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FOTO: smno.kampus.ub.april2012. METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Penelitian survei merupakan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "FOTO: smno.kampus.ub.april2012. METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Penelitian survei merupakan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 FOTO: smno.kampus.ub.april2012

2 METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Penelitian survei merupakan suatu teknik pengumpulan informasi yang dilakukan dengan cara menyusun daftar pertanyaan yang diajukan pada responden. Dalam penelitian survei, peneliti meneliti karakteristik atau hubungan sebab akibat antar variabel tanpa adanya intervensi peneliti.hubungan Terdapat enam langkah dasar dalam melakukan sebuah penelitian survei, yakni: Langkah pertama, yaitu dengan membentuk hipotesis awal, menentukan jenis survei yang akan dilakukan akankah melalui surel ( ), wawancara (interview), atau telepon, membuat pertanyaan-pertanyaan, menentukan kategori dari responden, dan menentukan setting penelitian. Langkah ke dua, yaitu merencanakan cara untuk merekam data dan melakukan pengujian awal terhadap instrumen survei. Langkah ke tiga, yaitu menentukan target populasi responden yang akan di survei, membuat kerangka sampel survei, menentukan besarnya sampel, dan memilih sampel. Langkah keempat, yaitu menentukan lokasi responden, melakukan wawancara (interview), dan mengumpulkan data. Langkah ke lima, yaitu memasukkan data ke komputer, mengecek ulang data yang telah dimasukkan, dan membuat analisis statistik data. dataanalisis Langkah keenam, yaitu menjelaskan metode yang digunakan dan menjabarkan hasil penemuan untuk mendapatkan kritik, serta melakukan evaluasihasilkritik

3 PENGERTIAN SURVEI Menurut Wiseman dan Aron dalam bukunya Field Projects for Sociology Students (Berger, 2000), definisi survei sebagai berikut, survei research is a method for collecting and analyzing social data via highly structured and often very detailed interviews or questionnaires in order to obtain information from large number of respondents presumed to be representative of specific population. Survai atau dalam bahasa Inggris “survey” adalah salah satu bentuk atau jenis penelitian yang banyak dikenal dan disebut-sebut. Namun demikian seringkali kita salah-kaprah dalam menggunakan istilah tersebut. To survey adalah bertanya pada seseorang dan lalu jawabannya direkam (Cooper dan Emory, 1995) Survey adalah satu bentuk teknik penelitian di mana informasi dikumpulkan dari sejumlah sampel berupa orang, melalui pertanyaan-pertanyaan; satu cara mengumpulkan data melalui komunikasi dengan individu-individu dalam suatu sampel (Zikmund, 1997) Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Survey adalah metoda pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan instrumen untuk merekam tanggapan-tanggapan responden dalam suatu sampel penelitian (Nan Lin, 1976)

4 PENGERTIAN SURVEI Diunduh dari: ty+of+life.htm…. 31/8/2012. Survai merupakan satu metode penelitian yang teknik pengambilan datanya dilakukan melalui pertanyaan - tertulis atau lisan (Bailey, 1982). Survai boleh disebut sebagai satu bentuk penelitian yang respondennya adalah manusia; dan untuk bisa memperoleh informasi daripadanya maka perlu disusun satu instrumen penelitian yaitu kuesioner (daftar pertanyaan) dan atau pedoman wawancara (interview guide). Dengan demikian penggunaan istilah survai tidak tepat jika pada waktu mencari data, peneliti tidak bertanya (secara tertulis maupun lisan) kepada responden. Oleh karena itu dalam beberapa buku tentang metode penelitian, survai dibahas dalam topik teknik pengumpulan data, karena titik tekan kata “survey” adalah pada cara perolehan data. Investigating variations in quality of life between different localities The quality of life at a national or global scale is measured by the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), devised in the 1980s. The PQLI is the average of three characteristics: Literacy, life expectancy and infant mortality. However, the term is often used in urban studies of towns or cities to represent a multiple index of different criteria that reflects residents' housing standards and the environmental conditions in which they live. Other indicators, such as traffic levels, complete the picture of a particular area.

5 METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Pendekatan survei adalah salah satu pendekatan penelitian yang pada umumnya digunakan untuk pemngumpulan data yang luas dan banyak. Van Dalen mengatakan bahwa survei merupakan bagian dari studi deskriptif yang bertujuan untuk mencari kedudukan (status), fenomena (gejala) dan menentukan kesamaan status dengan cara membandingkannya dengan standar yang sudah ditentukan. Survey dapat dilakukan secara pribadi ataupun kelompok. Persiapan survei dilakukan secara sistematis dan berencana. Pemerintah, lembaga dan sebagainya sebelum mengadakan survei sudah ditentukan: siapa pelaksananya, dilaksanakan dimana, kapan, berapa lama, apa saja yang dilihat, data apa saja yang dikumpulkan, menggunakan instrumen apa, bagaimana cara menarik kesimpulan, dan bagaimana cara melaporkan. Van Dalen: Their objective ( of survey ) may not merely be to as certain status, but also to determine the adequacy of status by comparing it with selected or established standards, norms or criteria. Jadi survei bukanlah hanya bermaksud mengetahui status gejala, tetapi juga bermaksud menentukan kesamaan status dengan cara membandingkannya dengan standar yang sudah dipilih atau ditentukan. Disamping itu juga, untuk membuktikan atau membenarkan suatu hipotesis.

6 FUNGSI DAN MACAM METODE SURVEI Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Menurut de Vaus (1991), terdapat tiga fungsi metode survei yaitu : 1.Menggambarkan karakteristik data 2.Menjelaskan adanya penyebab sebuah gejala atau sebuah fenomena 3.Mengeksplorasi relasi antar variabel (causal-link). Dari fungsi metode survey di atas, de Vaus (1991), mengelompokkan suvey menjadi dua, yaitu : 1. Descriptive survey ( Exploratory Survey) 2. Analytical (Explanatory Survey). Explanatory Survey = Survei yang bersifat menjelaskan suatu fenomena yang sedang diteliti. Seperti misalnya: Mengapa sebagian orang lebih miskin dari orang lain? Mengapa tingkatan kepemilikan rumah merosot? Teori yang ada memerlukan pengujian dan perancangan survei, sehingga data yang dikumpulkan diperlukan peneliti untuk mendapatkan penjelasan atas fenomena yang sedang diteliti Content Survey Dalam survei ini peneliti harus mengumpulkan informasitentang suatu peristiwa dan kemudian menguraikannya. Sebagai contoh: Jikakita ingin menguraikan pengangguran maka yang dilihat adalah hal-hal apa saja yang digunakan untuk mengukur tingkat pengangguran. Metode survei ini mengkaji masalah-masalah dan mendapatkan pembenaran terhadap keadaan dan praktik-praktik yang sedang berlangsung. Dalam metode survei ini juga dilakukan evaluasi serta perbandingan-perbandingan terhadap hal-hal telah yang dikerjakan.

7 METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI DESKRIPTIF (EXPLORATORY SURVEY). Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Penelitian eksploratif adalah salah satu jenis penelitian sosial yang tujuannya untuk memberikan sedikit definisi atau penjelasan mengenai konsep atau pola yang digunakan dalam penelitian. Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti belum memiliki gambaran akan definisi atau konsep penelitian (Mantra, Ida Bagus, 2004). Peneliti akan mengajukan what untuk menggali informasi lebih jauh. Sifat dari penelitian ini adalah kreatif, fleksibel, terbuka, dan semua sumber dianggap penting sebagai sumber informasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menjadikan topik baru lebih dikenal oleh masyarakat luas, memberikan gambaran dasar mengenai topik bahasan, menggeneralisasi gagasan dan mengembangkan teori yang bersifat tentatif, membuka kemungkinan akan diadakannya penelitian lanjutan terhadap topik yang dibahas, serta menentukan teknik dan arah yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian berikutnya.definisipenjelasankonseppolakreatiffleksibeltopikmasyarakatgagasanteoritentatif Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature. For example, RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search results may be sent by to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and websites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many“.

8 METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI DESKRIPTIF (EXPLORATORY SURVEY). Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. Social exploratory research "seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them. The goal is to learn 'what is going on here?' and to investigate social phenomena without explicit expectations." (Russell K. Schutt, "Investigating the Social World," 5th ed.). This methodology is also at times referred to as a grounded theory approach to qualitative research or interpretive research, and is an attempt to unearth a theory from the data itself rather than from a predisposed hypothesis. Earl Babbie (1989) identifies three purposes of social science research. The purposes are exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Exploratory research is used when problems are in a preliminary stage. Exploratory research is used when the topic or issue is new and when data is difficult to collect. Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses. ShieldsShields and Tajalli (2006) link exploratory research with the conceptual framework working hypothesis (Shields, Patricia and Hassan Tajalli, 2006).

9 METODE PENELITIAN SURVEI ANALITIK (EXPLANATORY SURVEY). Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Survei analitik adalah survei atau penelitian yang mencoba menggali bagaimana dan mengapa fenomena kesehatan itu terjadi. Kemudian melakukan analisis dinamika kolerasi antara fenomena, baik antara faktor risiko dengan faktor efek, antar faktor risiko, maupun antar faktor efek. Faktor efek adalah suatu akibat dari adanya faktor risiko, sedangkan faktor risiko adalah suatu fenomena yang mengakibatkan terjadinya efek (pengaruh). Secara garis besar survey analitik ini dibedakan dalam 3 pendekatan (jenis), yakni: Survey Analitic Cross Sectional, Survey Analitic Case Control (Retrospective), dan Survey Analitic Cohort (Prospective). Cross-sectional studies (also known as cross-sectional analyses, transversal studies, prevalence study) form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time. Cross-sectional data or cross section (of a study population) in statistics and econometrics is a type of one-dimensional data set. Cross-sectional data refers to data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms or countries/regions) at the same point of time, or without regard to differences in time. Analysis of cross-sectional data usually consists of comparing the differences among the subjects. For example, we want to measure current obesity levels in a population. We could draw a sample of 1,000 people randomly from that population (also known as a cross section of that population), measure their weight and height, and calculate what percentage of that sample is categorized as obese. For example, 30% of our sample were categorized as obese. This cross-sectional sample provides us with a snapshot of that population, at that one point in time. Note that we do not know based on one cross-sectional sample if obesity is increasing or decreasing; we can only describe the current proportion. Diunduh dari: …..31/8/2012

10 PENELITIAN CROSS SECTIONAL Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Survey cross sectional ialah suatu penelitian untuk mempelajari dinamika kolerasi antara faktor-faktor resiko dengan efek, dengan cara pendekatan, observasi atau pengumpulan data sekaligus pada suatu saat (point time approach). Penelitian cross sectional ini sering disebut juga penelitian transversal, dan sering digunakan dalam penelitian-penelitian epidemiologi. Cross-sectional studies in medicine Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. They are often used to assess the prevalence of acute or chronic conditions, or to answer questions about the causes of disease or the results of medical intervention. They may also be described as censuses. Cross-sectional studies may involve special data collection, including questions about the past, but they often rely on data originally collected for other purposes. They are moderately expensive, and are not suitable for the study of rare diseases. Difficulty in recalling past events may also contribute bias. A Cross-sectional regression is a type of regression model in which the explained and explanatory variables are associated with one period or point in time. This is in contrast to a time-series regression or longitudinal regression in which the variables are considered to be associated with a sequence of points in time. Diunduh dari: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-sectional_study ….. 31/8/2012

11 PENELITIAN CASE CONTROL Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Penelitian case control adalah suatu penelitian (survey) analitik yang menyangkut bagaimana faktor risiko dipelajari dengan menggunakan pendekatan “retrospective”. Dengan kata lain efek (penyakit atau status kesehatan) diidentifikasi pada saat ini, kemudian faktor risiko diidentifikasi adanya atau terjadinya pada waktu yang lalu. Tahap-tahap penelitian case control ini adalah sebagai berikut : 1.Identifikasi variabel-variabel penelitian (faktor risiko atau efek) 2.Menetapkan objek penelitian (populasi dan sampel) 3.Identifikasi kasus 4.Pemilihan subyek sebagai kontrol 5.Melakukan pengukuran “retrospektif” (melihat kebelakang) untuk melihat faktor risiko 6.Melakukan analisis dengan membandingkan proporsi antara variabel-variabel objek penelitian dengan variabel-variabel objek kontrol. CASE-CONTROL STUDY A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not. Also called retrospective study (sumber: A case-control study is a type of observational study in which a researcher attempts to identify the factors that contribute to a medical condition by comparing a set of subjects who have that condition (the ‘cases’) to a set of subjects who do not have the condition, but otherwise resemble the case subjects (the ‘controls’). They are useful for exploratory analysis because they are relatively cheap to perform, and have led to many important discoveries- most famously, the link between smoking and lung cancer (sumber: healthcare/).

12 PENELITIAN COHORT Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Penelitian cohort sering disebut penelitian prospektif adalah suatu penelitian survei (non eksperimen) yang paling baik dalam mengkaji hubungan antara faktor risiko dengan efek (penyakit). Artinya, faktor risiko yang akan dipelajari diidentifikasi dahulu, kemudian diikuti ke depan secara prospektif timbulnya efek, yaitu penyakit atau salah satu indikator status kesehatan. Langkah-langkah pelaksanaan penelitian cohort antara lain sebagai berikut : 1.Identifikasi faktor-faktor rasio dan efek 2.Menetapkan subyek penelitian (menetapkan populasi dan sampel) 3.Pemilihan subyek dengan faktor risiko positive dari subjek dengan efek negative 4.Memilih subyek yang akan menjadi anggota kelompok kontrol 5.Mengobservasi perkembangan subjek sampai batas waktu yang ditentukan 6.Mengidentifikasi timbul atau tidaknya efek pada kedua kelompok 7.Menganalisis dengan membandingkan proporsi subjek yang mendapat efek positif dengan subjek yang mendapat efek negatif baik pada kelompok risiko positif maupun kelompok control. Cohort Study A cohort study is a research program investigating a particular group with a certain trait, and observes over a period of time. Some examples of cohorts may be people who have taken a certain medication, or have a medical condition. Outside medicine, it may be a population of animals that has lived near a certain pollutant or a sociological study of poverty. There are two main sub-types of cohort study, the retrospective and the prospective cohort study. The major difference between the two is that the retrospective looks at phenomena that have already happened, whilst the prospective type starts from the present. 1.Retrospective Cohort Study. The retrospective case study is historical in nature. Whilst still beginning with the division into cohorts, the researcher looks at historical data to judge the effects of the variable. 2.Prospective Cohort Study. In a prospective cohort study, the effects of a certain variable are plotted over time, and the study becomes an ongoing process. To maintain validity, all of the subjects must be initially free of the condition tested for. Read more:

13 HIPOTESIS PENELITIAN Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Hipotesis atau hipotesa adalah jawaban sementara terhadap masalah yang masih bersifat praduga karena masih harus dibuktikan kebenarannya (Vardiansyah, 2008). Hipotesis ilmiah mencoba mengutarakan jawaban sementara terhadap masalah yang kan diteliti (Uma Sakaran, 1992). Hipotesis menjadi teruji apabila semua gejala yang timbul tidak bertentangan dengan hipotesis tersebut. Dalam upaya pembuktian hipotesis, peneliti dapat saja dengan sengaja menimbulkan atau menciptakan suatu gejala. Kesengajaan ini disebut percobaan atau eksperimen. Hipotesis yang telah teruji kebenarannya disebut teori.pembuktianpenelitigejalapercobaaneksperimenkebenarannyateori Contoh: Apabila terlihat awan hitam dan langit menjadi pekat, maka seseorang dapat saja menyimpulkan (menduga-duga) berdasarkan pengalamannya bahwa (karena langit mendung, maka...) sebentar lagi hujan akan turun. Apabila ternyata beberapa saat kemudian hujan benar turun, maka dugaan terbukti benar. Secara ilmiah, dugaan ini disebut hipotesis. Namun apabila ternyata tidak turun hujan, maka hipotesisnya dinyatakan keliru.keliru Hipotesis Kerja, atau disebut dengan hipotesis alyernatif, disingkat Ha. Hipotesis kerja menyatakan adanya hubungan antara variable X dan Y, atau adanya perbedaan antara dua kelompok Rumusan hipotesis kerja : 1.Jika………..maka………….. Contoh :jika orang banyak makan, maka berat badannya naik 2. Ada perbedan antara…………..dan………. Contoh : Ada perbedaan antara penduduk kota dan penduduk desa dalam cara berpakaian. 3.Ada pengaruh ………….terhadap…………. Contoh: Ada pengaruh makanan terhadap berat badan

14 HIPOTESIS Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Hipotesis berasal dari bahasa Yunani: hypo = di bawah; thesis = pendirian, pendapat yang ditegakkan, kepastian (Soekadijo, 1993).Yunani “Hipotesa” merupakan sebuah istilah ilmiah yang digunakan dalam rangka kegiatan ilmiah yang mengikuti kaidah-kaidah berfikir biasa, secara sadar, teliti, dan terarah. Dalam penggunaannya sehari-hari hipotesa ini sering juga disebut dengan hipotesis, tidak ada perbedaan makna di dalamnya.istilahkegiatan ilmiahsadartelitimakna Ketika berfikir untuk sehari-hari, orang sering menyebut hipotesis sebagai sebuah anggapan, perkiraan, dugaan, dan sebagainya. Hipotesis juga berarti sebuah pernyataan atau proposisi yang mengatakan bahwa di antara sejumlah fakta ada hubungan tertentu. Proposisi inilah yang akan membentuk proses terbentuknya sebuah hipotesis di dalam penelitian, salah satu di antaranya, yaitu penelitian sosial (Leedy dan Ormrod, 2005). Proses pembentukan hipotesis merupakan sebuah proses penalaran, yang melalui tahap-tahap tertentu. Hal demikian juga terjadi dalam pembuatan hipotesis ilmiah, yang dilakukan dengan sadar, teliti, dan terarah. Sehingga, dapat dikatakan bahwa sebuah Hipotesis merupakan satu tipe proposisi yang langsung dapat diuji.proses Hipotesis Nol (null hypotesis) disingkat Ho Sering disebut juga hipotesis statistic, karena biasanya dipakai dalam penelitian yang bersifat statistic, yaitu diuji dengan perhitungan statistic. Hipotesis nol menyatakan perbedaan antara dua variable, atau tidak adnya pengaruh variable x terhadap variable y. Rumusan hipotesis nol: a. Tidak ada perbedaan antara………….dengan…………… b. Tidak ada pengaruh ………………….terhadap………..

