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Kebijakan Industri dan Perdagangan Indonesia Maddaremmeng A. Panennungi www.maddaremmeng.blog.com Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Kebijakan Industri dan Perdagangan Indonesia Maddaremmeng A. Panennungi www.maddaremmeng.blog.com Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Kebijakan Industri dan Perdagangan Indonesia Maddaremmeng A. Panennungi Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia

2 PENDAHULUAN

3 Perkembangan Perdagangan Dunia (Milyar USD)

4 Investasi Asing Langsung Dunia

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Top 20 Negara Penerima Transfer Upah Pekerja Migran, 2004

6 KEBIJAKAN INDUSTRI DAN PERDAGANGAN INDONESIA SERTA EKONOMI POLITIK KEBIJAKAN INDUSTRI DAN PERDAGANGAN

7 Tingkatan Integrasi Ekonomi Free trade between members: NAFTA, ASEAN (partial) Free Trade Common external tariffs Customs Union Factors of production move freely between members Common Market Common currency, harmonized tax rates, common monetary and fiscal policy: EU (partial) Economic Union Common government Political Union Level of integration Complexity Source: Paul Rodrigue(2005)

8 Proteksi vs Free Trade Ide Merchantilist vs Ricardo Kecenderungan ISP and EPP Free Trade?: Multilateral, Bilateral, dan Regional

9 Perkembangan Kebijakan Industri dan Perdagangan Indonesia Redistribusi pendapatan sebagai akibat dari perdagangan: H-O dan Spesific Factor Model Evolusi kebijakan perdagangan Indonesia dan peranan dari kelompok kepentingan Kelompok kepentingan dan kebijakan perdagangan Indonesia

10 Evolusi Kebijakan Perdagangn Indonesia (Basri,1995, diadaptasi) Main features Period of independence and nationalization Political consolidation and economic recovery Steady growth, boosted by oil boom, high concentration of political control after MALARI Falling of oil prices, strong deregulation, presidential authority highly personalized Economic crises followed by reformation, decentralization, and democratization The role of interest groups Nationalization and state enterprises formation Inward looking policy Army dominant Private business groups still weak The role interest groups was weak The beginning of outward looking policy Technocrat's influences was high State and Private enterprises grew rapidly in boom condition Rent seekers dispersed around military, Suharto, and bureaucracy, but the role of interest groups relatively weak There is a tendency of import substitution policy to protect basic manufacturing industry Large conglomerates increasingly influential State enterprises under attacked by unpredictability Rent seekers concentrate around president The role of interest groups began to increase The battle between the deregulation and the protection demand Both state and private enterprises have been weakened by the crises Outward looking policy is dominant Influential of International Organization is high A high demand of protection as the consequences of the pro-liberalization policy Source: Adapted from Basri (2001)

11 Political groups dan kebijakan perdagangan (Basri, 1995, diadaptasi) PeriodTechnocrat's stance & role Economic nationalist stance &role Rent seekers stance & role Foreign institution stance & role Trade policy outcome IrrelevantProtectionist (strong) ProtectionistIrrelevantProtectionist Pro market (moderate) Protectionist (moderate) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (moderate) Liberal Adopted ISI, but relatively pro-market (declining) Protectionist (strong) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (declining) Protectionist Support economic liberalization (increasing) Protectionist (declining) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (moderate) Ambivalence Pro market&trade reform (strong) Protectionist (declining) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (increasing) Relatively Liberal Pro market&trade reform (declining) Protectionist (increasing) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (relatively strong) Relatively Liberal IrrelevantProtectionist (declining) Protectionist (strong) Pro market (strong) Liberal Source: Adapted from Basri (2001)

12 GLOBALISASI EKONOMI INDONESIA

13 Perbandingan Penurunan Tarif

14 Ekspor-Impor Indonesia

15 Tingkat Keterbukaan Perekonomian Indonesia

16 Investasi Asing di Indonesia

17 ISU DAN KEBIJAKAN INDUSTRI DAN PERDAGANGAN INDONESIA

18 Masalah dan Kebijakan Korupsi Tingginya cost of capital Administrasi perpajakan Import content Penguasaan teknologi

19 Masalah dan Kebijakan Rendahnya kualitas SDM Struktur industri dan persaingan yg belum ideal Konsentrasi industri yg masih berpusat di Jawa Biaya Logistik yg tinggi Pungutan liar di mana-mana Tekanan proteksi dari domestik dan negara tujuan ekspor

20 Penutup Kesimpulan Pertanyaan


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