN atau PRONOUN
Examples The woman [S] built [V] a strong stone wall [O]. The children [S] eat [V] buns, cakes, and biscuits [O]. The professor [S] held up [V] an orange [O]. Variations 1. The boy [S] slept [V] 2. The man [S] hit [V] the ball [Direct Object] 3. The woman [S] went to [V] the house [Indirect Obj.] 4. The girl [S] gave [V] the book [DO] to her brother [IO] 5. They [S] thought that [V] he was crazy [Complement] 6. The boy [S] wanted to [V] leave [Complement] 7. The woman [S] told [V] the man [DO] to leave [Comp] 8. He [S] was [AuxiliaryVerb] mowing [V] the lawn [O] 9. The girl [S] was [ Linking Verb] tall [ Predicative Adjective] 10. He [S] was [ Linking Verb] a teacher [ Predicative Adjective]
Practice 1: Pengenalan Subject and Verb The sun rises (Matahari terbit) The birds fly (Burung-burung itu terbang) My daughter is a wrestler (Anak perempuan adalah seorang pegulat) The children are tired. (Anak-anak itu kecapaian) Note: 1. Dalam setiap kalimat di atas, subject-nya adalah NOUN. 2. Verbs(predicate) di dua kalimat pertama--rises, fly– menunjukkan tindakan dan menjawab pertanyaan “Apa yang subject lakukan? 3. Verbs(predicate) di dua kalimat terakhir --is, are– disebut linking verbs karena mereka menghubungkan subject dengan kata yang merubah namanya (wrestler) atau menggambarkannya (tired).
Practice 2: Pengenalan Object 1. The girls hurled stones. 2. The professor swigged coffee. 3. Gus dropped the aquarium. 4. Before eating the brownie, Nancy sniffed it. 5. When I finally found my brother, I kissed him. Note: 1. NOUN objects --stones, coffee, aquarium--all answer the question what 2. Kalimat 4 dan 5 menggunakan PRONOUN objects – it, him--
Practice 3: Pengenalan S, V, O 1. Mr. Buck donated a wishbone to the Museum of Natural History. 2. After the final song, the drummer hurled his sticks at the crowd. 3. Gus smashed the electric guitar with a sledge hammer. 4. Felix stunned the giraffe with a radar gun. 5. Very slowly, Pandora opened the box. 6. Very slowly, Pandora opened the box. 7. Very slowly, Pandora opened the box. 8. Thomas gave his moon-pie to Bengie. 9. After breakfast, Vera drove to the mission with Ted. 10. Even though it rarely rains here, Professor Legree carries his umbrella wherever he goes. Answers 1. verb; 2. subject; 3. object; 4. object; 5. subject; 6. verb; 7. object; 8. verb; 9. subject; 10. verb.
Homework 1 Buatlah kalimat untuk 10 pola kalimat di halaman 9, masing-masing sebanyak 2 buah contoh kalimat Due: 19 September 2013
Verbs Followed by an Infinitive Eg.She agreed to speak before the game. agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condesce nd consent continue dare decide deserve detest dislike expect fail forget get happen have hesitate hope hurry intend leap leave like long love mean neglect offer ought plan prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot start stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish
Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive Eg. Everyone expected her to win. advise allow ask beg bring build buy challenge choose command dare direct encourage expect forbid force have hire instruct invite lead leave let like love motivate order pay permit persuade prepare promise remind require send teach tell urge want warn Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object.
Verbs Followed by a Gerund Eg. They enjoyed working on the boat. admit advise appreciate avoid can't help complete consider delay deny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish forbid get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone practice quit recall report resent resist resume risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time) Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund Eg. We concentrated on doing well. admit to approve of argue about believe in care about complain about concentrate on confess to depend on disapprove of discourage from dream about feel like forget about insist on object to plan on prevent (someone) from refrain from succeed in talk about think about worry about
Verb Phrases that Require -ing approve of do not mind keep on be better of count on forget about look forward to can’t help get through object to insist on think about think of She forgot about canceling her appointment
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(i) Fungsi dari of Adjective: Memodifikasi NOUN, atau memberi sifat pada NOUN. Bentuk dari Adjective: Asli (wise, innocent, sad, hard, difficult, great, small, etc) Bentukan : NOUN + ful (beauty + ful = beautiful, mercy + ful = merciful) VERB + able (change + able = changeable, break + able = breakable, regret + able = regretable) VERB + ive (destruct + ive = destructive, attract + ive = attractive, protect + ive = protective, educate + ive = educative
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(ii) VERB + ING (confuse + ing = confusing, amaze + ing = amazing, surprise + ing = surprising) NOUN + al (nature + al = natural, function+al = functional, NOUN + ous/ious (danger+ous = dangerous, glamor+ous=glamorous,) NOUN+y (Ice + y = icy, Oil + y = Oily, etc) NOUN+ic (History + ic = historic, rusty+ic = rustic,
3. Adjectives and Adverbs (i) Fungsi dari of an Adverb: Biasanya menambah informasi tentang time (rarely, frequently, tomorrow), time manner (slowly, quickly, willingly), or manner place (here, there, everywhere) place Bentuk dari Adverb: Banyak adverbs—khususnya adverbs of manner — dibentuk dari adjectives + akhiran ly (easy + ly = easi ly, dependable + ly = dependab ly ). adjectives Tapi banyak adverbs umum (just, still, almost, not) tidak berakhir dengan - ly, dan tidak semua kata yang berakhir –ly ( friendly, neighborly) adalah adverbs.