15 HIPOTESIS Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Hipotesis merupakan elemen penting dalam penelitian ilmiah, khususnya penelitian kuantitatif. Terdapat tiga alasan utama yang mendukung pandangan ini, di antaranya (Fred N. Kerlinger. 1995): penelitian kuantitatif Hipotesis dapat dikatakan sebagai piranti kerja teori. Hipotesis ini dapat dilihat dari teori yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan permasalahan yang akan diteliti. Misalnya, sebab dan akibat dari konflik dapat dijelaskan melalui teori mengenai konflik.kerjateorikonflik Hipotesis dapat diuji dan ditunjukkan kemungkinan benar atau tidak benar atau di falsifikasi. Hipotesis adalah alat yang besar dayanya untuk memajukan pengetahuan karena membuat ilmuwan dapat keluar dari dirinya sendiri. Artinya, hipotesis disusun dan diuji untuk menunjukkan benar atau salahnya dengan cara terbebas dari nilai dan pendapat peneliti yang menyusun dan mengujinya.alatpengetahuanilmuwan Supaya fungsi itu dapat berjalan secara efektif, naka ada faktor-faktor yang harus diperhatikan pada penyusunan hipotesis, 1.Hipotesis disusun dalam kalimay deklaratif yaitu kalimat tersebut bersifat positif dan tidak normative 2.Variabel yang dinyatakan dalam hipotesis adalah variable yang operasional, dalam arti dapat diamati dan diukur 3.Hipotesis menunjukan hubungan antara variable-variabel. Hipotesis adalah pernyataan tentative yang merupakan dugaan mengenai apa saja yang sedang kita amati dalam usaha untuk memahaminya. Hipotesis dapat disusun dengan dua pendektan, yaitu secara deduktif, yaitu dengan ditarik dari teori. Suatu teori terdidi dari proposisi-proposisi, sedangkan proposisi menunjukan hubungan antara dua konsep. Proposisi ini merupakan postulat-postulat yang dari padanya disusun hipotesis.dan yang kedua secara induktif yang bertolak dari pengamatan empiris.

16 HIPOTESIS DALAM PENELITIAN Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Hipotesis sangat penting sebagai arah dan pedoman kerja dalam penelitian, namun demikian tidak semua penelitian harus memiliki hipotesis.arahpedomanpenelitian Penggunaan hipotesis dalam suatu penelitian didasarkan pada masalah atau tujuan penelitian. Dalam masalah atau tujuan penelitian tampak apakah penelitian menggunakan hipotesis atau tidak.tujuanpenelitian Contohnya yaitu Penelitian eksplorasi yang tujuannya untuk menggali dan mengumpulkan sebanyak mungkin data atau informasi tidak menggunakan hipotesis. Hal ini sama dengan penelitian deskriptif, ada yang berpendapat tidak menggunakan hipotesis sebab hanya membuat deskripsi atau mengukur secara cermat tentang fenomena yang diteliti, tetapi ada juga yang menganggap penelitian deskriptif dapat menggunakan hipotesis.datainformasi Dalam penelitian penjelasan yang bertujuan menjelaskan hubungan antar-variabel, biasanya diharuskan untuk menggunakan hipotesis.variabel Fungsi hipotesis dalam suatu penelitian : 1.Untuk menguji teori, 2.Mendorong munculnya teori, 3.Menerangkan fenomena sosial, 4.Pedoman untuk mengarahkan penelitian, 5.Kerangka untuk menyusun kesimpulan penelitian. Cara Merumuskan Hipotesis Cara merumuskan Hipotesis ialah dengan tahapan sebagai berikut: 1.Merumuskan Hipotesis penelitian, 2.Hipotesis operasional, dan 3.Hipotesis statistik. Hipotesis penelitian Hipotesis penelitian ialah hipotesis yang dibuat dan dinyatakan dalam bentuk kalimat. Contoh: Ada hubungan antara Kenyamanan Lingkungan dengan Kunjungan Wisatawan Ada hubungan antara Pencemaran Perairan dengan Hasil Tangkapan Ikan

17 KARAKTERISTIK HIPOPTESIS Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Satu hipotesis dapat diuji apabila hipotesis tersebut dirumuskan dengan benar. Kegagalan merumuskan hipotesis akan mengaburkan hasil penelitian. Meskipun hipotesis telah memenuhi syarat secara proporsional, jika hipotesis tersebut masih abstrak, MAKA AKAN membingungkan prosedur penelitian dan juga sukar diuji secara nyata. HIPOTESIS Hipotesis (hypo = sebelim; yhesisi = pernyataan, pendapat) adalah suatu pernyataan yang pada waktu diungkaokan belum diketahui kebenarannya, tetapi memungkinkan untuk diuji dalam kenyataan empiris. Hipotesis memungkinkan untuk menghubungkan teori dengan pengamatan, atau pengamatan dengan teori. Hipotesis mengemukakan pernyataan tentang harapan peneliti mengenai hubungan –hubungan antara variable-variabel didalam persoalan. Dengan dmikian hipotesis ini memberikan arah pada penelitian yang harus dilakuakn oleh peneliti. Hipotesis ilmiah mencoba mengutarakan jawaban sementara terhadap problema. Hipotesis merupakan kebenaran sementara yang perlu diuji kebenarannya oleh karena itu hipotesis berfungsi sebagai kemungkinan untuk menguji kebenaran suatu teori. Hipotesis menjadi teruji apabila semua gejala yang timbul tidak bertentangan dengan hipotesis tersebut. Dalam upaya pembuktian hipotesis, peneliti dapat saja dengan sengaja menimbulkan/ menciptakan suatu gejala. Kesengajaan ini disebut percobaan atau eksperimen. Hipotesis yang telah teruji kebenarannya disebut teori.

18 FORMULASI HIPOTESIS Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Untuk dapat memformulasikan hipotesis yang baik dan benar, sedikitnya harus memiliki beberapa ciri-ciri pokok (Creswell, 2003), yakni: 1.Hipotesis diturunkan dari suatu teori yang disusun untuk menjelaskan masalah dan dinyatakan dalam proposisi-proposisi. Oleh sebab itu, hipotesis merupakan jawaban atau dugaan sementara atas masalah yang dirumuskan atau searah dengan tujuan penelitian.masalah 2.Hipotesis harus dinyatakan secara jelas, dalam istilah yang benar dan secara operasional. Aturan untuk, menguji satu hipotesis secara empiris adalah harus mendefinisikan secara operasional semua variabel dalam hipotesis dan diketahui secara pasti variabel independen dan variabel dependen. operasionalempirisvariabel 3.Hipotesis menyatakan variasi nilai sehingga dapat diukur secara empiris dan memberikan gambaran mengenai fenomena yang diteliti. Untuk hipotesis deskriptif berarti hipotesis secara jelas menyatakan kondisi, ukuran, atau distribusi suatu variabel atau fenomenanya yang dinyatakan dalam nilai-nilai yang mempunyai makna.nilaiempiriskondisiukurandistribusi 4.Hipotesis harus bebas nilai. Artinya nilai-nilai yang dimiliki peneliti dan preferensi subyektivitas tidak memiliki tempat di dalam pendekatan ilmiah seperti halnya dalam hipotesis. Fungsi hipotesisi yang seperti ini menurut Ary Donald adalah: 1.Memberikan penjelasan tentang gejala-gejala serta memudahkan perluasan pengetahuan dalam suatu bidang. 2.Mengemukakan pernyataan tentang hubungan dua konsep yang secara langsungdapat diuji dalam peneltian. 3.Memberikan arah pada penelitian 4.Memberi kerangka pada penyusunan penelitian.

19 FORMULASI HIPOTESIS Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Hipotesis harus dapat diuji. Untuk itu, instrumen harus ada (atau dapat dikembangkan) yang akan menggambarkan ukuran yang valid dari variabel yang diliputi. Kemudian, hipotesis dapat diuji dengan metode yang tersedia yang dapat digunakan untuk mengujinya sebab peneliti dapat merumuskan hipotesis yang bersih, bebas nilai, dan spesifik, serta menemukan bahwa tidak ada metode penelitian untuk mengujinya. Oleh sebab itu, evaluasi hipotesis bergantung pada eksistensi metode-metode untuk mengujinya, baik metode pengamatan, pengumpulan data, analisis data, maupun generalisasi.instrumenspesifikevaluasi analisis Hipotesis harus spesifik. Hipotesis harus bersifat spesifik yang menunjuk kenyataan sebenarnya. Peneliti harus bersifat spesifik yang menunjuk kenyataan yang sebenarnya. Peneliti harus memiliki hubungan eksplisit yang diharapkan di antara variabel dalam istilah arah (seperti, positif dan negatif). Satu hipotesis menyatakan bahwa X berhubungan dengan Y adalah sangat umum. Hubungan antara X dan Y dapat positif atau negatif.hubunganarahpositifnegatif Selanjutnya, hubungan tidak bebas dari waktu, ruang, atau unit analisis yang jelas. Jadi, hipotesis akan menekankan hubungan yang diharapkan di antara variabel, sebagaimana kondisi di bawah hubungan yang diharapkan untuk dijelaskan. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, teori menjadi penting secara khusus dalam pembentukan hipotesis yang dapat diteliti karena dalam teori dijelaskan arah hubungan antara variabel yang akan dihipotesiskan.wakturuangunitteori Hipotesis harus menyatakan perbedaan atau hubungan antar-variabel. Satu hipotesis yang memuaskan adalah salah satu hubungan yang diharapkan di antara variabel dibuat secara eksplisit. Hipotesis operasional (1) Hipotesis operasional ialah mendefinisikan Hipotesis secara operasional variable-variabel yang ada didalamnya agar dapat dioperasionalisasikan. Misalnya “gaya kepemimpinan” dioperasionalisasikan sebagai cara memberikan instruksi terhadap bawahan. Kinerja pegawai dioperasionalisasikan sebagai tinggi rendahnya pemasukan perusahaan. Hipotesis operasional (2) Hipotesis operasional dijadikan menjadi dua, yaitu Hipotesis 0 yang bersifat netral dan Hipotesis 1 yang bersifat tidak netral Maka rumusan Hipotesisnya: 1.H0: Tidak ada hubungan antara cara memberikan instruksi terhadap bawahan dengan tinggi – rendahnya pemasukan perusahaan 2.H1: Ada hubungan antara cara memberikan instruksi terhadap bawahan dengan tinggi – rendahnya pemasukan perusahaan.

20 Tahap-tahap pembentukan hipotesis secara umum Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Penentuan masalah. Dasar penalaran ilmiah ialah kekayaan pengetahuan ilmiah yang biasanya timbul karena sesuatu keadaan atau peristiwa yang terlihat tidak atau tidak dapat diterangkan berdasarkan hukum atau teori atau dalil-dalil ilmu yang sudah diketahui. Dasar penalaran pun sebaiknya dikerjakan dengan sadar dengan perumusan yang tepat. Dalam proses penalaran ilmiah tersebut, penentuan masalah mendapat bentuk perumusan masalah.ilmiahpengetahuanhukum teoridalil-dalil Hipotesis pendahuluan atau hipotesis preliminer (preliminary hypothesis). Dugaan atau anggapan sementara yang menjadi pangkal bertolak dari semua kegiatan. Hal ini digunakan juga dalam penalaran ilmiah. Tanpa hipotesa preliminer, pengamatan tidak akan terarah. Fakta yang terkumpul mungkin tidak akan dapat digunakan untuk menyimpulkan suatu konklusi, karena tidak relevan dengan masalah yang dihadapi. Karena tidak dirumuskan secara eksplisit, dalam penelitian, hipotesis priliminer dianggap bukan hipotesis keseluruhan penelitian, namun merupakan sebuah hipotesis yang hanya digunakan untuk melakukan uji coba sebelum penelitian sebenarnya dilaksanakan.pengamatanFaktakonklusimasalahpenelitian Pengumpulan fakta. Dalam penalaran ilmiah, di antara jumlah fakta yang besarnya tak terbatas itu hanya dipilih fakta- fakta yang relevan dengan hipotesa preliminer yang perumusannya didasarkan pada ketelitian dan ketepatan memilih fakta.relevan Formulasi hipotesis Pembentukan hipotesa dapat melalui ilham atau intuisi, dimana logika tidak dapat berkata apa-apa tentang hal ini. Hipotesa diciptakan saat terdapat hubungan tertentu di antara sejumlah fakta. Sebagai contoh sebuah anekdot yang jelas menggambarkan sifat penemuan dari hipotesa, diceritakan bahwa sebuah apel jatuh dari pohon ketika Newton tidur di bawahnya dan teringat olehnya bahwa semua benda pasti jatuh dan seketika itu pula dilihat hipotesanya, yang dikenal dengan hukum gravitasi.anekdot Pengujian hipotesis Artinya, mencocokkan hipotesa dengan keadaan yang dapat diamati dalam istilah ilmiah hal ini disebut verifikasi (pembenaran). Apabila hipotesa terbukti cocok dengan fakta maka disebut konfirmasi.diamati Falsifikasi (penyalahan) terjadi jika usaha menemukan fakta dalam pengujian hipotesa tidak sesuai dengan hipotesa. Bilamana usaha itu tidak berhasil, maka hipotesa tidak terbantah oleh fakta yang dinamakan koroborasi (corroboration). Hipotesa yang sering mendapat konfirmasi atau koroborasi dapat disebut teori. Aplikasi/penerapan. Apabila hipotesa itu benar dan dapat diadakan menjadi ramalan (prediksi), dan ramalan itu harus terbukti cocok dengan fakta, kemudian diverifikasikan/koroborasikan dengan fakta.

21 HUBUNGAN HIPOTESIS DAN TEORI Diunduh dari: 31/8/2012http://rezafm.unsri.ac.id/index.php/posting/50 Hipotesis ini merupakan suatu jenis proposisi yang dirumuskan sebagai jawaban tentatif atas suatu masalah dan kemudian diuji secara empiris. Sebagai suatu jenis proposisi, umumnya hipotesis menyatakan hubungan antara dua atau lebih variabel yang di dalamnya pernyataan-pernyataan hubungan tersebut telah diformulasikan dalam kerangka teoritis. Hipotesis ini, diturunkan, atau bersumber dari teori dan tinjauan literatur yang berhubungan dengan masalah yang akan diteliti. Pernyataan hubungan antara variabel, sebagaimana dirumuskan dalam hipotesis, merupakan hanya merupakan dugaan sementara atas suatu masalah yang didasarkan pada hubungan yang telah dijelaskan dalam kerangka teori yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan masalah penelitian. Sebab, teori yang tepat akan menghasilkan hipotesis yang tepat untuk digunakan sebagai jawaban sementara atas masalah yang diteliti atau dipelajari dalam penelitian. Dalam penelitian kuantitatif peneliti menguji suatu teori. Untuk meguji teori tersebut, peneliti menguji hipotesis yang diturunkan dari teori.. PENYUSUNAN HIPOTESIS SECARA DEDUKSI Hipoptesis dapat diturunkan dari teori yang berkaitan dengan masalah yang akan diteliti. Suatu teori terdidi dari proposisi-proposisi, sedangkan proposisi menunjukkan hubungan antara dua konsep. Proposisi ini merupakan postulat-postulat yang daripadanya disusun hipotesis. Bertitik tolak dari proposisi itu diturunkan hipotesisi secara deduksi. Konsep- konsep yang berada dalam proposisi dijabarkan menjadi variable-variabel penelitian. Jumlah Variabel yang tercakup dalam suatu hipotesis dan bentuk hubungan diantaravariabel-variabel itu sangat menentukan dalam menentukan alat uji hipotesis. Hipotesis yang hanya terdiri atas satu variabel dapat diuji dengan Analisis UNIVARIATE. Hipotesis yang mencakup dua variable dapat diuji dengan menggunakan metode analisis bivariate

22 Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Agar teori yang digunakan sebagai dasar penyusunan hipotesis dapat diamati dan diukur dalam kenyataan sebenarnya, teori tersebut harus dijabarkan ke dalam bentuk yang nyata yang dapat diamati dan diukur. Cara yang lazim digunakan ialah melalui proses operasionalisasi, yaitu menurunkan tingkat keabstrakan suatu teori menjadi tingkat yang lebih konkret yang menunjuk fenomena empiris atau ke dalam bentuk proposisi yang dapat diamati atau dapat diukur. Proposisi yang dapat diukur atau diamati adalah proposisi yang menyatakan hubungan antar-variabel. Proposisi seperti inilah yang disebut sebagai hipotesis.operasionalisasiproposisi Jika teori merupakan pernyataan yang menunjukkan hubungan antar-konsep (pada tingkat abstrak atau teoritis), hipotesis merupakan pernyataan yang menunjukkan hubungan antar-variabel (dalam tingkat yang konkret atau empiris) ( Burns, 2000).konsep Hipotesis menghubungkan teori dengan realitas sehingga melalui hipotesis dimungkinkan dilakukan pengujian atas teori dan bahkan membantu pelaksanaan pengumpulan data yang diperlukan untuk menjawab permasalahan penelitian. “Hipotesis" sering disebut sebagai pernyataan tentang teori dalam bentuk yang dapat diuji (statement of theory in testable form), atau kadang-kadanag hipotesis didefinisikan sebagai pernyataan tentatif tentang realitas (tentative statements about reality). HUBUNGAN HIPOTESIS DAN TEORI Salah satu variable pada hipotesis bivariate berfungsi sebagai variable yang dijelaskan atau variable tidak bebas, dan yang satunya berfungsi sebagai variable yang menerangkan atau variable bebas.. Misalkan variable y dapat diterangakan oleh variable x1, tetapi juga dapat diterangkan oleh x2 terlepas dari x1 dan dapat juga dijelaskanoleh variable x3 terlepas dari x1 dan x2. Ketiga variable bebas dapat menerangkan variable tidak bebas, sehingga ada 3 hipotesis, yaitu : Hipotesis 1 : ada hubungan antara x1 dan y Hipotesis 2 : Ada hubungan antara x2 dan y Hipotesis 3 : Ada hubungan antara x3 dan y

23 Hipotesis = hubungan antar variabel Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Pada hakekatnya, “Hipotesis” merupakan pernyataan dugaan tentang hubungan antara dua variable atau lebih. Variabel dan Formulasi Hubungan Antar variabel Dalam suatu penelitian terdapat dua tingkatan, tingkatan teoritis dan tingkatan empiris. Dalam terminologi sebab-akibat, variabel dibedakan menjadi variabel dependent, variabel independent, dan variabel interving. Variabel dependent merupakan variabel efek, disimbolkon dengan “Y”, sedangkan variabel independent adalah variabel sebab yang disimbolkan dengan “X” Terdapat sejumlah formulasi hubungan antar variabel dalam sebuah survei. HUBUNGHAN ANTAR VARIABEL Hubungan antar variabel dalam suatu hipotesis mempunyai model yang berbeda-beda. Hubungan ini diartikan sebagai relasi, dapat digolongkan dalam tiga model, yaitu: 1.Model Kontingensi. Hubungan dengan model kontingensi ini biasanya dinyatakan dalam bentuk table silang dua arah 2.Model Asosiatif. Model hubungan ini melibatkan dua variable ordinal, atau sama- sama interval, atau sama-sama ratio, atau salah satu ordinal atau interval. Varibel- variabel itu mempunyai pola monoton linier; artinya, perubahan variable yang bersangkutan bergerak naik terus tanpa turun kembali, atau sebaliknya turun terus tanpa naik kembali. Huungan ini juga disebut sebagai hubungan korelasional, dan hubungan ini bukanlah hubungan sebab akibat, tetapi hanya menunjukkan bahwa kedua variabel sama-sama berubah. 3.Hubungan fungsional. Hubungan fungsional adalah hubungan antara satu variable yang berfungsi mempengaruhi variable lain. Berbeda dengan hubungan asosiatif dimana kedua variable berdampingan satu dengan yang lain, pada hubungan fungsional variable yang satu menjadi “sebab” dan variabel lainnya berfungsi sebagai “akibat”. Hipotesis statistik Hipotesis statistik ialah Hipotesis operasional yang diterjemahkan kedalam bentuk angka-angka statistik sesuai dengan alat ukur yang dipilih oleh peneliti. Dalam contoh ini asumsi kenaikan pemasukan sebesar 30%, maka rumusan Hipotesisnya sebagai berikut: H0: P = 0,3 H1: P ≠ 0,3

