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The Two Factor Theory of Emotion is a social psychology theory that views emotion as having two components (factors):social psychology A. Physiological.

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Presentasi berjudul: "The Two Factor Theory of Emotion is a social psychology theory that views emotion as having two components (factors):social psychology A. Physiological."— Transcript presentasi:

1 The Two Factor Theory of Emotion is a social psychology theory that views emotion as having two components (factors):social psychology A. Physiological arousal B. Cognition According to the theory, cognitions are used to interpret the meaning of physiological arousal in a particular situation. Because cognitions are influenced by the situation, the theory predicts that elements of a person's environment can have a significant impact upon their emotional state, provided that the reasons for any physiological arousal are ambiguous.cognitions


3 GOAL - BASED ORIENTATION Emosi Senang, dapat berkaitan dengan dua kondisi goal- outcome, yaitu menginginkan sesuatu kemudian mendapatkannya serta tidak menginginkan sesuatu yang kemudian memang tidak terjadi. Emosi Takut, juga dapat berkaitan dengan dua kondisi goal-outcome, yaitu kondisi tidak menginginkan sesuatu namun tidak pasti apakah kondisi tersebut bisa dihindarinya; serta kondisi menginginkan sesuatu namun tidak pasti apakah individu bisa mendapatkannya.

4 Emosi Sedih, dapat berkaitan pula dengan dua kondisi goal- outcome, yaitu menginginkan sesuatu tetapi tidak mendapatkannya dan tidak ada harapan (belief) untuk mendapatkannya; serta tidak menginginkan sesuatu namun mendapatkannya dan tidak ada harapan (belief) untuk menghindarinya. Emosi Marah, bisa memiliki dua kondisi goal-outcome seperti pada emosi sedih, namun disertai dengan kecenderungan untuk membalas atau melampiaskan karena masih terdapat belief untuk mendapatkan apa yang diharapkan dan belief untuk menghindari apa yang tidak diharapkan.




8 Tahapan perkembangan moral adalah ukuran dari tinggi rendahnya moral seseorang berdasarkan perkembangan penalaran moralnya seperti yang diungkapkan oleh Lawrence KohlbergLawrence Kohlberg Tingkat 1 (Pra-Konvensional) 1. Orientasi kepatuhan dan hukuman 2. Orientasi minat pribadi ( Apa untungnya buat saya?) Tingkat 2 (Konvensional) 3. Orientasi keserasian interpersonal dan konformitas (Sikap anak baik) 4. Orientasi otoritas dan pemeliharaan aturan sosial ( Moralitas hukum dan aturan) Tingkat 3 (Pasca-Konvensional) 5. Orientasi kontrak sosial 6. Prinsip etika universal (Principled conscience)

9 Seorang perempuan sudah hampir meninggal dunia akibat semacam kanker. Ada suatu obat yang menurut dokter dapat menyelamatkannya. Obat itu adalah semacam radium yang baru saja ditemukan oleh seorang apoteker di kota yang sama. Obat itu mahal ongkos pembuatannya, tetapi si apoteker menjualnya sepuluh kali lipat ongkos pembuatannya tersebut. Ia membayar $200 untuk radium tersebut dan menjualnya $2.000 untuk satu dosis kecil obat tersebut. Suami dari perempuan yang sakit, Heinz, pergi ke setiap orang yang dia kenal untuk meminjam uang, tapi ia cuma memperoleh $1.000, setengah dari harga obat seharusnya. Ia berceritera kepada apoteker bahwa isterinya sudah sekarat dan memintanya untuk dapat menjual obat dengan lebih murah atau memperbolehkan dia melunasinya di kemudian hari. Tetapi si apoteker mengatakan: “Tidak, saya yang menemukan obat itu dan saya akan mencari uang dari obat itu.” Heinz menjadi putus asa dan membongkar apotek tersebut untuk mencuri obat demi istrinya. Haruskah Heinz membongkar apotek itu untuk mencuri obat bagi isterinya? Mengapa?kankerdokterradiumapoteker



12 Social cognition is the study of how people process social information, especially its encoding, storage, retrieval, and application to social situations These schemas are a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. They are organized in memory in an associative network. A.SALIENCE, Salience is the degree to which a particular social object stands out relative to other social objects in a situation. B.PRIMING, Priming refers to any experiences immediately prior to a situation that caused a schema to be more accessible

13 Kaitan dengan FRONTAL LOBES Gage as having been hard-working, responsible, and popular with the men in his charge, but the post-accident Gage as fitful, irreverent. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well- balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was 'no longer Gage.'



16 perspective taking Holly is an 8-year old girl who likes to climb trees. She is the best tree climber in the neighbourhood. One day while climbing a tree she falls off the bottom branch but does not hurt herself. Her father sees her fall, and is upset. He asks her to promise not to climb trees anymore, and Holly promises. Later that day, Holly and her friends meet Sean. Sean's kitten is caught up in a tree and cannot get down. Something has to be done right away or the kitten may fall. Holly is the only one who climbs trees well enough to reach the kitten and get it down, but she remembers her promise to her father. If children of different ages are presented with this situation and asked such questions as, "If Holly climbs the tree, should she be punished?" "Will her father understand if she climbs the tree?" "Will Sean understand why Holly has trouble deciding what to do?" the children will give answers relevant to their age group:girltreeneighbourhoodbranchfather upsetpromisefriendkittenfallagesituationpunishunderstandanswerrelevantgroup

17 Undifferentiated perspective-taking Undifferentiated perspective-taking Age: 3-6 Description: Children recognize that the self and others can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confuse the two. Response: The child predicts that Holly will save the kitten because she does not want it to get hurt and believes that Holly's father will feel just as she does about her climbing the tree: "Happy, he likes kittens." Social-informational perspective-taking Age: 5-9 Description: Children understand that different perspectives may result because people have access to different information. Response: When asked how Holly's father will react when he finds out that she climbed the tree, the child responds, "If he didn't know anything about the kitten, he would be angry. But if Holly shows him the kitten, he might change his mind."recognizeselfotherdifferentthoughtconfusepredicthurtHappylike Social-informational perspective-takingaccessinformationknow angrychangemind Self-reflective perspective-taking Self-reflective perspective-taking Age: 7-12 Description: Children can "step in another person's shoes" and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviour from the other person's perspective. They also recognize that others can do the same. Response: When asked whether Holly thinks she will be punished, the child says, "No. Holly knows that her father will understand why she climbed the tree." This response assumes that Holly's point of view is influenced by her father being able to "step in her shoes" and understand why she saved the kitten.stepshoebehaviourpunishinfluencesave

18 Third-party perspective-taking Third-party perspective-taking Age: Description: Children can step outside a two-person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third, impartial party. Response: When asked whether Holly should be punished, the child says, "No, because Holly thought it was important to save the kitten. But she also knows that her father told her not to climb the tree. So she'd only think she shouldn't be punished if she could get her father to understand why she had to climb the tree." This response steps outside the immediate situation to view both Holly's and her father's perspectives simultaneously. Societal perspective-taking Age: 14-Adult Description: Individuals understand that third-party perspective-taking can be influenced by one or more systems of larger societal values. Response: When asked if Holly should be punished, the individual responds, "No. The value of humane treatment of animals justifies Holly's action. Her father's appreciation of this value will lead him not to punish her."outsideimaginethirdimpartialpartyimportantresponseimmediatesimultaneously Societal perspective-takingIndividual influencesystemlargersocietalvaluehumanetreatmentanimaljustifies appreciationlead


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