3. Adjectives and Adverbs (i) Letak dari Adverb: Di depan : Adverb yg memodify adjective ("quite sad") Adverb yg memodify adverb lain ("very carelessly") Fleksibel (bisa sebelum atau sesudah verb atau di awal kalimat) Adverb yang memodify verb ("softly sang" or "sang softly"), ("Softly she sang to the baby"). The position of the adverb may have an effect on the meaning of the sentence.
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(1) Cara Umum memperluas kalimat dasar adalah menggunakan modifiers Modifiers adalah kata-kata yang menambah makna/arti dari kata-kata lain Modifier paling sederhana adalah Adjectives (modify NOUNS) dan Adverbs (modify VERBS, ADJECTIVES, other adverbs) Contoh: “The clown's sad smile touched us deeply.” Adjective Sad menambah makna pada Noun Smile Adverb deeply menambah makna pada Verb touch
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(2) Arranging Adjectives Adjective paling sering muncul tepat di depan NOUN yang di-modify “The old, cranky caretaker refused to answer our questions.” Perhatikan bahwa ketika dua (atau lebih) kata sifat mendahului kata benda, mereka biasanya dipisahkan dengan koma. Tapi kadang-kadang Adjective mengikuti NOUN yang mereka modify: “The caretaker, old and cranky, refused to answer our questions” Di sini koma ada di luar dua kata sifat yang dihubungkan dengan Conjunction And. Cara ini memberi penekanan lebih pada NOUN dalam sebuah kalimat.
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(3) Adjectives terkadang muncul di posisi ke-3 dalam kalimat setelah linking verb seperti am, are, is, was, or were.linking verb His voice was rough. Your children are cruel. This seat is wet. Pada setiap kalimat di atas, the adjective (rough, cruel, wet) memodifikasi the subject (NOUN) tetapi mengikuti linking verb (was, are, is).
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(4) Arranging Adverbs Adverbs biasanya mengikuti Verbs yang di- modify: “I dance occasionally ” Adverb juga bisa muncul langsung di depan Verb atau di awal kalimat. : I occasionally dance. Occasionally I dance. Tidak semua adverbs sedemikian fleksibel dalam semua kalimat. Anda harus mencobanya di beberapa posisi yang berbeda untuk melihat mana yang tepat.
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(5) Practice in Adding Adjectives 1. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina brought great destruction to the Gulf coast. It was one of the most _____ hurricanes in recent decades. 2. All of our pets enjoy good health. Our collie is exceptionally _____, despite its advanced age. 3. Your suggestion makes a great deal of sense. You have a very _____ idea. 4. Google made record profits last year. It is one of the most _____ companies in the world. 5. Dr. Kraft's job requires patience and skill. He is a _____ negotiator. 6. All through high school, Giles rebelled against his parents and teachers. Now he has three _____ children of his own. 7. Telling jokes that will not offend others can be difficult. Some comedians are deliberately _____. 1. destructive; 2. healthy; 3. sensible; 4. profitable; 5. patient; 6. rebellious; 7. offensive.