24 TEKNIK PENGUMPULAN DATA Teknik Observasi Teknik Wawancara Teknik kuesioner Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Teknik Observasi Observasi merupakan teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan indra, jadi tidak hanya dengan pengamatan menggunakan mata saja. Medengarkan, mencium, mengecap meraba termasuk salah satu bentuk dari observasi. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam observasi adalah panduan pengamatan dan lembar pengamatan. Keuntungan teknik observasi 1.Cenderung mempunyai keandalan yang tinggi 2.Analis sistem dapat melihat langsung apa yang sedang dikerjakan 3.Analis sistem dapat menggambarkan tata letak fisik dari kegiatan-kegiatan 4.Analis sistem dapat mengukur tingkat dari suatu pekerjaan 5.Kehandalan data lebih tinggi 6.Dalam observasi kita dapat membandingkan apakah perkataan orang sesuai dengan tindakannya 7.Dengan teknik observasi peneliti dapat mempelajari subyek yang tidak memberi kesempatan memberikan laporan lisan (verbal) 8.Dengan teknik ini dapat digambarkan lingkungan fisik kegiatan tata letak kegiatan, letak, gangguan suara, dll 9.Dalam observasi peneliti bisa lebih leluasa dan lebih lama mengamati kondisi subyek terutama yang non verbal hasilnya akan lebih baik karena sesuai dengan kondisi yang sebenarnya 10.Subyek observasi secara umum bebas. Contoh : satu pengamatan bagaimana pola penggunaan katalog pada perpustakaan, tanpa bertanya pada setiap orang. Observation method is a technique in which the behavior of research subjects is watched and recorded without any direct contact. Types and using of observation methods: This method can be used independently or in combination with other methods of job analysis. There are three methods of job analysis based on observation are: direct observation, work methods analysis, critical incident technique. Diunduh dari: 31/8/2012http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/observation-methods/

25 KELEMAHAN TEKNIK OBSERVASI Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/ Biasanya orang yang diamati merasa terganggu. 2.Pekerjaan yang diobservasi mungkin tidak dapat mewakili suatu tingkat kesulitan. 3.Dapat mengganggu kerja yang dilakukan. 4.Orang yang diamati biasanya cendrung melakukan pekerjaan yang lebih baik dan sering menutup-nutupi kejelekan. 5.Observasi tidak selamanya memungkinkan untuk suatu kejadian yang spontan oleh sebab itu harus ada persiapan. Misalnya: Pengamatan pengguna katalog, jika tidak ada orang maka tak bisa untukdiobservasi 6.Tidak bisa menentukan ukuran kuantitas terhadap variabel yang ada. Contoh: Tampaknya seseorang tidak suka menggunakan katalog kartu karena dia selalu menggunakan katalog online; tetapi peneliti tidak bisa memberi skor seberapa jauh tingkat ketidaksukaan orang tersebutthd katalog kartu. 7.Orang yang diamati cenderung melakukan pekerjaan dengan lebih baik dari biasanya dan sering menutupi kekurangan yang ada 8.Cara mendapatkan data sulit, terutama yang sifatnya rahasia Direct observation This method observes employees in the performance of their duties, recording observations as they are made. Everything is observed: What is the worker accomplishes? What is equipment is used? What the work environment is like? Any other factors relevant to the job? etc Work methods analysis This method is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs and is used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production, to set pay rates. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis. Critical incident technique Though they employ the same method, these methods differ in terms of who does the observing, what is observed, and how it is observed.

26 PETUNJUK MELAKUKAN OBSERVASI Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Hal-hal yang Harus Dilakukan: 1.Merencanakan terlebih dahulu observasi yang akan dilakukan 2.Mintalah ijin terlebih dahulu dari manajer atau pejabat setempat. 3.Low profile 4.Lengkapilah catatan selama observasi berlangsung Hal-hal yang Tidak Harus Dilakukan: 1.Mengganggu kerja individu yang diobservasi 2.Tidak menekankan pekerjaan yang tidak penting 3.Jangan membuat asumsi sendiri. OBSERTVATION METHOD The observation method involves human or mechanical observation of what people actually do or what events take place during a buying or consumption situation. “Information is collected by observing process at work. ”The following are a few situations: 1.Service Stations-Pose as a customer, go to a service station and observe. 2.To evaluate the effectiveness of display of Dunlop Pillow Cushions - In a departmental store, observer notes:- a) How many pass by; b) How many stopped to look at the display; c) How many decide to buy. 3.Super Market - Which is the best location in the shelf? Hidden cameras are used. 4.To determine typical sales arrangement and find out sales enthusiasm shown by various salesmen - Normally this is done by an investigator using a concealed tape-recorder. Advantages of Observation Method 1.If the researcher observes and record events, it is not necessary to rely on the willingness and ability of respondents to report accurately. 2.The biasing effect of interviewers is either eliminated or reduced. Data collected by observation are, thus, more objective and generally more accurate. Disadvantages of Observation Method 1.The most limiting factor in the use of observation method is the inability to observe such things such as attitudes, motivations, customers/consumers state of mind, their buying motives and their images. 2.It also takes time for the investigator to wait for a particular action to take place. 3.Personal and intimate activities, such as watching television late at night, are more easily discussed with questionnaires than they are observed. 4.Cost is the final disadvantage of observation method. Under most circumstances, observational data are more expensive to obtain than other survey data. The observer has to wait doing nothing, between events to be observed. The unproductive time is an increased cost.

27 LANGKAH-LANGKAH DALAM OBSERVASI Diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:F_pUNdTOV4kJ …. 31/8/ Menetapkan tujuan-tujuan penelitian secara jelas 2.Penentuan kelompok subyek yang akan diamati 3.Penetapan cara memasuki subyek atau kelompok, misalnya kalau di laboratorium, menyusun subyek-subyek ke dalam laboratorium 4.Membuat laporan tentang subyek yang diobservasi 5.Melakuklan studi dengan cara mengamati dan melaporkan catatan-catatan lapangan dengan menetapkan waktu secukupnya. Misalnya Berapa minggu, bulan, tahun. 6.Menghadapi krisis yang mungkin terjadi, Misalnya Konfrontasi dengan responden, dimana responden menganggap peneliti sebagai mata-mata dari musuh yang selalu dicurigai 7.Perjalanan ke lapangan untuk melakukan observasi 8.Melakukan analisis dari data yang terkumpul 9.Menulis draf laporan kasar dalam bentuk sajian dengan cara mengklasifikasi, mereduksi dan memilih data mengklasifikasi mereduksi, yang ada kaitannya satu sama lain untuk dianalisis 10.Menyusun laporan lengkap dari hasil analisis data sebagai penemuan penelitian secara utuh. How do you plan for observations? 1.Determine the focus. Think about the evaluation question(s) you want to answer through observation and select a few areas of focus for your data collection. For example, you may want to know how well an HIV curriculum is being implemented in the classroom. Your focus areas might be interactions between students and teachers, and teachers’ knowledge, skills, and behaviors. 2.Design a system for data collection. Once you have focused your evaluation think about the specific items for which you want to collect data and then determine how you will collect the information you need. There are three primary ways of collecting observation data. These three methods can be combined to meet your data collection needs. 3.Recording sheets and checklists are the most standardized way of collecting observation data and include both preset questions and responses. These forms are typically used for collecting data that can be easily described in advance (e.g., topics that might be covered in an HIV prevention lesson). 4.Observation guides list the interactions, processes, or behaviors to be observed with space to record open-ended narrative data. 5.Field notes are the least standardized way of collecting observation data and do not include preset questions or responses. Field notes are open-ended narrative data that can be written or dictated onto a tape recorder.

28 KEUNGGULAN METODE SURVEI : 1.Metode ini dapat dilakukan untuk menginvestigasi masalah yang terkait dengan kehidupan manusia tanpa harus melalui riset laboratorium atau melalui perancangan suatu kondisi tertentu. 2.Metode ini tidak membutuhkan biaya yang besar 3.Pengumpulan data yang luas dapat dilakukan dengan relatif mudah. 4.Metode ini tidak dibatasi oleh faktor geografi 5.Data yang telah ada di lapangan memberikan kemudahan survei. KELEMAHAN METODE SURVEI 1.Metode ini tidak dapat menjangkau semua persoalan 2.Metode ini memiliki potensi bias 3.Responden dapat memahami pertanyaan secara berbeda dari yang diinginkan. 4.Ada kemungkinan responden yang terlibat tidak sesuai dengan karekteristik sample yang dituju. 5.Beberapa survei cukup sulit dilaksanakan terkait dengan kesediaan berpartisipasi. 6.Metode ini tidak cukup fleksibel dalam menangkap sejumlah perbedaan / perubahan sosial 7.Metode ini terlalu mengandalkan statistik sehingga mereduksi data yang bersifat kualitatif yang sebenarnya dapat memperkaya penjelasan suatu fenomena. When should you use observation for evaluation? 1.When you are trying to understand an ongoing process or situation. Through observation you can monitor or watch a process or situation that your are evaluating as it occurs. When you are gathering data on individual behaviors or interactions between people. 2.Observation allows you to watch peoples’ behaviors and interactions directly, or watch for the results of behaviors or interactions. 3.When you need to know about a physical setting. Seeing the place or environment where something takes place can help increase your understanding of the event, activity, or situation you are evaluating. For example, you can observe whether a classroom or training facility is conducive to learning. 4.When data collection from individuals is not a realistic option. If respondents are unwilling or unable to provide data through questionnaires or interviews, observation is a method that requires little from the individuals for whom you need data. Diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:F_pUNdTOV4kJ

29 DAFTAR PERTANYAAN (kuesioner) Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 KUESIONER jika diterjemahkan artinya adalah daftar pertanyaan, tetapi dalam prakteknya bisa jadi bukan daftar pertanyaan, melainkan daftar pernyataan. Kuesioner atau juga dikenal dengan nama angket adalah alat pengambilan data yang disusun oleh peneliti dalam bentuk tertulis. Di dalamya terdapat seperangkat pertanyaan dan atau peryataan dan atau isian yang harus dijawab oleh responden di situ juga (dalam kuesioner). Jawaban bisa sifatnya tertutup (alternatif jawabannya disediakan oleh peneliti), terbuka (responden secara bebas menuliskan jawabannya), atau campuran (tetutup dan terbuka). Seorang peneliti membuat kuesioner tertutup jika dia telah mampu menemukan berbagai alternatif jawaban yang dianggapnya tepat bagi penelitiannya, atau jika dia tidak ingin jawaban lain kecuali jawaban yang disediakannya. Misalnya YA atau TIDAK, SETUJU atau TIDAK SETUJU, LAKI atau PEREMPUAN. Kuesioner terbuka disusun oleh peneliti karena dia tidak mampu atau tidak mau menentukan jawaban atas pertanyaan, peryataan, atau isian yang disusunnya. Jenis-jenis kuesioner Pertama adalah kuesioner yang diisi sendiri (personnaly administered questionnaire) oleh peneliti atau anggota tim penelitian (pencacah), dan kedia adalah kuesioner yang dikirim (mailed questionnaire) oleh peneliti kepada responden, dan responden mengisi sendiri kuesioner tersebut. Jenis kuesioner pertama dapat dengan baik dilakukan jika penelti atau pencacah mempunyai waktu cukup untuk menuliskan jawaban responden pada kuesioner. Responden membacakan isi kuesioner, responden menjawabnya. Jika responden kurang mengerti isi kuesioner, dapat segera dijelaskan. Peneliti juga dapat mendorong responden untuk mau menjawab dengan benar dan jujur. Jika respondennya banyak, sebaiknya tenaga pencacah diperbanyak. Jika sedikit, peneliti sendiri yang bisa menjadi pencacah. Gunakan pinsil untuk mengisi jawaban responden. Mail questionnaire diedarkan manakala responden secara tempat tinggalnya geografis jauh dengan peneliti, atau untuk melakukan “personnaly administered” tidak dimungkinkan. Misalnya penelitian terhadap karyawan di tempat kerjanya. Kuesioner di bagikan dan jawabannya diambil lain waktu. Kelemahan umum kuesioner jenis ini adalah jumlah yang kembali hampir selalu lebih sedikit daripada jumlah yang diedarkan. Jika terlalu banyak yang tidak kembali, akbibatnya akan mengganggu hasil penelitian.

30 DAFTAR PERTANYAAN (kuesioner) Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pedoman Penyusunan Kuesioner Menurut Uma Sekaran (1992), dalam penyusunan kuesioner perlu diperhatikan hal-hal: 1.Isi dan tujuan kuesioner 2.Bahasa dan kata yang dipakai 3.Jenis dan bentuk kuesioner 4.Urutan pertanyaan 5.Klasifikasi data atau informasi pribadi 6.Kategorisasi 7.Pengkodean 8.Penskalaan 9.Realibitas dan validitas 10.Tampilan kuesioner 11.Panjangnya kuesioner 12.Kata pengantar 13.Petunjuk pengisian 14.Dll. Teknik pembuatan kuesioner Tujuannya: untuk memperoleh informasi yang relevan serta untuk memperoleh tingkat keandalan (reliability) dan keabsahan (validity) setinggi mungkin. Tahap awal dari pembuatan kuesioner yang harus dipersiapkan adalah informasi apa saja yang ingin didapatkan dari responden, setelah itu baru disusun pertanyaan-pertanyaannya.

31 PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pertanyaan adalah sebuah ekspresi keingintahuan seseorang akan sesuatu informasi yang dituangkan dalam sebuah kalimat tanya. Pertanyaan biasa akan diakhiri dengan sebuah tanda tanya.ekspresiinformasikalimat tanyatanda tanya Dalam bahasa Indonesia, dikenal beberapa tipe pertanyaan, yakni: 1.Apa, untuk menanyakan segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan isi atau pokok bahasan.Apaisi 2.Siapa, untuk menanyakan orang-orang atau pihak yang terlibat.Siapaorangpihak 3.Mengapa, untuk menanyakan sebab atau alasan terjadinya sesuatu.Mengapasebabalasan 4.Kapan, untuk menanyakan waktu terjadinya sebuah peristiwa.Kapanwaktu 5.Di mana, untuk menanyakan tempat berlangsungnya suatu peristiwa.Di manatempat 6.Bagaimana, untuk menanyakan cara atau proses pengerjaan sesuatu.Bagaimanacaraproses Jenis Kalimat Tanya 1.Kalimat tanya klarifikasi dan konfirmasi klarifikasi (penegasan) dan konfirmasi (penjernihan) → kalimat tanya yang disampaikan kepada orang lain untuk tujuan mengukuhkan dan memperjelas persoalan yang sebelumnya telah diketahui oleh penanya. 2.Kalimat tanya retoris adalah kalimat tanya yang tidak memerlukan jawaban atau tanggapan langsung. kalimat tanya retoris biasanya digunakan dalam pidato, khutbah, atau orasi. 3.Kalimat tanya tersamar kalimat tanya yang mengacu pada berbagai maksud. 4.Kalimat tanya biasa bersifat menggali informasi, biasanya menggunakan 5W+1H Jenis-jenis Pertanyaan Pertanyaan tertutup Pertanyaan yang telah disediakan beberapa alternatif jawaban, sehingga reponden tinggal memilih dari jawaban yang telah tersedia. Contoh: Berapa kali saudara datang ke restoran “LEZAT” dalam 1 bulan? Pilihlah dengan cara memberi tanda silang pada salah satu jawaban yang paling tepat dari beberapa alternatif jawaban berikut: a. 4 kali b. 8 kali c. 16 kali d. Hampir setiap hari Contoh: Apakah Bapak sudah pernah mendengar tentang rabies? 1. Pernah2. Tidak pernah

32 PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pertanyaan terbuka Pertanyaan terbuka yaitu responden diberi kebebasan untuk menjawab tanpa ada batasan- batasan. Contoh: Bagaimana pendapat saudara tentang produk baru kami, setelah saudara mengkonsumsinya selama 1 minggu? Tempat Jawaban: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …… Kemungkinan jawabannya tidak ditentukan terlebih dahulu dan responden bebas dan responden bebas memberikan jawaban. Contoh: Menurut pendapat Ibu pentingkah penyuluhan tentang rabies dilakukan? Pertanyaan Campuran Merupakan sebagian pertanyaan terbuka dan sebagian tertutup. Jadi merupakan gabungan atau kombinasi antara pertanyaan terbuka dan pertanyaan tertutup. Contoh: Apakah saudara pernah menggunakan produk “Obat Kuat Khusus Pria”? a. Pernah b. Tidak pernah Jika jawaban saudara pernah, bagaimana pendapat saudara tentang produk tersebut? Tempat Jawaban: ………………………………………………………………………

33 PETUNJUK MEMBUAT PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Prinsip penyusunan pertanyaan Kata kunci survai adalah “bertanya”. Artinya kalau kita mengadakan penelitian di mana datanya diperoleh dari hasil pertanyaan yang kita ajukan, maka penelitian tersebut sudah bisa dimamakan survai. Agar pertanyaan yang diajukan kepada responden bisa menghasilkan jawaban yang berguna bagi penelitian maka ada beberapa prinsip yang perlu dikuasai dan dilaksanakan oleh seorang peneliti. 1. Kuasai konsep penelitian. Hal ini sangat penting karena tanpa penguasaan konsep penelitiannya, maka besar kemungkinan peneliti akan mengajukan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang tidak relevan. Seorang peneliti yang ingin meneliti tingkat produktivitas, dia harus benar-benar mengerti konsep “produktivitas”. Demikian pula jika dia ingin meneliti bauran pemasaran maka penguasaan konsep “bauran pemasaran” merupakan syarat yang tidak dapat ditawar (conditio sine qua non). Sumber penguasaan konsep adalah informasi-informasi yang berasal dari buku-buku teks, jurnal-jurnal ilmiah, yang secara khusus membahas konsep tersebut. Agar penguasaannya cukup komprehensif, disarankan kepada peneliti untuk mempelajari konsep penelitiannya tidak hanya dari satu atau dua sumber, melainkan dari banyak sumber sehingga konsep penelitiannya memperoleh dukungan akademik yang memadai. Catatan : Ada beberapa penulis yang membedakan kata “concept” dengan “construct”. Menurutnya concept untuk sesuatu yang kongkret, misalnya “upah”, “usia”, “pohon”. “rumah” dsb. sedangkan construct untuk sesuatu yang abstrak misalnya “motivasi”, kepuasan”, “haus”, “belajar”, “citra”, “budaya” dsb. 2. Tetapkan variabel utama penelitian Variabel utama pada dasarnya adalah konsep utama penelitian. Konsep tadi bisa disebut variabel jika mempunyai nilai yang bervariasi. Jenis kelamin disebut variabel karena ada dua variasi yaitu laki-laki dan perempuan. Usia bisa disebut variabel karena ada yang berusia 12 tahun, 19 tahun dst. Lajimnya, variabel utama penelitian secara eksplisit tertulis dalam judul penelitian. Misalnya judul penelitian adalah “pengaruh upah terhadap kinerja”, maka variabel utama adalah “upah” dan “kinerja”. Besarnya upah bervariasi, demikian pula kinerja pegawai.