3. Adjectives and Adverbs(6) Practice in Adding Adverbs The exam was easy. I passed _____. Leroy's careless act set the warehouse on fire. He _____ tossed a cigarette into a tank of gasoline. Paige is a brave little girl. She fought _____ against the poltergeists. Howard is a graceful dancer. He moves _____. Tom's apology sounded quite sincere. He said that he was _____ sorry for misusing the tax funds. Paula made a generous contribution to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. She gives _____ every year. The lecture was brief. Dr. Legree spoke _____ about the importance of flossing after every meal. 1. easily; 2. carelessly; 3. bravely; 4. gracefully; 5. sincerely; 6. generously; 7. briefly
Homework 2 1. Buatlah kalimat dengan menggunakan pola sebagaimana dalam tabel hal 15, 16, dan 17, masing-masing sebanyak 10 buah 2. Bawa kamus (buku / digital) Due: 26 September 2013
Homework 3 1. Buatlah tulisan cerita tentang kenangan anda semasa SMA/SMK sebanyak 10 kalimat dalam bahasa Indonesia. ( warning : jangan copy paste pekerjaan temannya, terancam fail) 2. Tulis kembali cerita di atas menggunakan Bahasa Inggris dengan beragam pola yang sudah dikerjakan di Homework 1. Gunakan Past Tense ! 3. Bawa kamus (buku / digital) Due: 3 Oktober 2013
Adjective&Adverb Degree Positive (Netral) (Adj) This sauce is sweet (Adv) I can solve this puzzle easily Comparative (Perbandingan) Aturan: Bila kata hanya satu suku kata, ditambahkan “ er ” (hard hard er) Bila lebih dari satu suku kata, didahului oleh more atau less (expensive less / more expensive) Ada beberapa adjective dan adverb yang tidak beraturan Cth: (Adj) This sauce is sweet er than those sauces (Adv) I can solve this puzzle more easily than the previous ones
Superlative (Tingkat paling tinggi atau paling rendah) Aturan: Diakhiri dengan “est” untuk satu suku kata Diawali dengan ” most ” atau “ least ” Tidak semua adj dan adv ada bentuk superlative- nya Contoh: (Adj) This is the fast est way to get to the town (Adj) The most amazing experience I have ever had was riding with Valentino Rossi (Adv) If you are looking for a public transportation in Surabaya, you will find Ojek as the most suitably. Adjective&Adverb Degree (2)
Exceptions: IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES Adjective&Adverb Degree (3) PositiveComparativeSuperlative BadWorseWorst GoodBetterBest Far (place & time)FurtherFurthest Far (place)FartherFarthest Old (people)ElderEldest Little (amount)LessLeast Late (order)LatterLast
Saying Yesterday was a history Tomorrow is a mistery Today is a gift…that’s why it is called PRESENT
Units of Grammar (Unit-unit Tata Bahasa) Sentence (Kalimat) Clause (Klausa) Phrase (Frasa) Sentence Clause Phrase
Sentence (Kalimat) The largest independent unit of grammar: it begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation pointgrammarcapital letterperiodquestion markexclamation point Terjemah: unit bebas terkecil dari tata bahasa: dimulai dengan huruf besar dan diakhiri dengan titik, tanda tanya atau tanda seru Definisi tradisional (yg tdk lengkap) dari ‘sentence’: a word or group of words that expresses a complete idea and that includes a subject and a verb.subjectverb
Clause A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. subjectpredicate Clause maybe of types Independent : Sentence Dependent/Subordinate : Sentence Like Construction
Types of Dependent Clauses TypesPatternExample Adjective Clause (Klausa Sifat) function as an adjective begins with a relative pronoun ( which, that, who, whom, whose ), a relative adverb (where, when, why)relative pronounrelative adverb The T-shirt that I am wearing was a gift from my brother last year Adverb Clause (Klausa Keterangan) function as an adverb Begins with subordinating conjunction (such as if, when, because, or althoug h ) and includes a subject and a predicate. subordinating conjunction Although the weather went bad, I was able to manage to the school on time.
Types of Dependent Clauses (2) TypesPatternExample Noun Clause (Klausa Benda) Contains that, what, why, how : I believe that everything happens for a reason. How do I know what you think, until I see what I say? " How we remember, what we remember, and why we remember form the most personal map of our individuality”
Example of a Clause Consider the following sentence: Tom married Amy when he was 19. The string Tom married Amy could be a complete sentence on its own; the additional string, when he was 19, could not be a complete sentence on its own. It is a clause. A clause is a sentence-like construction contained within a sentence. The construction when he was 19 is ' sentence-like' in the sense that we can analyse it in terms of the major sentence elements (subject, verb, etc....). It has its own subject ( he ), it has a verb ( was ), and it has a subject complement ( 19 ).verbcomplement In addition to these major sentence elements, it has the subordinating conjunction when, which tells us that the clause is a subordinate clause."subordinating conjunctionsubordinate clause
Types of Clauses vs Types of Sentences SentenceType of SentenceType of Clause "We cannot walk alone." Simple SentenceIndependent Clause “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Compound Sentence 2 Independent Clauses joined with conjunctions “ but ” "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Complex Sentence1 Independent Clause and ends with Adverb Clause
Types of Clauses vs Types of Sentences…(2) Sentence Clause "Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with” Compound- Complex Sentence Dependent Clause (Adverb Clause) Independent Clause Conjunction
Sentence Component Subject The part of a sentence or clause that commonly indicates (a) what it is about, or (b) who or what performs the action (that is, theagent).sentenceclauseagent Verb Object