34 PETUNJUK MEMBUAT PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/2012 Prinsip penyusunan pertanyaan 3. Tetapkan variabel pendukung. Variabel lain di luar variabel utama yang oleh peneliti dianggap sebagai sesuatu hal yang dapat mendukung analisis hasil penelitiannya. Misalnya, penelitian tentang kepuasan kerja dapat memasukan variabel jenis kelamin dan usia jika kedua variabel tambahan tadi dianggap bisa mendukung atau penting bagi analisis hasil penelitian. Jika peneliti menduga bahwa pegawai wanita mempunyai tingkat kepuasan yang lebih rendah dibanding pegawai laki-laki, maka konsekuensinya adalah menambahkan variabel jenis kelamin ke dalam rancangan penelitiannya. Jumlah variabel pendukung sebaiknya dibatasi karena akan berakibat pada biaya (dana, waktu, tenaga ). Jika memang tidak penting sebaiknya jangan dimunculkan. 4. Susun definisi operasional variabel penelitian. Definisi operasional ini sangat penting jika analisis penelitian dilakukan secara kuantitatif. Tujuan kegiatan pendefinisian ini untuk mengurangi tingkat “keabstrakan” suatu konstrak sehingga bisa dilakukan pengukuran. Misalkan. “haus” diukur dengan jumlah air yang diminum; motivasi belajar diukur dengan jumlah jam membaca buku pelajaran. Makin abstrak variabel penelitiannya makin sulit dioperasionalisasikannya. Penelitian dalam bidang kebudayaan, filsafat, dan humaniora, lebih sering menggunakan analisis kualitatif antara lain disebabkan oleh sulitnya memberikan definisi operasional pada variabel- variabel penelitiannya. Uji coba instrumen (kuesioner) Sebelum kuesioner disebarkan kepada responden, ujicobakanlah lebih dahulu kepada sejumlah kecil responden. Hal ini gunanya untuk mengetahui validitas dan reliabilitas alat ukur dimaksud. Selain itu, ini juga dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan diterima atau ditolaknya hipotesis yang telah dirumuskan. Jika ternyata dalam uji coba ini terdapat banyak kesalahan, maka peneliti dapat mengubah atau menyempurkannya.

35 CARA PRAKTIS MEMBUAT PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/ Gunakan kata-kata yang sederhana dan dimengerti oleh semua responden. 2.Hindarkan istilah yang hebat tetapi responden kurang atau tidak menegerti. 3.Usahakanlah agar pertanyaan yang dibuat jelas dan khusus 4.Hindari pertanyaan yang memiliki lebih dari satu pengertian 5.Hindari pertanyaan yang mengandung sugesti 6.Pertanyaan harus berlaku bagi semua responden 7.Gunakan kata-kata sederhana, jelas dan khusus; 1.Berkaitan dengan masalah dan sasaran penelitian tidak menggiring 2.Tidak membuat informasi yang tidak dimiliki responden 3.Tidak memuat hal yang bersifat pribadi atau peka 4.Tidak bersifat klise Susunan pertanyaan Ada aturan umum dalam menyusun urutan pertanyaan yang dibuat, meskipun tidak mutlak, yakni sebagai berikut: 1.Pertanyaan sensitif dan pertanyaan model jawaban terbuka sebaiknya ditempatkan di bagian akhir kuesioner. 2.Pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang mudah sebaiknya ditempatkan pada bagian awal kuesioner. 3.Susunlah pertanyaan dengan pola susunan yang saling berkaitan satu sama lain secara logis. 4.Susunlah pertanyaan sesuai dengan susunan yang logis, runtut, dan tidak meloncat- loncat dari tema satu ke tema yang lain. 5.Jangan gunakan pasangan pertanyaan yang mengecek reliabilitas. Misalnya, setujukah Anda terhadap aborsi? Sementara itu di tempat lain, ada pertanyaan, tidak setujukan Anda terhadap aborsi?. 6.Gunakan pertanyaan secara singkat dan jelas, tidak bertele-tele. Diunduh dari: ….. 31/8/2012

36 PERTANYAAN KOMBINASI TERTUTUP DAN TERBUKA Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pada pertanyaan ini, Jawabannya sudah ditentukan tetapi kemudian disusul dengan pertanyaan terbuka. Contoh: Apakah Bapak mengetahui tentang gejala-gejala dari penyakit rabies? 1. Pernah 2. Tidak pernah (JIKA PERNAH) Gejala-gejala apa saja yang Bapak ketahui? ________________________________________________ Pertanyaan semi terbuka Pada pertanyaan semi terbuka jawaban sudah tersusun tetapi masih ada kemungkinan tambahan jawaban. Contoh: Alat KB yang dipakai IUD 1 Pil2 Kondom3 Jelly/Foam4 Sterilisasi 5 Lain-lain: (SEBUTKAN)

37 TEKNIK SKALA Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Sekala bertujuan untuk mengetahui ciri-ciri atau karakteristik sesuatu hal berdasarkan suatu ukuran tertentu, sehingga dapat dibedakan. Sifat Skala: 1.Skala Nominal: Membedakan, tanpa tingkatan. Misalnya: Laras, Tata, Gagas, Kokom dll. 2.Skala Ordinal: membedakan dengan suatu urutan, tanpa jarak. Misalnya: Mahasiswa semester I kodenya 4, Mhs semester II Kodenya 6, mhs semester III kodenya 8 3.Skala interval: membedakan dengan tingkatan, ada jarak. Misalnya: umur fiya 2 tahun, gagas 3 tahun, laras 5 tahun. 4.Skala Ratio: membedakan dengan tingkatan, ada jarak, ada nilai mutlak. Misalnya IP Tata 4 dan IP Siska 2; sehingga prestasi Tata duakali prestasi Siska AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE BIOCLIMATIC COMFORT IN AN OUTDOOR PUBLIC SPACE IN LISBON Sandra Oliveira and Henrique Andrade. Int J Biometeorol (2007) 52:69–84. This paper describes the application of a methodology designed to analyse the relationship between climatic conditions and the perception of bioclimatic comfort. The experiment consisted of conducting simultaneous questionnaire surveys and weather measurements during 2 sunny spring days in an open urban area in Lisbon. The results showed that under outdoor conditions, thermal comfort can be maintained with temperatures well above the standard values defined for indoor conditions. There seems to be a spontaneous adaptation in terms of clothing whenever the physiological equivalent temperature threshold of 31°C is surpassed. The perception of air temperature is difficult to separate from the perception of the thermal environment and is modified by other parameters, particularly wind. The perception of solar radiation is related to the intensity of fluxes from various directions (i.e. falling upon both vertical and horizontal surfaces), weighted by the coefficients of incidence upon the human body. Wind was found to be the most intensely perceived variable, usually negatively. Wind perception depends largely on the extreme values of wind speed and wind variability. Women showed a stronger negative reaction to high wind speed than men. The second part of the questionnaire concerned the perception of each weather parameter experienced at the moment of the enquiry (Ta, HR, v, K), as well as the overall perception of the weather conditions by each individual using a 4-point nominal scale of comfort for simplicity purposes. The experiment proved that this methodology is well-suited to achieving the proposed objectives and that it may be applied in other areas and in other seasons.

38 METODE SKALA Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Skala Likert: Jawaban tidak sekedar “Setuju dan “Tidak Setuju”, tetapi dibuat lebih banyak kemungkinan, misalnya sebagai berikut: Sangat tidak setuju1 Tidak setuju2 Tidak adapendapat3 Setuju4 Sangat setuju5 Metode Skala Guttman Tujuan skala ini untuk memperoleh ukuran gabungan yang hanya mengukur satu dimensi saja a. Apakah anda memiliki radio? b. Apakah anda memiliki televisi? c. Apakah anda memilki sepeda motor? d. Apakah anda memiliki mobil? RESPONDEN abcd

39 SURVAI MELALUI WAWANCARA Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Wawancara adalah teknik pengambilan data melalui pertanyaan yang diajukan secara lisan kepada responden. Umumnya teknik pengambilan data dengan cara ini dilakukan jika peneliti bermaksud melakukan analisis kualitatif atas penelitiannya. Wawancara bisa dilakukan secara tatap muka di antara peneliti dengan responden dan bisa juga melalui telepon. Di bawah ini digambarkan sebuah model yang menggambarkan berbagai variable yang mempengaruhi proses wawancara. PUBLIC UNDERSTANDINGS OF AIR POLLUTION: THE &LOCALISATION' OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISK Karen Bickersta, Gordon Walker Global Environmental Change 11 (2001) Recent perspectives on public understandings of global environmental risk have emphasised the interpretation, judgement and sense-making' that takes place, modes of perception that are inextricably tied to aspects of &local' context. In this paper we offer a current picture of the ways in which residents think about the problem of urban air pollution. To do this we utilise elements of a wider research project involving a survey and in-depth interviews with members of the public. In this way - and drawing upon the prior air pollution perception literature and recent workin the "eld of environmental and risk perception - we present a more analytical interpretation than has hitherto been approached. The data collection was undertaken in 1996, and comprised a mixed methodology involving a questionnaire survey followed by a series of one-to-one interview discussions. A total of 378 questionnaires were returned complete, this was a response rate of 84%. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with 50 of the questionnaire respondents selected on the basis of demographic characteristics, strati"ed into the three socio-economic status groups, such that consistency was maintained with the overall sample population. Conclusions are drawn which stress the localisation of people's understandings within the immediate physical, social and cultural landscape and also through a trust in personal experiences over any kind of information-based evidence. From this position, and with the development of implications for policy, we demonstrate the need to study public perceptions if the objectives of air quality, and more generally, environmental management are to be achieved.

40 KEUNGGULAN METODE WAWANCARA : Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Flexibility. Pewancara dapat secara luwes mengajukan pertanyaan sesuai dengan situasi yang dihadapi pada saat itu. Jika dia menginginkan informasi yang mendalam maka dapat melakukan “probing”. Demikian pula jika ingin memperoleh informasi tambahan, maka dia dapat mengajukan pertanyaan tambahan. Bahkan jika sebuah pertanyaan dianggap kurang tepat ditanyakan pada saat itu, dia bisa menundanya. Response rate. Maknanya, wawancara cenderung ditanggapi secara lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kuesioner yang diposkan. Responden yang tidak mampu menulis atau membaca tetap bisa menjawab pertanyaan, demikian pula mereka yang malas menulis. Banyak responden yang lebih menyukai mengeluarkan pandangannya secara lisan daripada tulisan. Nonverbal behavior. Pewawancara dapat mengobservasi perilaku nonverbal, Misalnya rasa suka, rasa tidak suka, atau perilaku lainnya pada saat pertanyaan diajukan dan dijawab oleh responden. Control over environment : Pewawancara dapat mengatur lingkungan di mana wawancara dilakukan, misalnya di ruangan tersendiri, atau tanpa kehadiran orang lain. Hal ini mencegah terjadinya jawaban yang diintervensi pihak lain. Question order. Pertanyaan dapat diajukan secara berurutan sehingga responden dapat memahami maksud penelitian secara lebih baik. Hal ini juga dapat menjamin pertanyaan dapat terjawab semuanya, kecuali memang respondennya tidak bersedia menjawabnya. Spontaneity. Pewawancara dapat merekam jawaban-jawaban yang spontan. Dalam hal tertentu jawaban spontan bisa lebih jujur dan informative, kurang normative. Respondent alone can answer. Jawaban tidak dibuat oleh orang lain tetapi benar oleh responden yang telah kita tetapkan. Completeness. Pewawancara dapat memperoleh jawaban atas seluruh pertanyaan yang diajukan. Time of interview. Pewawancara dapat menyusun jadwal wawancara yang relatif pasti. Kapan, di mana, sehingga data yang diperoleh tidak keluar dari rancangan penelitian. Greater complexity of questionnaire. Kuesioner umumnya berisikan pertanyaan yang mudah dijawab oleh responden. Melalui wawancara, dapat ditanyakan hal-hal yang rumit dan mendetail.

41 KELEMAHAN METODE WAWANCARA Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Biaya - Cost. Biaya supervisi lapangan, biaya latihan pewawancara, biaya perjalanan serta pemondokan, imbalan bagi responden, dan lain sebagainya Di Amerika dan Eropa khususnya, biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk seorang responden bisa sampai dengan 100 dolar pada tahun 1995 (Cooper dan Emory). Artinya kalau respondennya 100 orang peneliti harus menyediakan uang sekitar 75 juta rupiah. Di Indonesia belum ada tarif yang bisa diterima umum ketika seorang peneliti mewawancarai responden WAKTU -Time. Waktu wawancara tidak dapat dilakukan kapan saja. Kadang responden hanya punya waktu sedikit, sehingga untuk menjawab seluruh pertanyaan diperlukan beberapa kali wawancara. Berdasarkan pengalaman, penelitian yang sampelnya banyak dan secara geografis berbeda domisilinya, bisa memakan waktu sekitar enam bulan. Interview bias. Walau telah dilakukan tatap muka, namun kesalahan bertanya dan juga kesalahan mentafsirkan jawaban, masih bisa terjadi. Sering terjadi atribut (jenis kelamin, etnik, status sosial, jabatan, usia, pakaian, penampilan fisik, dsb) responden dan juga pewawancara mempengaruhi jawaban. Inconvenience.. Karena kesibukan atau alasan lainnya, tidak sedikit responden mau diwawancarai. Namjun, karena sudah janji, responden tetap mau menjawab pertanyaan walau dalam kondisi tertekan, sakit, atau mengalami gangguan lainnya. Dan hal tersebut berpengaruh pada kualitas jawaban Berdasarkan banyak penelitian di bidang manajemen sumber daya manusia, pimpinan perusahaan lebih sering melarang peneliti mewawancari pegawainya. Kalau wawancara dilakukan di rumah juga sama. Mungkin mereka tidak punya waktu atau bisa juga karena mereka takut didatangi oleh orang asing. Less anonymity. Dibanding melalui kuesioner, melalui wawancara responden sulit menyembunyikan identitas dirinya. Artinya pewawancara bisa dipandang mempunyai potensi yang bisa mengancam dirinya, sehingga jawaban harus dilakukan secara ekstra hati-hati. Apalagi jika jawabannya direkam melalui pita perekam. Less standardized question wording. Pertanyaan sering kali kurang baku. Responden yang berbeda bisa ditanyakan dengan kalimat yang berbeda bahkan isinya berbeda pula. Fleksibilitas ternyata bisa merupakan kekuatan namun dapat pula merupakan kelemahan tenik wawancara.

42 SYARAT UTAMA WAWANCARA AGAR BERHASIL Diunduh dari: project/m_e_tool_series_indepth_interviews.pdf…. 25/8/2012 Tersedianya informasi yang diperlukan dalam diri responden Peneliti harus mempunyai informasi lengkap tentang diri responden. Artinya apakah responden yang akan diwawancarai-nya mempunyai informasi yang ingin diperoleh peneliti. Ada istilah yang populer yaitu bahwa responden yang akan diwawancarai harus yang “rich information” Responden harus benar-benar mengerti apa yang harus dilakukannya. Untuk itu maka peneliti harus dapat menjelaskan bagaimana seharusnya responden menjawab pertanyaan yang diajukan kepadanya. Peneliti boleh saja memberikan pelatihan singkat kepada responden. Motivasi responden untuk mau bekerjasama harus tinggi. Motivasi responden merupakan tanggung jawab peneliti. Bagaimana cara mendorong responden mau menjawab dengan baik dan lengkap banyak ditentukan oleh pendekatan serta insentif yang diberikan oleh peneliti. What is an In-Depth Interview? In-depth interviewing is a qualitative research technique that involves conducting intensive individual interviews with a small number of respondents to explore their perspectives on a particular idea, program, or situation. For example, we might ask participants, staff, and others associated with a program about their experiences and expectations related to the program, the thoughts they have concerning program operations, processes, and outcomes, and about any changes they perceive in themselves as a result of their involvement in the program. Collect Data – interview 1.Set up interviews with stakeholders (be sure to explain the purpose of the interview, why the stakeholder has been chosen, and the expected duration of the interview). 2.Seek informed consent of the interviewee (written or documented oral). Re-explain the purpose of the interview, why the stakeholder has been chosen, expected duration of the interview, whether and how the information will be kept confidential, and the use of a note taker and/or tape recorder. 3.If interviewee has consented, conduct the interview. 4.Summarize key data immediately following the interview. 5.Verify information given in interviews as necessary. For example, if an interviewee says that a clinic has a policy of not providing services to anyone under 16, you should verify that information on your own with the clinic.

43 TEKNIK WAWANCARA Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Teknik wawancara lebih mudah dibicarakan dibandingkan dengan pelaksanaannya. Kondisi lapangan yang sangat bervariasi, menyebabkan apa-apa yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh pewawancara menjadi kurang atau bahkan tidak terjadi. Pewawancara tidak sekedar harus mengerti apa yang seharusnya dilakukan, tetapi juga harus kreatif menangani persoalan yang muncul di lapangan. Tidak jarang responden memberikan respons yang tidak sesuai dengan harapan pewawancara. Tugas pewawancara tidak hanya bertanya, tetapi juga mendengarkan dengan seksama, merekam apa yang didengarnya, dan melakukan pertanyaan ulang dan mendalam jika diperlukan. Agar tugas-tugas tersebut dapat dilakukannya dengan baik, maka pewawancara harus melatih diri dan mempersiapkan proses wawancara sebaik mungkin. Berikut ini disajikan tahapan-tahapan yang secara umum dilakukan oleh sebagian besar pewawancara pada saat mereka berupaya mencari informasi dari responden penelitiannya. COLLECTING DATA BY IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING Rita S. Y. Berry Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Sussex at Brighton, September Interviews have been used extensively for data collection across all the disciplines of the social sciences & in educational research. There are many types of interviews, as suggested in the literature. However, this paper does not attempt to look at every single type of interview. Instead, it focuses on one particular type – in-depth interviewing. In the presentation, the presenter will briefly explain her interpretation of in-depth interviewing & report on how she used this research method to collect data for her study. In-depth interviewing In-depth interviewing, also known as unstructured interviewing, is a type of interview which researchers use to elicit information in order to achieve a holistic understanding of the interviewee’s point of view or situation; it can also be used to explore interesting areas for further investigation. This type of interview involves asking informants open-ended questions, and probing wherever necessary to obtain data deemed useful by the researcher. As in-depth interviewing often involves qualitative data, it is also called qualitative interviewing.

44 TEKNIK WAWANCARA Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Teknik wawancara lebih mudah dibicarakan dibandingkan dengan pelaksanaannya. Kondisi lapangan yang sangat bervariasi, menyebabkan apa-apa yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh pewawancara menjadi kurang atau bahkan tidak terjadi. Pewawancara tidak sekedar harus mengerti apa yang seharusnya dilakukan, tetapi juga harus kreatif menangani persoalan yang muncul di lapangan. Tidak jarang responden memberikan respons yang tidak sesuai dengan harapan pewawancara. Tugas pewawancara tidak hanya bertanya, tetapi juga mendengarkan dengan seksama, merekam apa yang didengarnya, dan melakukan pertanyaan ulang dan mendalam jika diperlukan. Agar tugas-tugas tersebut dapat dilakukannya dengan baik, maka pewawancara harus melatih diri dan mempersiapkan proses wawancara sebaik mungkin. Berikut ini disajikan tahapan-tahapan yang secara umum dilakukan oleh sebagian besar pewawancara pada saat mereka berupaya mencari informasi dari responden penelitiannya. COLLECTING DATA BY IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING Rita S. Y. Berry Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Sussex at Brighton, September Patton (1987:113) suggests three basic approaches to conducting qualitative interviewing: 1.The informal conversational interview. This type of interview resembles a chat, during which the informants may sometimes forget that they are being interviewed. Most of the questions asked will flow from the immediate context. Informal conversational interviews are useful for exploring interesting topic/s for investigation and are typical of ‘ongoing’ participant observation fieldwork. 2.The general interview guide approach (commonly called guided interview) When employing this approach for interviewing, a basic checklist is prepared to make sure that all relevant topics are covered. The interviewer is still free to explore, probe and ask questions deemed interesting to the researcher. This type of interview approach is useful for eliciting information about specific topics. For this reason, Wenden (1982) formulated a checklist as a basis to interview her informants in a piece of research leading towards her PhD studies. She (1982:39) considers that the general interview guide approach is useful as it ‘allows for in-depth probing while permitting the interviewer to keep the interview within the parameters traced out by the aim of the study.’ 3.The standardised open-ended interview Researchers using this approach prepare a set of open-ended questions which are carefully worded and arranged for the purpose of minimising variation in the questions posed to the interviewees. In view of this, this method is often preferred for collecting interviewing data when two or more researchers are involved in the data collecting process. Although this method provides less flexibility for questions than the other two mentioned previously, probing is still possible, depending on the nature of the interview and the skills of the interviewers (Patton 1987:112).

45 MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN NARA-SUMBER Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Sasaran awal yang harus bisa dicapai oleh pewawancara adalah terbangunnya hubungan yang akrab dengan nara-sumbernya. Menurut Cooper dan Emory (1995) ada tiga hal yang bisa meningkatkan penerimaan responden dalam wawancara 1.Upayakan agar nara-sumber percaya bahwa pengalaman yang segera akan terjadi, menyenangkan dan memuaskan dirinya. Umumnya nara-sumber mau dengan terbuka menyatakan pendapatnya dan juga bekerjasama jika pewawancara menunjukan perilaku yang bisa dipercaya. Misalnya, jika proses wawancara akan direkam melalui “tape recorder” sebaiknya minta persetujuan nara-sumber. Atau jika nara-sumber minta identitasnya tidak disebutkan dalam laporan, pewawancara harus bisa memberikan jaminan. 2.Upayakan nara-sumber merasa bahwa wawancara yang berlangsung dengan dirinya memang sangat berguna. Untuk itu pewawancara harus bisa menjelaskan dengan baik maksud dan kegunaan penelitian itu, tidak hanya bagi diri peneliti, tetapi juga bagi pihak-pihak lain termasuk mungkin si nara-sumber tersebut. 3.Upayakan agar nara-sumber memiliki rasa aman dan nyaman. Responden seringkali curiga terhadap pewawancara. Sehingga dalam menjawab pertanyaan, mereka ekstra hati-hati. Pewawancara harus bisa memberi jaminan bahwa jawaban nara-sumber tidak membuat dirinya menjadi terancam, atau hal lain yang sejenis. BUILDING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE FOR DEVELOPING HEALTH POLICY THROUGH KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS Lois Wright Morton Extension Journal. February 2002 // Volume 40 // Number 1. Key informant surveys offer Extension educators a way to build knowledge about their local health systems and provide a catalyst for developing health policies. Key informant surveys of 138 leaders in 14 rural counties revealed the top 10 health goals across these counties. These goals are a starting point for public dialogues to develop a local health agenda and engage Extension in strengthening local partnerships around health education, intervention, and policy development. The key informant survey is a data collection technique appropriate to the study of intermediate units such as communities, counties, and villages (Young, 1999). The "informant" is asked information about his/her community structure rather than his/her own personal characteristics. This technique is particularly useful in gathering information for use in policy development where the unit of program intervention is the community, county, or region. Twenty-three Cooperative Extension educators in 14 counties were used to identify county leaders in 10 specified categories: 1.Commissioner of Health, 2.Chamber of Commerce director, 3.Human resource director of major employer, 4.Small business owner representative of the type of small businesses in the county, 5.Office for Aging director, 6.Director of a highly visible voluntary not-for-profit health organization, 7.County legislator on health subcommittee, 8.President/committee chair on member health benefits of the largest union in the county, 9.Hospital administrator, and 10.Medicaid-eligible person with leadership in her/his neighborhood or community.

46 MENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Mengajukan pertanyaan sesuai dengan pedoman wawancara (interview schedules), jika ingin memperoleh jawaban yang lebih mendalam, lakukan “probing”. Walau sudah ada pedoman wawancara, jika terpaksa pewawancara dapat menambah pertanyaan lain yang dianggap penting. Jika ada pertanyaan yang seharusnya ditanyakan, tetapi sudah terjawab (dalam jawaban atas pertanyaan lain atau berdasarkan pengamatan), maka lewatkan saja. Upayakan suasana wawancara tidak seperti interogasi. Komunikasi dua arah sebaiknya diciptakan. Kadang jawaban nara-sumber tidak sesuai dengan apa yang ditanyakan. Sebelum “ke mana-mana”, seharusnya pewawancara memperjelas pertanyaan tadi dengan kata-kata/bahasa/susunan kalimat yang lain yang diperkirakan lebih bisa dipahami. Jika nara-sumber tidak mau menjawab satu pertanyaan tertentu, sebaiknya tidak dipaksa. Alihkan dahulu ke pertanyaan lain dan pada akhir wawancara boleh dicoba dengan cara lain mengajukan pertanyaan yang belum dijawabnya. ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT CRITERIA: WEIGHTING AND INTEGRATION Rabee M. Reffat and and Edward L. Harkness Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 15, No. 3, August, This paper presents an integration method for evaluating environmental quality in office buildings based on a series of interviews with 50 experts in the field of environmental quality in the built environment. A structured questionnaire was completed by experts during the interviews. The categories of environmental quality considered in this evaluation include lighting comfort, acoustic comfort, thermal comfort, and acceptable indoor air quality. Each category includes a set of performance criteria. Sixty-five performance criteria covering the evaluation of environmental quality in office buildings were extracted from the interviewed experts. The development of this integration method for assessing the environmental quality of built environments is described and an illustration of its application is presented. Data were collected through interviews with two kinds of professionals (21 academics and 29 practitioners) who are experts in lighting comfort, acoustic comfort, thermal comfort, and IAQ. Their input was used to determine the weight of each environmental category for the office workplace in an office building.

47 QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Individuals vary in their ability to articulate their thoughts and ideas. With good questioning techniques, researchers will be more able to facilitate the subjects’ accounts and to obtain quality data from them. Current literature suggests some questioning techniques, summarised in the following ten points: 1.Ask clear questions. Cicourel (1964) reflects that ‘many of the meanings which are clear to one will be relatively opaque to the other, even when the intention is genuine communication.’ Accordingly, it is important to use words that make sense to the interviewees, words that are sensitive to the respondent’s context and world view. To enhance their comprehensibility to the interviewees, questions should be easy to understand, short, and devoid of jargon (Kvale 1996). 2.Ask single questions. Patton (1987) points out that interviewers often put several questions together and ask them all as one. He suggests that researchers should ask one thing at a time. This will eliminate any unnecessary burden of interpretation on the interviewees. 3.Ask truly open-ended questions (Patton 1987). Truly open-ended questions do not pre-determine the answers and allow room for the informants to respond in their own terms. For example, "What do you think about your English?" "How do you feel about the method of English teaching in your home country?" "What is your opinion of English lessons in the UK?“ 4.Ask experience/behaviour questions before opinion/feeling questions (Patton 1987). It is useful to ask questions about experience or behaviour before asking questions about opinions or feelings as this helps establish a context for the informants to express the latter. For example, asking "What happened?" before "How do you feel now?“ 5.Sequence the questions (Cohen & Manion 1994). This refers to using a special kind of questioning technique called ‘Funnelling’, which means asking from general to specific, from broad to narrow. Cohen & Manion quote an example from the study by Sears, Maccoby and Levin: All babies cry, of course. Some mothers feel that if you pick up a baby every time it cries, you will spoil it. Others think you should never let a baby cry for very long. How do you feel about this? What did you do about it? How about the middle of the night? (Sears, Maccoby and Levin, 1957, cited in Cohen & Manion, 1994) 6.Probe & follow-up questions (Patton 1987). The purpose of probing is to deepen the response to a question, to increase the richness of the data being obtained, and to give cues to the interviewee about the level of response that is desired. This can be done through direct questioning of what has just been said, for example, "Could you say something more about that?"; "Can you give a more detailed description of what happened?; "Do you have further examples of this?" Alternatively, a mere nod, or "mm," or just a pause can indicate to the subject to go on with the description. Repeating significant words of an answer can lead to further elaboration (Kvale 1996). 7.Interpret questions (Kvale 1996). Throughout the interview, the researchers should clarify and extend the meanings of the interviewee’s statements to avoid misinterpretations on their part. Kvale (1996) suggests that researchers may use question like ‘Is it correct that you feel that……?"; "Does the expression….. cover what you have just expressed?" to allow the interviewees to confirm or disconfirm what has been interpreted by the researchers. 8.Avoid sensitive questions. It is advisable to avoid deep questions which may irritate the informants, possibly resulting in an interruption of the interview. Cicourel (1964) agrees that ‘the respondent may well feel uneasy and adopt avoidance tactics if the questioning is too deep.’ 9.Encourage a free rein but maintain control. The researchers should be prepared to let the interviewees ‘travel’ wherever they like, but a rough checklist of ideas or areas the former want to explore is useful. Palmer (1928) suggests that proficient interviewers should be always in control of a conversation which they guide and bend to the service of their research interest. 10. Establish rapport. This can be achieved by, for example, respecting the informants’ opinions, supporting their feelings, or recognising their responses. This can also be shown by the researchers’ tone of voice, expressions or even gestures. In addition, Kvale (1996) suggests that ‘a good contact is established by attentive listening, with the interviewer showing interest, understanding, and respect for what the subjects say.’ He (1996) continues, ‘[a good interview] allows subjects to finish what they are saying, lets them proceed at their own rate of thinking and speaking.’

48 MEREKAM JAWABAN NARA-SUMBER Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pewawancara harus menyadari bahwa wawancara dengan seorang nara-sumber hanya dilakukan satu kali. Pewawancara harus benar-benar dapat merekam jawaban nara-sumber dengan baik (benar dan lengkap). Hal yang ideal kalau seorang pewawancara dibantu oleh orang lain yang bwertugas merekam jawaban nara-sumber. Jika tidak mungkin ada pembantu, diupayakan jawaban nara-sumber direkam melalui alat perekam elektronik (tape recorder). Apabila kedua hal tersebut tidak memungkinkan, maka pewawancara harus mampu merekam sendiri jawaban nara-sumber. Seyogyanya nara-sumber dibiarkan menjawab pertanyaan, dan pewawancara segera mencatat semua yang dikatakannya. Apabila ada kata atau kalimat yang kurang jelas maka pewawancara dapat meminta nara-sumber menjelaskan ulang kata atau kalimat tadi. Agar jawaban yang direkam relatif lengkap upayakan pewawancara memiliki singkatan-singkatan, atau tanda-tanda baca lainnya yang tertentu yang dimengertinya. Untuk meyakinkan apakah yang dicatat benar atau sesuai dengan apa yang dimaksud oleh responden, tidak ada salahnya intisari jawaban nara-sumber dikatakan ulang oleh pewawancara.

49 MENGAKHIRI WAWANCARA Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Pewawancara harus menyadari bahwa wawancara hanya dilakukan satu kali, namun untuk menjaga kemungkinan negatif, sebaiknya diakhir wawancara, pewawancara harus memberi kesan bahwa dia masih ingin melakukan pembicaraan lagi. Dengan demikian, agar pewawancara dapat diterima kembali maka akhir dari suatu wawancara haruslah baik pula. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF QUALITY OF URBAN GREEN SPACEON PEOPLE’S WELLBEING IN DEPRIVED COMMUNITIES Catharine Ward Thompson, Jenny Roe, Peter A. Aspinall, Affonso Zuin This project (commissioned by the Commission for Architecture and the BuiltEnvironment (CABE Space)) explored the quality and availability of green space indeprived communities in key urban areas of England, and the relationship betweengreen space and wellbeing for people in these communities. Methods included focusgroups, environmental quality audits and interview questionnaire surveys of differentsub-groups (particularly different black and minority ethnic (BME) groups) within thecase study communities. Analysis of the questionnaire explores the relationship between green space and wellbeing, firstly, as compared to other environmentalfactors (such as air pollution, access to shops etc) and, secondly, in relation to currentuse of green space, perceived quality of green space and potential interventions thatmight change behaviour or use of green space and benefit wellbeing. The methods used in the study included focus groups, environmental quality audits of typical green spaces within case study communities, and interview questionnairesurveys of samples of different sub-groups within the case study communities.Four focus groups were held, facilitated by local community workers and involving44 participants in all. Two groups were of mixed ethnicity, two were held with peoplefrom Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds. The aim was to identify the salientissues about urban green space in relation to wellbeing and quality of life and toensure that the environmental audits and interview survey questions were relevant and meaningful.

50 METODE SURVEY SAMPEL Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Pengertian Populasi Populasi didefinisikan sebagai jumlah total dari unit dasar. Contoh: Penelitian estimasi nilai rata-rata 5 siswa, nilai tersebut berkisar antara Pada penelitian ini terdapat tiga komponen yaitu: 1.Ada 11 hasil yang mungkin 2.Satuan dimana akan diadakan pengukuran yang dikaitkan dengan 5 siswa. tiap siswa tersebut dinamakan unit dasar. 3.Peubah (variabel)yang berasosiasi dengan unit dasar yaitu nilai. nilai merupakan karakteristik yang bervariasi dari unit dasar yang satu dengan unit dasar yang lainnya. Kalau peneliti dihadapkan dengan masalah sampling, terlebih dahulu harus mendefinisikan masalah sebagai berikut: 1.tentukan unit dasarnya 2.tentukan populasinya 3.tentukan karakteristik yang akan diukur 4.tentukan peubah (variabelnya)

51 UNIT SAMPLING Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Unit sampling didefinisikan sebagai sampel yang terpilih. Untuk lebih jelasnya perhatikan ilustrasi berikut. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui sewa rata-rata suatu kamar sewa di kota A. Misalnya X=Rp adalah total sewa yang harus dibayar untuk semua kamar sewa di kota A, dan ada Y=2000 kamar sewa dalam kota tersebut. Jadi rata-rata sewa setiap kamarnya adalah R = X/Y = Rp /2000 = Rp.100 per kamar sewa. Variabel X dan Y adalah variabel yang harus ditaksir. Bagaimana cara menaksirnya? 1. Dari contoh di atas dapat ditentukan: a.Unit dasarnya : yaitu setiap kamar sewa di kota A b.Populasi : yaitu semua total kamar sewa di kota A. c.Unit sampling : rumah sewa yang kita ambil untuk dijadikan sampel. Catatan: unit sampling dapat memuat 1 unit dasar atau lebih. 2.Membuat daftar apartement Misalnya setiap rumah sewa di Kota A terdiri dari 4-20 kamar sewa. 3. Dengan mendaftar semua rumah sewa maka dapat ditaksir banyaknya kamar sewa dan mengetahui nilai total sewa untuk semua kamar sewa yang ada.

52 FRAME (KERANGKA) Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Frame terdiri atas unit sampling dan mewakili populasi Contoh: Penelitian untuk estimasi rata-rata dari berat setiap mahasiswa di suatu perguruan tinggi. Unit dasarnya adalah setiap mahasiswa yang dalam hal ini juga merupakan unit sampling. Populasinya adalah semua mahasiswa. Misalnya, populasinya adalah mahasiswa yang hadir pada 1 oktober dan kita memproses dengan mengkoleksi data dari kartu registrasi(berarti mahasiswa juga harus registrasi). Mahasiswa yang telah registrasi dan hadir pada 1 oktober dan tercatat di list ini disebut frame. Contoh lain: Penelitian tentang estimasi gaji pegawai di suatu swalayan. Dalam penelitian ini setiap pegawai adalah unit dasar dan jumlah total dari pegawai adalah populasi. Akan tetapi pada kenyataan suatu daerah tidak mungkin memiliki nama-nama seluruh pegawai yang bekerja pada swalayan. Daerah biasanya hanya mempunyai daftar dari nama swalayannya; maka swalayan adalah unit samplingnya dan nama swalayan yang ada di daftar tersebut adalah framenya.

53 GAP (SELISIH): SELISIH ANTARA POPULASI DAN FRAME Diunduh dari: …. 2/9/2012 Contoh: Penelitian produksi susu sapi suatu peternakan di suatu daerah.. Dalam hal ini unit dasarnya adalah setiap sapi dan populasinya adalah seluruh sapi yang ada. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya daerah penelitian tersebut tidak mempunyai list sapi-sapi, daerah hanya mempunyai list peternakan. Oleh karena itu “peternakan” disebut unit sampling sedangkan peternakan yang berada di list disebut “frame”. Gap ( selisih) nya adalah sapi di peternakan yang tidak termasuk ke dalam frame. Sampling Frame Sampling frame (synonyms: "sample frame", "survey frame") is the actual set of units from which a sample has been drawn: in the case of a simple random sample, all units from the sampling frame have an equal chance to be drawn and to occur in the sample. In the ideal case, the sampling frame should coincide with the population of interest. Consider, for example, a survey aimed at establishing the number of potential customers for a new service in the population of New York City. The research team has drawn 1000 numbers at random from a telephone directory for the city, made 200 calls each day from Monday to Friday from 8am to 5pm and asked some questions. In this example, population of interest is all inhabitants of the city; the sampling frame includes only those New Your City dwellers who satisfy all the following conditions: has a telephone; the telephone number is included in the directory; likely to be at home from 8am to 5pm from Monday to Friday; not a person who refuses to answer all telephone surveys. The sampling frame in this case definitely differs from the population. For example, it under-represents the categories which either have no a telephone (e.g. the most poor), have an unlisted number, and who were not at home at the time of calls (e.g. employed people), who don´t like to participate in telephone interviews (e.g. more busy and active people). Such differences between the sampling frame and the population of interest is a main cause of bias in survey s and other methods aimed at random sampling.bias survey random sampling

54 SAMPLING RANDOM SEDERHANA Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 MENENTUKAN UKURAN SAMPEL Bagaimana peneliti mengambil sampel sehingga setiap sampel yang diambil mempunyai peluang yang sama. Pemilihan sampel dapat dilakukan dengan cara sebagai berikut. a. Menggunakan tabel bilangan random Sebagaio contoh. Ada 300 siswa, sampel yang akan diambil 8 siswa dari mereka untuk diestimasi rata-rata berat badan mereka. Sebuah datar dibuat dan diberi nomor untuk masing-masing nama siswa. Pada tabel bilangan random diambil 3 digit untuk pemilihan (karena batas maksimum hanya 3 digit) diperoleh angka sebagai berikut Dari angka-angka di atas dapat ditentukan 8 sampel dengan nomor sebagai berikut: 231, 55, 148, 117, 70, 92, 259, 113. Cara mengambil nomor sampel dilakukan dengan mengambil nomor yang kurang dari N dimana dalam hal ini adalah 300. Selain menggunakan cara di atas, juga dapat ditambahkan suatu konstanta untuk kelipatannya. Dalam hal contoh di atas, dapat ditambahkan kelipatan 300, sehingga urutan menjadi , ,

55 b. banyak cara untuk memilih sampel Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Banyak cara untuk memilih sampel dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan rumus combinasi sebagai berikut. dimana N menunjukkan jumlah populasi dan n menunjukkan jumlah sampel. Determination of sample size during ongoing sampling Claudio Violato Environmetrics. Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 107–116, 1991Volume 2, Issue 1, An empirical technique for determining sample size during ongoing, non- probability, haphazard sampling is described in the present paper. While there are many techniques for determining sample size a priori, all of them require a knowledge of the population parameters (or at least their variance). Moreover, these a priori methods are based on assumptions of probability sampling such as simple random, stratified random, cluster, and so on. It is common in psychological, biological, social, environmental and medical research, however, to employ non-probability samples of unknown representativeness and with virtually no knowledge of the parameters in question. Thus a priori techniques are quite impractical and limited in their usefulness. The procedure described in the present paper is an empirical method which does not require assumptions of probability sampling. The method involves determining the point of convergence of Sums of Squares and Cross Products (SSCP) matrices in sequential sampling using Wilk's lambda as a criterion with Rao's approximate F as a test statistic. When the SSCP matrices of two sample sequences converge at the α =.10 level of significance, the sample size is determined to be adequate as the estimators have stabilized. Further sampling would produce redundant data. An application of the present technique to a large scale study is given as a practical example.

56 TEKNIK PENGAMBILAN SAMPEL PENELITIAN Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Sampel adalah sebagian dari jumlah dan karakteristik yang dimiliki oleh populasi. Ronald (1995) mendefinisikan sampel adalah suatu himpunan bagian dari populasi. Apabila populasi besar dan peneliti tidak mungkin mempelajari semua yang ada pada populasi, maka dapat menggunakan sampel yang diambil dari populasi. Beberapa teknik sampling ditunjukkan pada gambar:

57 TEKNIK PENGAMBILAN SAMPEL PENELITIAN Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Probability Sampling P robability sampling merupakan teknik penarikan sampel yang memberi peluang /kesempatan yang sama bagi setiap unsur atau anggota populasi untuk terpilih menjadi sampel. Teknik sampling ini meliputi: Simple Random Sampling Untuk menghilangkan kemungkinan bias, perlu mengambil sampel random sederhana atau sampel acak. Pengambilan sampel dari semua anggota populasi dilakukan secara acak tanpa memperhatikan strata yang ada dalam anggota poipulasi. Hal ini dapat dilakukan apabila anggota poipulasi dianggap homogen. Teknik sampling ini seperti pada gambar berikut:

58 Simple Random Sampling (SRS) Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 SRS merupakan teknik pengambilan sampel probabilistik yang paling sederhana dimana satuan pengamatan mempunyai peluang yang sama untuk terpilih ke dalam sampel. Teknik ini diguanakn apabila (1) variabel yang akan diteliti keadaannya relatif homogen dan tersebar merata di seluruh populasi. Keuntungannya SRS adalah rumus-rumus perhitungannya relatif lebih sederhana, tidak memerlukan pembobotan, dan semua teknik- teknik statistika standar bisa diterapkan secara langsung. Kerugiannya adalah (1) kemungkinan proses randomisasi (pemilihan secara random) tidak menjamin 100 persen terutama jika satuan pengamatan tidak menyebar merata dan (2) jika ukuran populasi dan ukuran sampel relatif sangat besar maka pemilihan SRS secara manual sulit dilakukan, misalnya pada saat menyusun kerangkan sampling (sampling frame). Langkah kerja sekengkapnya teknik SRS ini adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Tentukan populasi sasaran secara tegas 2.Tentukan ukuran populasi secara tepat, contohnya 100 satuan pengamatan 3.Tentukan bentuk satuan sampling dan susun kerangka samplingnya secara lengkap. 4.Tentukan ukuran sampel melalui perhitungan tertentu. Ukuran ini bisa ditentukan berdasarkan pertimbangan statisis (statistical aspect) atau oleh pertimbangan non statistis (nonstatistical aspect). Aspek statistik ditentukan oleh bentuk parameter (frekuensi, rata-rata, atau proporsi), teknik sampling yang digunakan, tujuan penelitian (menaksir atau menguji parameter), sifat penelitian (nonkomparatif atau komparataif), kedalaman analisis (overall atau elaborasi), variabilitas variabel yang diteliti (homogen atau heterogen), serta batas kesalahan dan derajat kepercayaan. Aspek nonstatistis biasanya mempertimbangkan biaya, waktu, tenaga, dan kepraktisan atau ketersediaan satuan pengamatan di lapangan. 5.Proses pemilihan 10 dari 100 satuan pengamatan secara acak. Proses yang melibatkan kerangka sampling yang kecil bisa dilakukan dengan cara undian (seperti pengocokan pemenang arisan). Tetapi yang paling banyak digunakan, terutama untuk kerangka sampling dan ukuran sampel yang relatif lebih besar, digunakan tabel angka acak.

59 Systematic Random Sampling (SyRS) Teknik ini digunakan apabila (1) bisa disusun kerangka sampling yang lengkap dan (2) keadaan variabel yang diteliti relatif homogen dan tersebar di seluruh populasi. Pemilihan satuan pengamatan kedalam sampel dengan menggunakan SyRS bisa dilakukan melalui dua pendekatan, yaitu (1) Linear systematic selection (LSS) dan (2) Circular systematic selection (CSS). a. LSS (Linear systematic selection ) Langkah kerja: 1.Tentukan populasi sasaran dan tentukan satuan-satuan samplingnya yang menunjukkan ukuran populasi sasaran, misalnya N= Susun kerangka sampling 3.Tentukan ukuran sampel, misalnya n=20 4.Sediakan tabel angka random 5.Proses pemilihan 20 dari 1500 satuan samplingnya adalah sebagai berikut: a.Tentukan interval pemulihan dengan rumus : I = N/n =1500/20 = 75 b.Tentukan secara random sebuah bilangan acak (disebut rendom start (RS) atau random seed) yang besanrnya memenuhi persyaratan 1< RS < I, atau untuk contoh 1 < RS < 75. Misalnya terpilih angka random 07 (baris ke2, kolom ke1 dan 2 pada tabel angka acak). Oleh karena nomor satuaan pengamatan pada kerangka samplingnya terdiri dari 4 digit (0001 sampai 1500), maka SR=0007. RS ini merupakan satuan sampling pertama yang terpilih. c.Satuan pengamatan berikutnya dipilih dengan cara menambahkan I=75 kepada nomor terpilih. Jadi satuan pengamatan yang terpilih kedua adalah = 0082, ketiga adalah = 0157, demikian seterusnya sampai terpilih sebanyak 20 satuan pengamatan Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012

60 CIRCULAR SYSTEMATIC SELECTION (CSS). 2. CSS Langkah kerja: 1.Tentukan populasi sasaran dan tentukan ukuran populasi, misalnya N= Untuk setiap satuan sampling yang ada dalam populasi sasaran disusun dalam kerangka sampling 3.Tentukan ukuran sampel (dengan menggunakan rumus atau pertimbangan tertentu), misalnya n= 13 4.Sediakan tabel angka random 5.Proses pemilihan 13 dari 2111 satuan sampling, yaitu: a.Tentukan interval (I) dengan rumus I = N/n. Bulatkan ke bilangan bulat terdekat, yaitu 2111/13 = 162 b.Dari tabel angka acak dipilih RS yang memenuhi persyaratan 1 < RS < N, misalnya terpilih RS=1842. RS ini adalah satuan pertama yang terpilih ke dalam sampel c.Satuan sampling berikutnya dipilih dengan cara menambahkan I secara sistematik kepada RS, yaitu: ( ) (tidak dipakai karena melebihi nomor dalam kerangka sampling (2111) maka satuan sampling yang terpilih adalah atau ( ), demikianlah setrusnya sampai nomor ke 13 Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012

61 Systematic Random Sampling (SyRS) Kelebihan teknik SySR, yaitu: 1.Standar error yang didasarkan pada sampling sistematis paling sedikit sama presisinya dengan SRS 2.Mudah dilakukan 3.Pada konidisi tertentu, sampling sistematik bisa dilakukan sekalipun tidak ada kerangka sampling. Contohnya pada traffic survey yaitu dengan mengamati pergerakaan lalu lintas pada jam-jam tertentu atau urutan pergerakan kendaraan, atau pada penelitian tingkat laku konsumen, misalnya pengambilan satuan pengamatan dalam pola antrian tertentu. Kelemahan teknik SySR adalah jika dalam kerangka samplingnya mempunyai periodisitas yang berimpit dengan interval pemilihan. Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS AND ECOLOGICAL SPECIES GROUPS OF THE ILAM OAK FOREST LANDSCAPE, IRAN S. Arekhi, M. Heydari, H. Pourbabaei. Caspian J. Env. Sci. 2010, Vol. 8 No.2 pp The study was carried out in the Ilam Oak forest that is located in the west part of Iran. The objective of this research was to determine the plant ecological groups and site classification in this region. Data were collected from 117 sample plots using the systematic-random sampling method. The size of sampling plots was 20 m×20 m for the tree and shrub species and 1.5 m ×1.5 m for herbaceous species. Whittaker’s nested plot method was used in order to record the herbaceous species. Soil samples were collected and analyzed to study soil properties. Multivariate analysis methods were used to classify and determine the relationship between species composition and environmental factors and to recognize ecological species groups. PC-ORD and SPSS software were used for data analyzing. Five ecological groups were specified in the study area. Cerasus microcarpa was the indicator species in the first group, which showed high correlation with carbon and nitrogen. Quercus brantii showed the strongest correlation with CaCO3. The third group was Acer monspessulanum. Elevation and clay were the most important factors that separated this group. Amygdalus orientalis showed high correlation with elevation. These two above mentioned groups were located in higher altitude. Astragalus liyciodes was the indicator species in another distinct group in the study region with high level of stoniness percentage. Astragalus group was observed where soil stoniness was high. Results also showed that groups at higher elevation showed lower richness. Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012http://research.guilan.ac.ir/cjes/.papers/1612.pdf

62 Teknik pengambilan sampel penelitian Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Proportinate Stratified Random Sampling Teknik ini digunakan apabila populasi mempunyai anggota/karakteristik yang tidak homogen dan berstrata secara proportional. Sebagai contoh suatu organisasi mempunyai personil yang terdiri dari latar belakang pendidikan yang berbeda yaitu: SLTP, SLTA, S1, dan S2 dengan jumlah setiap kelas pendidikan juga berbeda. Jumlah anggota populasi untuk setiap strata pendidikan tidak sama atau bervariasi. Jumlah sampel yang harus diambil harus meliputi strata pendidikan yang ada yang diambil secara proporsional.

63 TEKNIK STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING Teknik stratified random sampling ini digunakan apabila (1) keadaan variabel yang kita teliti sangat heterogen sehingga menimbulkan standar error yang tinggi (atau presisi yang rendah). Stratifikasi populasi dilakukan untuk memperbesar presisi (atau memperkecil standar error) ini, dan (2) apabila kita bisa menyusun kerangka sampling yang lengkap dan langsung mengenai satuan pengamatan. Jadi langkah utama yang membedakan teknik ini dengan teknik SRS adalah proses pembentukan sub populasi, disebut strata. Sedangkan proses pemilihan dari setiap strata tersebut bisa dilakukan sama seperti proses pemilihan satuan sampling dengan teknik SRS. Langkah kerja selengkapnya adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Tentukan populasi sasaran dan tentukan anggota populasi secara keseluruhan (N) 2.Berdasarkan variabel tertentu (kriteria tertentu), populasi dibagi ke dalam strata-strata. Misal kelompok responden dibagi sesuai jenis kelamin (laki atau perempuan) jika secara teoritis respon akan berbeda karena perbedaan jenis kelamin, atau populasi perusahaan dibagia menjadi sub populasi perusahaan kecil, menengah, dan besar 3.Satuan sampling untuk setiap strata didaftar sehingga diperoleh kerangkan sampling untuk masing-masing strata (N1, N2, dan seterusnya untuk setiap strata ke i) dimana N = N1 + N2 + … + Ni 4.Dari sebuah populasi selanjutnya kita menentukan ukuran sampel keseluruhan yang disebut overall sample size. 5.Ukuran sampel sebesar n selanjutnya dialokasikan kesetiap strata (n1, n2, dan seterusnya) dimana n = n1 + n2 + …. + ni. Penyebaran ini disebut alokasi sampel yang bisa dilakukan dengan 4 cara yaitu: a.Alokasi sembarang dimana ukuran sampel masing-masing strata ditentukan secara sembarang dengan syarat minimal dari sebuah strata adalah harus ada dua satuan pengamatan yang dipilih. Dalam praktek, alokasi seperti ini jarang dan tidak disarankan untuk digunakan karena menyebabkan standar error membesar. b.Alokasi sama besar tanpa melihat perbedaan ukuran masing-masing strata atau n1=n2=….= ni c.Alokasi proporsional yaitu ukuran sampel untuk setiap strata sesuai dengan proporsi ukuran strata tersebut terhadap ukuran sampel keseluruhan, misal n1=N1/N, n2=N2/N, dan seterusnya d.Alokasi Newton 6.Dari setiap strata kemudian dipilih satuan sampling melalui teknik SRS. Oleh karena pemilihan satuan sampling dari setiap strata dilakukan dengan SRS maka keseluruhan prosesnya disebut stratified random sampling. Jika pemilihan dari setiap strata dilakukan dengan SyRS maka disebut stratified systematic random sampling. Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012

64 Teknik pengambilan sampel penelitian Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Cluster Random Sampling CSR (sampling daerah) Teknik sampling daerah (cluster sampling) digunakan untuk menentukan sampel bila obyek yang akan diteliti atau sumber data sangat luas, misalnya penduduk suatu negara, propinsi atau kabupaten. Untuk menentukan penduduk mana yang akan dijadikan sumber data, maka pengambilan sampelnya berdasarkan daerah dari populasi yang telah ditetapkan. Sebagai contoh: Indonesia terdiri dari 30 propinsi, sampel yang akan diambil sebanyak 5 propinsi, maka pengambilan 5 propisnsi dari 30 propinsi dilakukan secara random. Suatu hal yang perlu diingat adalah bahwa karena propinsi yang ada di Indonesia juga berstrata, maka pengambilan sampel untuk 5 propinsi juga dilakuykan dengan menggunakan teknik stratified random sampling. Teknik cluster sampling dilakukan dalam dua tahap yaitu: 1.Menentukan sampel daerah, dan 2.Menentukan orang-orang yang ada pada daerah dengan cara sampling juga.. teknik ini digambarkan seperti pada gambar berikut:

65 a. SINGLE STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING (SSCS) Diunduh dari: elearning.gunadarma.ac.id/docmodul/risetbisnis_pdf/05_bab_3_sampel.pdf …. 25/8/2012 Proses memilih dengan SSCS secara umum dilakukan dengan memilih beberapa kluster dan untuk kluster yang terpilih tersebut diamati semua satuan sampling yang ada di dalamnya. Langkah-langkah kerja selengkapnya adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Populasi dibagi-bagi menjadi N buah cluster atau satuan sampling primer (SSP) yang bersifat heterogen. Misalkan Indonesai terdiri dari 27 propinsi 2.Dipilih n buah cluster dengan menggunakan simple random sampling. Misalkan terpilih propinsi Jawa Barat dan Timor Timur. 3.Seluruh satuan sampling dari SSP tersebut diteliti. Jadi seluruh keluarga prasejahtera yang berada di Jawa Barat dan Timor Timur harus diteliti EFFICIENCY OF SOME SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR SPATIALLY CLUSTERED POPULATIONS MARY C. CHRISTMAN Environmetrics. Volume 8, Issue 2, pages 145–166, March 1997Volume 8, Issue 2, The efficiencies of two sampling designs for estimating the mean of a fixed, finite population are considered. The first is adaptive cluster sampling (ASRS; Thompson, 1990 Journal of the American Statistical Association) which is designed to adaptively increase sampling effort in the neighbourhood of units whose observed value meets some predefined condition. The other is Balanced Sampling Excluding Contiguous Units (BSEC) (Hedayat, Rao and Stufken, 1988, Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference), a conventional design in which neighbouring units are deliberately excluded from being sampled under the idea that they provide little new information to the sampling effort. We consider the effect of type of neighbourhood, initial sample size, condition for adaptively sampling neighbours, and degree and extent of clustering in the population on the efficiency of ASRS relative to BSEC and simple random sampling. Populations having different degrees of clustering are simulated using a modified Neyman–Scott process. We compare the design-based variances of two estimators, a Horvitz–Thompson-type estimator and a Hansen–Hurwitz-type estimator. While the Horvitz–Thompson-type estimator can have the lowest variance under some of the situations explored, it is also the most sensitive to changes in the conditions. The efficiency of the estimator often comes at the cost of a large effective sample size. In general, ASRS is more efficient when the population elements are rare and highly clustered although BSEC designs are generally more efficient for a wider array of combinations of conditions. Diunduh dari: 095X% %298:2%3C145::AID-ENV249%3E3.0.CO;2-T/abstract …. 2/9/2012http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ /%28SICI% X% %298:2%3C145::AID-ENV249%3E3.0.CO;2-T/abstract

66 TWO STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING (TSCS) Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Jika contoh penelitian dengan SSCS diatas dilakukan dengan TSCS maka setelah terpilih 2 propinsi (Jawa Barat dan Timor Timur), kita melakukan pemilihan tahap kedua yaitu memilih secara acak beberapa kluster yang lebih kecil lagi yaitu kabupaten-kabupaten yang berada di propinsi terpilih. Cluster yang lebih kecil pada masing-masing SSP disebut satuan sampling sekunder (SSS). Jika secara acak terpilih 2 kabupaten di Jawa Barat dan kabupaten di Timor Timur maka pengamatan dilakukan pada seluruh keluarga prasejahtera yang berada di ke 4 kabupaten tersebut. Salah satu keunggulan CSR adalah pada saat membentuk kerangka sampling. Dengan teknik ini, kita tidak perlu mempunyai kerangka sampling lengkap untuk satua pengamatan sebab kerangka sampling tersebut bisa disusun kemudian. Keunggulan inilah yang menyebabkan teknik ini, terutama two stage cluster sampling, banyak digunakan dalam survai. Kerugiannya adalah presisinya kurang baik. Presisi ini bisa ditingkatkan dengan dengan cara membentuk cluster yang didalamnya bersifat seheterogen mungkin. Dalam praktek survai pembentukan cluster ini biasanya adalah daerah administratif (desa, kecamatan, kabupaten, dan setrusnya). Pembentukan cluster berdasarkan wilayah tersebut menyebabkan teknik tersebut disebut area sampling.

67 Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Keunggulan, dan kelemahan dari keempat teknik sampling

68 Non-probability Sampling Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Non-probability sampling merupakan teknik penarikan sampel yang memberi peluang /kesempatan yang sama bagi setiap unsur atau anggota populasi untuk terpilih menjadi sampel. Teknik sampling ini meliputi: Sampling Sistematis Teknik sampling ini merupakan teknik penarikan sampel dengan cara penentuan sampel berdasarkan urutan dari anggota populasi yang telah diberi nomor urut. Sebagai contoh jumlah anggota populasi sebanyak 200 orang. Anggota populasi diberi nomor urut dari no 1 sampai nomor 200. Selanjutnya pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan memilih nomor urut ganjil, atau genap saja, atau kelipatan dari bilangan tertentu, seperti bilangan 5 dan lainnya. Sampling Kuota Sampling kuota adalah teknik penarikan sampling dari populasi yang mempunyai ciri-ciri tertentu sampai pada jumlah (quota) yang diinginkan. Sebagai contoh akan melakukan penelitian terhadap pegawai golongan II pada suatu instansi, dan penelitian dilakukan secara kelompok. Jumlah sampel ditetapkan 100 orang sementara penelitian sebanyak 5 orang, maka setiap anggota peneliti dapat memilih sampel secara bebas dengan karakteristik yang telah ditentukan (golongan II) sebanyak 20 orang. Sampling Aksidental Sampling aksidental adalah teknik penentuan sampel, berdasarkan kebetulan, yaitu siapa saja yang secara kebetulan bertemu dengan peneliti dapat digunakan sebagai sampel, bila orang yang ditemukan pada waktu menentukan sampel cocok dengan yang diperlukan sebagai sumber data. Purposive Sampling Purposive sampling, adalah teknik penarikan sampel yang dilakukan untuk tujuan tertentu saja. Misalnya akan melakukan penelitian tentang disiplin pegawai, maka sampel yang dipilih adalah orang yang ahli dalam bidang kepegawaian saja. Sampling Jenuh Sampling jenuh adalah teknik penarikan sampel apabila semua anggota populasi digunakan sebagai sampel. Hal ini sering dilakukan bila jumlah npopuloasi relatif kecil, kurang dari 30 orang. Istilah lain dari sampling jenuh ini adalah sensus, dimana semua anggota populasi dijadikan sampel.

69 Non-probability Sampling Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Non-probability sampling merupakan teknik penarikan sampel yang memberi peluang /kesempatan yang sama bagi setiap unsur atau anggota populasi untuk terpilih menjadi sampel. Teknik sampling ini meliputi: Snowball Sampling Snowball sampling adalah teknik penarikan sampel yang mula-mula dilakukan dalam jumlah kecil (informan kunci) kemudian sampal yang terpilih pertama disuruh memilih sampel berikutnya, yang akhirnya jumlah sampel akan bertambah banyak seperti bola salju yang bergelinding makin lama makin besar. Sampling Seadanya Merupakan pengambilan sampel sebagian dari populasi berdasarkan seadanya data atau kemudahannya mendapatkan data tanpa perhitungan apapun mengenai derajat kerepresesntatipannya. Dalam pembuatan kesimpulan masih sangat kasar dan bersifat sementara. Read more: penelitian.html#ixzz24b4RUCKOhttp://www.4skripsi.com/metodologi-penelitian/teknik-pengambilan-sampel- penelitian.html#ixzz24b4RUCKO Sampling Purposif (sampling pertimbangan) Sampling purposif dikenal juga dengan sampling pertimbangan, terjadi apabila pengambilan sampel dilakukan berdasarkan pertimbangan perorangan atau pertimbangan peneliti. Sampling purposif akan baik hasilnya di tangan seorang akhli yang mengenal populasi. Cara penarikan sampel ini sangat cocok digunakan untuk studi kasus.

70 MENENTUKAN JUMLAH SAMPEL Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Untuk dapat menentukan dengan tepat banyaknya jumlah subyek penelitian yang harus diambil, paneliti harus mengetahui terlebih dahulu apa yang menjadi unit analisis dari penelitian. Unit analisis atau satuan subyek yang dianalisis sangat tergantung pada siapa yang diteliti. Apabila penelitian tentang siswa maka sebagai unit analisis adalah siswa. Besarnya jumlah sampel sering dinyatakan dengan ukuran sampel. Jumlah sampel yang meakili 1oo% populasi adalah sama dengan jumlah populasi. Makin besar jumlah sampel mendekati jumlah populasi maka peluang kesalahan dalam melakukan generalisasi akan semakin kecil, dan sebaliknya makin kecil jumlah sampel penelitian maka diduga akan semakin besar kemungkinan kesalahan dalam melakukan generalisasi. Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam menentukan besarnya sampel adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Unit analisis, 2.Pendekatan atau model penelitian, 3.Banyaknya karakteristik khusus yang ada pada populasi, dan 4.Keterbatasan Penelitian. Untuk jumlah subyek dalam populasi sebanyak 100 sampai 150 subyek, maka jumlah sampel yang diambil sebanyak lebih kurang 25-30%. Besarnya sampel juga diambil dengan menggunakan rumus Cohran sebagai berikut:

71 Teknik pengambilan sampel penelitian Diunduh dari: penelitian.html#axzz24b2ziaLa …. 25/8/2012 Menentukan Anggota Sampel Secara umum terdapat dua teknik sampling, yaitu: (1)teknik probaility, dan (2) teknik non-probability. Teknik sampling probability adalah teknik yang memberi peluang yang sama kepada seluruh anggota populasi untuk dipilih menjadi anggota sampel. Pengambilan sampel secara acak/random dapat dilakukan engan bilangan random, komputer, maupun dengan undian. Apabila pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan undian maka setiap anggota populasi diberi nomor sesuai dengan jumlah populasi. Penarikan sampel dengan cara mencabut satu demi satu nomor yang ada pada kotak undian sampai mencapai jumlah sampel yang telah ditetapkan dengan rumus cohran atau dengan persentase. Mixed Methods Sampling. A TypologyWith Examples Charles Teddlie and Fen Yu Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Volume 1 Number 1, January This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and purposive sampling and the probability-mixed-purposive sampling continuum. Four MM sampling prototypes are introduced: basic MM sampling strategies, sequential MM sampling, concurrent MM sampling, and multilevel MM sampling. Examples of each of these techniques are given as illustrations of how researchers actually generate MM samples. Finally, eight guidelines for MM sampling are presented. Mixed Methods Sampling : 1.Basic Mixed Methods Sampling 2.Sequential Mixed Methods Sampling 3.Concurrent Mixed Methods Sampling 4.Multilevel Mixed Methods Sampling 5.Combination of Mixed Methods Sampling Strategies Diunduh dari: %20Mixed%20Methods%20Sampling%20-%20A%20Typology%20With%20Examples.pdf…. 2/9/2012

72 ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 30: (Volume publication date November 2005) First published online as a Review in Advance on July 25, 2005 DOI: /annurev.energy Thomas Dietz, 1,2 Amy Fitzgerald, 2 and Rachael Shwom Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Values are often invoked in discussions of how to develop a more sustainable relationship with the environment. There is a substantial literature on values that spans several disciplines. In philosophy, values are relatively stable principles that help us make decisions when our preferences are in conflict and thus convey some sense of what we consider good. In economics, the term values is usually used in discussions of social choice, where an assessment of the social value of various alternatives serves as a guide to the best choice under a utilitarian ethic (the greatest good for the greatest number). In sociology, social psychology, and political science, two major lines of research have addressed environmental values. One has focused on four value clusters: self-interest, altruism, traditionalism, and openness to change and found relatively consistent theoretical and empirical support for the relationship of values to environmentalism. The other line of research suggests that environmentalism emerges when basic material needs are met and that individuals and societies that are postmaterialist in their values are more likely to exhibit pro- environmental behaviors. The evidence in support of this argument is more equivocal. Overall, the idea that values, especially altruism, are related to environmentalism, seems well established, but little can be said about the causes of value change and of the overall effects of value change on changes in behavior.

73 Values and Proenvironmental Behavior A Five-Country Survey P. Wesley SchultzP. Wesley Schultz and Lynnette C. ZeleznyLynnette C. Zelezny Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology July 1998 vol. 29 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 This multinational study examined the relationship between values, awareness of the consequences for environmental damage, ascribed responsibility, and proenvironmental behaviors. Survey data were collected from college students in Mexico (n = 187), Nicaragua (n = 78), Peru (n = 160), Spain (n = 187), and the United States (n = 345). Measures included items from Schwartz's values instrument, self-reported proenvironmental behaviors, ascribed responsibility, the New Environmental Paradigm, and demographics. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between items within self-transcendence (especially the environment-oriented items) and proenvironmental behavior in Mexico, Nicaragua, Spain, and the United States. Additional analyses provided partial support for the extension of Schwartz's model of norm- activation to proenvironmental behavior. Braz. J. Biol. vol.62 no.1 São Carlos Feb THE INFLUENCE OF EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS ON THE MACROFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH SALVINIA AURICULATA IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL CALLISTO, M., BARBOSA, F. A. R. and MORENO, P. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

74 An exploratory study of environmental values and beliefs of Japanese adventure tourists in Hawaii. Grybovych, O.Grybovych, O.; Cela, A.; Inui, Y.; Lankford, S. V.Cela, A.Inui, Y.Lankford, S. V. Journal e-Review of Tourism Research 2005 Vol. 3 No. 2 pp e-Review of Tourism Research Diunduh dari: C…. 25/8/2012 Adventure tourism and ecotourism are becoming increasingly popular among travellers over the world. This study identifies the environmental perceptions of a random sample of Japanese (adventure) tourists (n=69) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The modified New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale was utilized to measure environmental perceptions of travellers. Despite the small sample size, the data provided a general socio-demographic profile of Japanese adventure tourists, and their environmental perceptions. Overall, survey respondents expressed high environmental consciousness and understanding of the major ecological concerns (as stated in the NEP scale). Study findings may serve to support resource management decisions for the development of adventure tourism that is believed to become a significant niche market in Hawaii. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF GEOGRAPHY: ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION The way in which an individual perceives the environment; the process of evaluating and storing information received about the environment. It is the perception of the environment which most concerns human geographers because decision-makers base their judgements on the environment as they perceive it, not as it is. The nature of such perception includes warm feelings for an environment, an ordering of information, and an understanding, however subjective, of the environment. The concept of the ‘perceived environment’ has been used to challenge the concept of economic man, which lies at the heart of neoclassical economics and to explain supposedly irrational behaviour, such as moving to a flood- or earthquake-prone location. It is suggested that environmental perception can be seen as a five-stage model: 1. An emotional response. 2. An orientative response with the construction of mental maps. 3. A classifying response as the individual sorts out the incoming information. 4. An organizing response as the individual sees causes and effects in the information. Read more:

75 Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology (2003) 13, 378–392. An international survey of indoor air quality, ventilation, and smoking activity in restaurants: a pilot study Hoy R Bohanon Jr, Jean-Jacques Piadé, Matthias K Schorp and Yves Saint-Jalm Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 During a pilot study of indoor air quality in restaurants, a survey was performed in 34 medium- priced restaurants in six countries in Asia, Europe, and North America using a uniform protocol. The concentration of selected constituents of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in occupied areas was determined during lunch and dinner periods by measuring the levels of four particulate-phase markers and two gas-phase markers. The particulate-phase markers determined were respirable suspended particles, ultraviolet particulate matter, fluorescing particulate matter, and solanesol particulate matter. The gas-phase markers were nicotine and 3- ethenylpyridine (3-EP). Correlation between the markers was investigated to explore an improved monitoring approach. It was concluded that at least one marker in each phase was necessary to describe adequately the ETS load. An assessment was made of the ventilation system in each restaurant, and effective ventilation rates were determined based on CO 2 measurements. Smoking activity was also monitored. These data were used to model nicotine and 3-EP concentrations that resulted in a satisfactory prediction of their levels, especially at the higher concentrations. A total number of 1370 questionnaires were returned by the restaurant patrons in five countries. In some countries, dissatisfaction rates above 20% were observed for draft, freshness of air, and noise. The dissatisfaction rates related to tobacco smoke were less than 20%, which is lower than would be predicted based on measured ETS levels. Based on the results of this international pilot study, recommendations are given for future studies of this type.

76 . QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR IMPROVED ENVIRONMENTAL AND WATER QUALITY Roger Stonner and Horst Goemann Research Association for Agricultural Policy and Agricultural Sociology (FAA), Ferdinand- Lassalle- Strasse 1, D Bonn, Germany, Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 In this paper the design of an approach for quantifying the benefits of changes in water quality due to reduced diffuse pollution is discussed. The approach bases on the contingent valuation (CV) which is a scientifically accepted method to quantify positive external effects such as changes in environmental quality. The analysis is an integral part of the REGFLUD project. Relevant information regarding the relationships and effects of lower nutrient concentrations in surface waters is provided by expert interviews and a study of literature. The results of expert interviews strongly determine the design of the standardised questionnaire to be developed. Since water quality has been significantly improved in the past due to reduced pollution from point sources experts see only little scope for further improvements triggered by a reduction of diffuse pollution. Additionally, the actual incidence of these effects is regarded uncertain due to regionally varying conditions. Considering simultaneously these results on the one hand and the prerequisites of an accomplishment of CV on the other hand suggests the use of salmon population as the indicator to describe an environmental change scenario to respondents. Based on this scenario respondents are asked to express their willingness to pay (WTP). WTP enters a cost-benefit evaluation of measures aiming at a reduction of diffuse pollution.

77 . J Epidemiol Community Health 2005;59: Environmental equity, air quality, socioeconomic status, and respiratory health: a linkage analysis of routine data from the Health Survey for England Benedict W WheelerBenedict W Wheeler, and Yoav Ben-ShlomoYoav Ben-Shlomo Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Study objective: To assess relations between socioeconomic status and local air quality, and combined effects on respiratory health, in the context of environmental and health inequality. Data on people taking part in the Health Survey for England were attributed with a small area index of air pollution using annual mean concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, benzene, and particulates (PM 10 ). Regression models were used to measure associations between social class, air quality, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), and self reported asthma. Participants aged 16–79 in the Health Survey for England 1995, 1996, and Urban lower social class households were more likely to be located in areas of poor air quality, but the association in rural areas was, if anything reversed. Low social class and poor air quality were independently associated with decreased lung function (FEV 1 ), but not asthma prevalence, after adjustment for a number of potential confounders. Social class effects were not attenuated by adjustment for air quality. In men, a differential effect of air pollution on FEV 1 was found, with its effect in social classes III to V about double that in social classes I and II (p value for interaction = 0.04). This effect modification was not seen for women. Further evidence of environmental inequity in the UK is provided. The association between FEV 1 and local air quality is of similar magnitude to that with social class, and the adverse effects of air pollution seem to be greater in men in lower social classes.

78 . Current State of the Science: Health Effects and Indoor Environmental Quality Environ Health Perspect June; 115(6): 958–964. Published online 2007 January 25. doi: /ehp.8987 Clifford S. Mitchell, 1 Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, 2 Torben Sigsgaard, 3 Matti Jantunen, 4 Paul J. Lioy, 5 Robert Samson, 6 and Meryl H. Karol Diunduh dari: health.htm#.UDlUCqA7s1U…. 25/8/2012 Our understanding of the relationship between human health and the indoor environment continues to evolve. Previous research on health and indoor environments has tended to concentrate on discrete pollutant sources and exposures and on specific disease processes. Recently, efforts have been made to characterize more fully the complex interactions between the health of occupants and the interior spaces they inhabit. In this article we review recent advances in source characterization, exposure assessment, health effects associated with indoor exposures, and intervention research related to indoor environments. Advances in source characterization include a better understanding of how chemicals are transported and processed within spaces and the role that other factors such as lighting and building design may play in determining health. Efforts are under way to improve our ability to measure exposures, but this remains a challenge, particularly for biological agents. Researchers are also examining the effects of multiple exposures as well as the effects of exposures on vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly. In addition, a number of investigators are also studying the effects of modifying building design, materials, and operations on occupant health. Identification of research priorities should include input from building designers, operators, and the public health community.

79 . Occurrence of Naturally High Cadmium Levels in Soils and Its Accumulation by Vegetation L. J. Lund, E. E. Betty, A. L. Page and R. A. Elliott JEQ. Vol. 10 No. 4, p Published: Oct, 1981 Diunduh dari: https://www.soils.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/10/4/JEQ …. 25/8/2012 A survey of soils in the Santa Monica Mountains of Los Angeles and Venture Counties, Calif., was conducted to determine the relationship between parent materials and soil Cd contents. Twenty-four series were sampled and analyzed for Cd after digestion in 4N HNO 3. Residual soils developed from shale parent materials had the greatest Cd concentrations, with a mean of 7.5 µg/g, whereas soils developed from sandstone and basalt had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean of 0.84 µg/g. Alluvial soils with parent materials from mixed sources had an intermediate mean Cd content of 1.5 µg/g. A more extensive survey of the dominant soil series of the area was carried out and the Millsholm series, mapped in 30% of the area, was found to have a mean Cd content of 7.3 µg/g. A greenhouse vegetable study conducted with seven soils from the area, representing a range of Cd concentrations, showed that the Cd present naturally in these soils was absorbed by the vegetables in amounts sufficient to be of public health concern.

80 Statistical Evaluation of Effects of Riparian Buffers on Nitrate and Ground Water Quality Timothy B. Spruill JEQ. Vol. 29 No. 5, p Published: Sept, 2000 Diunduh dari: https://www.crops.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/29/5/JEQ …. 25/8/2012 A study was conducted to statistically evaluate the effectiveness of riparian buffers for decreasing nitrate concentrations in ground water and for affecting other chemical constituents. Values for pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), silica, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, and manganese at 28 sites in the Contentnea Creek Basin were significantly higher (p 20 yr) discharging ground water draining areas with riparian buffers compared with areas without riparian buffers. No differences in chloride, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in old ground water between buffer and nonbuffer areas were detected. Comparison of samples of young (<20 yr) discharging ground water samples from buffer and nonbuffer areas indicated significantly higher specific conductance, calcium, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen in nonbuffer areas. Riparian buffers along streams can affect the composition of the hyporheic zone by providing a source of organic carbon to the streambed, which creates reducing geochemical conditions that consequently can affect the chemical quality of old ground water discharging through it. Buffer zones between agricultural fields and streams facilitate dilution of conservative chemical constituents in young ground water that originate from fertilizer applications and also allow denitrification in ground water by providing an adequate source of organic carbon generated by vegetation in the buffer zone. Based on the median chloride and nitrate values for young ground water in the Contentnea Creek Basin, nitrate was 95% lower in buffer areas compared with nonbuffer areas, with a 30 to 35% reduction estimated to be due to dilution and 65 to 70% due to reduction and/or denitrification.

81 . Geophysical Electromagnetic Survey Methods Applied to Agricultural Waste Sites R. A. Eigenberg, R. L. Korthals and J. A. Nienaber JEQ. Vol. 27 No. 1, p Published: Jan, 1998 Diunduh dari: https://www.crops.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/27/1/JEQ …. 25/8/2012 This paper reports the use of electromagnetic (EM) instrumentation for surveying agronomic and waste treatment sites at locations previously profiled by soil coring for evaluation of nutrients in the soil profile. Surveys were made using a geophysical EM instrument capable of measuring conductivity 3 to 6 m below the surface of the ground with horizontal or vertical polarization. Two specific sites were analyzed to evaluate the effects of management practices: (i) An animal waste composting site with one section in use since 1985 and with expanded operation to another section in 1989 and (ii) A waste storage pond (operational in 1973) holding precipitation runoff from a cattle feedlot. Correlation analysis between the EM conductivity measurements and chemical analysis at both sites (concentrations of NH + 4, NO − 3, CL −, and P) show significant (P < 0.05) correlations for the ions while P did not show a significant correlation. The EM measures were able to distinguish the 6-yr-old site from the 10-yr-old site (P < 0.05). The results indicate that EM methods provide useful information for shallow subsurface surveys of livestock waste management facilities.

82 . Plant diversity and generation of ecosystem services at the landscape scale: expert knowledge assessment Sandra Quijas, Louise E. Jackson, Manuel Maass, Bernhard Schmid, David Raffaelli, Patricia Balvanera Journal of Applied Ecology Volume 49, Issue 4, Volume 49, Issue 4, pages 929–940, August 2012 Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012. In spite of the increasing amount of experimental evidence on the importance of plant species richness for ecosystem functioning at local scales, its role on the generation of ecosystem services at scales relevant for management is still largely unknown. To foster research on this topic, we assessed expert knowledge on the role of plant diversity in the generation of services at the landscape scale. We developed a survey that included three levels of organization and seven components of plant diversity; four provisioning, six regulating and four cultural services; as well as three resources and three conditions among key abiotic factors that are likely to provide a contribution to service generation equalling that of plant diversity. Eighty experts in areas of biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services answered the survey. The experts identified species diversity within a community and diversity of communities within the landscape as the most important levels of organization for service generation, both with positive effects. Composition and number of species were considered to be the most relevant components of plant diversity, the latter with a positive effect on services. Water availability was identified as the most important abiotic resource. Our results suggest different approaches to management for sustaining the generation of services at the landscape scale. Provisioning services were perceived as largely influenced by abiotic resources and less so (although positively) by plant diversity. Regulating services were expected to strongly depend on both plant diversity and abiotic factors. A particularly strong positive effect of plant diversity was expected for the generation of cultural services. Some variation in answers could be attributed to expert background. The expert survey generated detailed information and new hypotheses on the relationship between plant diversity and services at the landscape scale. Future research is needed to test these hypotheses, yet the areas of agreement identified in this study can be used immediately, with caution, as synthetic expert knowledge at spatial scales that are relevant for management, to guide technological and policy interventions ensuring the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery.

83 Stakeholder Perceptions of Changing Ecosystem Services Consumption in the Jinghe Watershed: A Household Survey and PRA CAO Xiaochang, ZHEN Lin, YANG Li, LONG Xin, DU Bingzhen, WEI Yunjie [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2011, 2(4): Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 This paper presents cognitive awareness levels of ecosystem services and their consumption by farmers in Guyuan City, which lies in the Jinghe watershed. Household Surveys and Participatory Rural Assessment (PRA) were used to determine differences in farmers cognitive awareness levels. The household survey results showed that farmers have a cognitive awareness of 11 ecosystem services: food supply, air purification, environmental purification, soil and water conservation, clean water supply, natural disaster minimization, increasing income, fuel wood supply, aesthetic recreation, fodder supply and sand stabilization. The job-related requirements of a farmers' daily life, their direct consumption of ecosystem services and the importance of ecosystem services to them all influence their cognitive awareness of ecosystem services. Through group interviews the PRA method can provide the opportunity for information exchange and discussion. The process can help farmers to gain more cognitive awareness of ecosystem services. Large changes in ecosystem services have been observed in the study area. Food production and fuel wood supply have decreased markedly, yet incomes have increased. Spatial and temporal variables, changes in ecosystem services and the level of income all have an impact on farmers' food supply and resource consumption. Overall, the total consumption of food (cereal and potato) and fuel wood declines for most farmers and consumption of vegetables, meat, coals and gas have increased.

84 Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms B. Kelsey JackB. Kelsey Jack, Carolyn Kousky, and Katharine R. E. SimsCarolyn KouskyKatharine R. E. Sims Published online before print July 9, 2008, doi: /pnas PNAS July 15, 2008 vol. 105 no Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Payments for ecosystem services (PES) policies compensate individuals or communities for undertaking actions that increase the provision of ecosystem services such as water purification, flood mitigation, or carbon sequestration. PES schemes rely on incentives to induce behavioral change and can thus be considered part of the broader class of incentive- or market-based mechanisms for environmental policy. By recognizing that PES programs are incentive-based, policymakers can draw on insights from the substantial body of accumulated knowledge about this class of instruments. In particular, this article offers a set of lessons about how the environmental, socioeconomic, political, and dynamic context of a PES policy is likely to interact with policy design to produce policy outcomes, including environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and poverty alleviation. Payments for Environmental Services (PES) Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are one of the tools in the incentive-mechanism box, seeking to "get the incentives right" by supporting and motivating the production of positive externalities in the long run. Most PES schemes have a common basic structural design, in which service beneficiaries (e.g. consumers) pay (through financing and payment mechanisms, cash or in kind) land users for providing environmental services. Figure 1. Operation of PES schemes: a simplified representation Diunduh dari: utPES5.html 3/9/2012

85 A method to assess ecosystem services developed from soil attributes with stakeholders and data of four arable farms Rutgers, M.; Wijnen, H.J. van; Schouten, A.J.; Mulder, C.; Kuiten, A.M.P.; Brussaard, L.; Breure, A.M. Science of the Total Environment 415 (2012). - ISSN p Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Ecosystem-service indicators and related accounting units are crucial for the development of decision frameworks for sustainable land management systems. With a management concept using ecosystem services, land-use expectations can be linked to quantifiable soil features in a defendable and transparent way. A method to define a set of site-specific ecosystem services and indication system for quantification was set-up and run. First, we interviewed a wide group of land users profiting from ecosystem services of the soil at four arable farms in the polder Hoeksche Waard (S-SE of Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Subsequently, site-specific ecosystem services were defined and weighted according to land use expectations at different spatial and temporal scales. Second, a practical set of indicators was taken from 'Best Professional Judgment' and used to quantify the performance of the ecosystem services for these four farms. The indicators were derived from biotic and abiotic soil parameters. The performance of ecosystem services was related to a reference situation (MEP: maximum ecological potential) with the same land use and soil type combination (i.e., arable fields on silt loam) taken from the database of our national soil survey. In many cases, the performance of ecosystem services was relatively poor if compared to MEP. However, the performances of natural attenuation and/or climate-related services were better. In addition, the different management of these farms (i.e. conventional, intensive and organic farming) was reflected in the performance of the ecosystem services of their soils. Third, land management measures to improve the targeted ecosystem services were incorporated in the outlined method, but not worked out with illustrative field data in this study. Together with concordant data, we show opportunities for a quantification of ecosystem services to improve land-users' awareness and to assess management sustainability.

86 . Eco-value level classification and ecosystem management strategy of broad- leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Zheng JZheng J, Jiang F, Zeng DJiang FZeng D The Jour. Of Applied Ecology. 2003, 14(6): ] Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012. To realize the sustainable management of forest ecosystems, we should explicitly clarify the types and differences of the ecosystem services provided by different ecosystems under different conditions, with rethinking about the value of forest ecosystems; then solid management strategies and measurements will be enacted and applied to achieve the objects. The broad-leaved Korean pine forest (BLKPF) in Changbai Mountain is a unique and important forest type in China, owing to its many important ecosystem services such as preventing soil erosion, regulating climates, nutrient cycling, providing wood and non-timber forest products, etc. This paper is a preliminary study on the management strategy of BLKPF on the basis of analyzing the characters of the ecosystems and the relative importance of services they provided in this region. Based on the latest research of ecosystem services of BLKPF in Changbai Mountain, an idea of eco-value level (EVL) was introduced, and accordingly, management strategies were summarized by adopting the advanced theories in ecosystem management science and by analyzing field survey data. EVL means the relative amount of the value of ecosystem services provided by certain ecosystem, which can indicate the difference between services in given objects. The EVL classification of BLKPF implies the relative amount of the eco-value of different ecosystems including virgin forest, secondary forest, forest with human disturbance, and man-made forest in the clear-cutting sites. Analytical Hierarchical Processing method was used to formulate the equation for EVL index. Eight factors, namely, slope, soil depth, stability of soil maternal material, coverage of above- ground canopy, species diversity, regeneration rate of the stand, life span of dominant tree species, and intensity of human disturbance were chosen to build the formula. These factors belonged to three aspects affecting ecosystem services including the physical environment, community, and disturbance regime, and their selection and scaling were based on the previous studies on the BLKPF. The equation of EVL index (EI) was expressed as: EI = 0.542A A A B B B B C1. According to the range of EI, ecosystems were classified into three types: low EVL type with EI from to 1.874, medium EVL type with EI , and high EVL type with EI Typical plots were surveyed and scaled with EI, and the predominant characters of each EVL type were summarized. Most forests of high EVL type were those in sites at high risk of soil erosion and hard to recover after disrupted. Forests of medium EVL type were those with worse community structure and composition, and were disturbed by human activities in relative steep sites. Forest of low EVL type were those in plane site with serious disruption or some young man-made stands. Based on the analyses of the characters of these three types, different management strategies were put forward. For high EVL type forest, strictly protection is most important to maintain the forest in natural succession and its eco-services. For medium EVL type forest, the key points of management are restoring their health and vigor by regulating their composition and structure in a seminatural way. For low EVL type forest, some area could be used to extensive exploration for economic benefits, and the rests should be reconstructed towards the original stand in composition and structure, based on the 'shadow ecosystem' in a close- to-nature way to promote the capacity of providing more eco-services.Korean pinehumanmanhuman man

87 Huan Jing Ke Xue.Huan Jing Ke Xue Mar;26(2):5-10. [Willingness to pay for ecosystem services of urban river in Shanghai]. Zhao JZhao J, Yang K, Tai J, Wu EN.Yang KTai JWu EN Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most dominating and standard techniques for eliciting the willingness to pay (WTP) for the ecosystem services provided by environment and resources. Taking Zhangjiabang Creek, a model project in the comprehensive management of urban river in China, as a case study, 800 payment card CVM questionnaires were surveyed and 646 as useful questionnaires were feed back in August 2003, then, the mean WTP, Yen per person every year in the future 3 years, to the ecosystem services of the urban river was got in the payment card CVM study, and the figure was compared to some other river CVM studies. Distribution shape and range of WTP were probed, and the regression relationship between respondents WTP and their socioeconomic information such as income, education level, donation experience, and environmental attitude was discussed, what's important, an environmental economics explanation was given to the regression results. Some biases which influence the mean WTP of payment card CVM are inspected and corresponding countermeasures were seriously noticed and implemented in the survey. Finally the critiques and controversies that CVM is faced with were advanced, but the reliability of CVM is also given based upon environmental decision- making theory.

88 Measuring Ecosystem Service Benefits: The Use of Landscape Analysis to Evaluate Environmental Trades and Compensation James Boyd and Lisa Wainger April 2003 Discussion Paper Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Ecosystem compensation and exchange programs require benefit analysis in order to guarantee that compensation or trades preserve the social benefits lost when ecosystems are destroyed or degraded. This study derives, applies, and critiques a set of ecosystem benefit indicators (EBIs). Organized around the concept of ecosystem services and basic valuation principles we show how GIS mappings of the physical and social landscape can improve understanding of the ecosystem benefits arising from specific ecosystems. The indicator system focuses on landscape factors that limit or enhance an ecosystem’s ability to provide services and that limit or enhance the expected value of those services. The analysis yields an organized, descriptive, and numerical depiction of sites involved in specific mitigation projects. Indicator- based evaluations are applied to existing wetland mitigation projects in Florida and Maryland in order to practically illustrate the virtues and limitations of the approach

89 Integrating Ecology and Economics for Restoration: Using Ecological Indicators in Valuation of Ecosystem Services Eric T. Schultz, Robert J. Johnston, Kathleen Segerson, Elena Y. Besedin. Restoration Ecology. Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 304–310, May 2012Volume 20, Issue 3, Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Because it can uniquely furnish insights into nonuse values for ecosystem services, survey-based Stated Preference (SP) valuation is widely used to estimate the benefits of ecological restoration. SP surveys ask respondents to select among restoration options yielding different ecological outcomes. This review examines the representation of ecological outcomes in SP studies seeking to quantify values for restoration of aquatic ecosystems. To promote the validity of ecological indicators used in SP valuation, we identified four standards: indicators should be measurable, interpretable, applicable, and comprehensive. We reviewed recent SP studies estimating the value of aquatic ecosystem services to assess whether ecological indicators in current use had these desirable properties. More than half of the 54 indicators reviewed were measurable, meaning referable to potentially precise quantification. About one- third were interpretable, that is, presented in a way that facilitates understanding the effects of restoration. About three quarters of the indicators were applicable; SP valuation practitioners typically consult with natural scientists to ensure that indicators represent the effect of stressors on ecological systems and with focus groups to ensure that indicators have a connection with ecosystem services that contribute to public well-being. While most of the SP studies employed diverse and potentially comprehensive indicators that could capture direct and indirect effects of restoration, and 6 of 20 studies used indicators that met all standards, shortcomings in the indicators were common. These problems can be rectified with attention to how natural scientists measure change and to relationships between restoration outcomes and characteristics of fully restored reference ecosystems.

90 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2011) 21, 197–211 Landscape-epidemiological study design to investigate an environmentally based disease Joseph A Tabor, Mary Kay O'rourke, Michael D Lebowitz c and Robin B Harris c Diunduh dari: …. 25/8/2012 Cost-effective approaches for identifying and enrolling subjects in community-based epidemiological studies face many challenges. Additional challenges arise when a neighborhood scale of analysis is required to distinguish between individual- and group-level risk factors with strong environmental determinants. A stratified, two-stage, cross-sectional, address-based telephone survey of Greater Tucson, Arizona, was conducted in 2002–2003. Subjects were recruited from direct marketing data at neighborhood resolution using a geographic information system (GIS). Three geomorphic strata were divided into two demographic units. Households were randomly selected within census block groups, selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Purchased direct marketing lists represented 45.2% of Census 2000 households in the surveyed block groups. Survey design effect (1.6) on coccidioidomycosis prevalence (88 per 100,000 per year) was substantially reduced in four of the six strata (0.3–0.9). Race–ethnicity was more robust than age and gender to compensate for significant selection bias using poststratification. Clustered, address-based telephone surveys provide a cost-effective, valid method for recruiting populations from address-based lists using a GIS to design surveys and population survey statistical methods for analysis. Landscape ecology provides effective methods for identifying scales of analysis and units for stratification that will improve sampling efficiency when environmental variables of interest are strong predictors.

91 Improvement Opportunities for Growers of Ornamental Plants: A Survey of Landscape Architects M.P. Garber1M.P. Garber1 and K. BondariK. Bondari HortScience December 1992 vol. 27 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 A survey of landscape architects in Georgia was conducted to identify opportunities for nurseries to meet the needs of landscape architects and to improve the quality of installed landscapes. The primary opportunities identified for improvement for growers are to provide regular, frequent plant availability (32% of respondents); develop new plant varieties for specific needs (21%); supply plants that meet specified sizes (20%); recommend plant varieties for specific conditions (12%); provide picture of plants (9%); and make presentations to landscape architects (5%). Additional insight into how growers can help landscape architects achieve a higher quality installed landscape was gained from the question, `What is the most common complaint you experience regarding plant material installed?” Landscape architects indicated that plants below specified size (44%) and plants below specified quality (24%) were the two most common complaints. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes: urban design; site planning; stormwater management; town or urban planning; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.urban designsite planningparks Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of: botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, geology and the earth sciences, environmental psychology, geography, and ecology. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills.botanyfine artsearth sciences infrastructure Diunduh dari: 4/9/2012

92 NANNI, Marcos RafaelNANNI, Marcos Rafael et al. Landscape unit discrimination for pedological surveys by orbital spectral response. Acta Sci., Agron. (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.32, n.3, pp ISSN Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 The objective of this study was compare two soil survey methods. The first was performed by methods traditionally used to distinguish landscape units and soil class discrimination. The second was based on soil class distinction through orbital spectral response. In order to establish soil characteristics and their classification, soil samples were collected at two depths in a grid system, with a distance of 500 meters between points. With these samples, physical and chemical analyses were carried out. In the sampling points, the apparent reflectance of the soil, from the orbital image, was determined and, through cluster analysis landscape units were established. In order to evaluate the resemblance reliability between the landscape units established in each method, the Kappa index was used, the value set for the confusion matrix was 0.43, indicating high quality in the comparison, showing that the non-conventional method was as close as the one carried out by photointerpretation. EXPLORING FOR COPPER DEPOSITS (teacher's guide) M. R. Farr (Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS ) Sumber: Map showing soil sample grid

93 Sampling large landscapes with small-scale stratification † † Jonathan Bart, Leah Dunn, Amy Leist, Laura Sabin The Journal of Wildlife Management Volume 76, Issue 7, Volume 76, Issue 7, pages 1489–1498, September 2012 Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 This study, carried out for the United States Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), demonstrated methods for surveying large landscapes using small-scale, habitat-based stratification, a common problem that has heretofore received little attention. The goal was to design a sampling plan for detecting change in the density of breeding birds of 6 species occurring along the Colorado River around and south of Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. The main problem in designing the study was that the focal species were concentrated in small, irregularly shaped patches of habitat. We partitioned the study area into >15,000 plots configured to enclose the high-quality habitat in the fewest possible plots with the constraint that plots could be surveyed in 1 morning by 1 person. Because of the irregular plot shapes and extremely dense vegetation, we used area searches to carry out the surveys. This is one of the first studies to show how large landscapes can be sampled using small- scale stratification so that effort can be concentrated in the habitats of greatest interest. We used double-sampling, including a large sample of plots surveyed with a rapid method and a subsample of plots surveyed intensively, to estimate detection ratios. A simulation study helped allocate effort between rapid and intensive surveys and indicated that conducting 80 surveys per year would achieve high power to detect a 50% decline occurring during 20 years.

94 LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY E. GIGLIO Annali di Botanica. Vol 6 (2006). p Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology) and “normal data” (physiology) for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation). Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. Landscape ecology tools used at Forest Research Structural tools use land cover data to produce metrics or indicators based on the habitat requirements of focal species. Functional tools use habitat information from the structural tools to model species movement within the connectivity element to produce habitat networks. There is also scope for analysing pattern metrics or spatially explicit population modelling; these are a developing component of our work. Landscape structure Priorities for landscape planners can often be met by measuring changes in the physical attributes of a landscape (the landscape metrics). Previous work in the Landscape Ecology programme identified important differences between different types of wooded landscape in the UK, primarily differences in the grain, which is the spatial scale of variation in vegetation structure. It is often more helpful to analyse landscape structure in terms of the habitat of a particular species, for example: 1.Total area of habitat 2.Mean size of habitat patches 3.Mean inter-patch distance 4.Variation in patch sizes 5.The number of patches linked by a particular piece of new planting. Diunduh dari: …. 4/9/2012

95 Tropical Ecology. 43 (1): 61-74, ISSN Soil survey and mapping using remote sensing M.L.MANCHANDA, M.KUDRAT & A.K.TIWARI Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Soil survey constitutes a valuable resource inventory linked with the survival of life on the earth. The technological advancements in the field of remote sensing and Geo-graphical Information System have been a boon for such surveys. Present paper describes the role of remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies for mapping and characterizing soils at various scales. The spectral behaviour of soil and its components,which is fundamental to deriving information from remote sensing data, is also discussed with illustrations. Furthermore, the scope of present day remote sensing data for varying levels in-formation generation is also reviewed. Scalable soil-landscape models Continuous mapping of soil properties using remote sensing and geophysics (colored image courtesy of Paul Gessler) in combination with probabilistic approaches on the distribution of soil types based on pedological knowledge will provide continuous parameter fields of the subsurface. The spatial heterogeneity of terrestrial systems is a fundamental problem for predicting flow and transport at the scale of catchments scale. The flow paths of water and dissolved chemicals dictate their travel time distribution towards surface waters and their residence times within the unsaturated and saturated zone. They depend on the spatial pattern of soils going along with their specific hydraulic properties. There are no means to measure such properties with a sufficient spatial resolution to identify flow paths in response to the atmospheric boundary conditions. Moreover, each catchment is an individual realization so that knowledge gained at one location is difficult to be transferred to others. Diunduh dari: tion_monitoring/research_topics/scalable_soil_ landscape_models.php 3/9/2012

96 An approach for using soil surveys to guide the placement of water quality buffers Michael G. DosskeyMichael G. Dosskey, Matthew J. Helmers, and Dean E. EisenhauerMatthew J. HelmersDean E. Eisenhauer Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2006 vol. 61 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012. Vegetative buffers may function better for filtering agricultural runoff in some locations than in others because of intrinsic characteristics of the land on which they are placed. The objective of this study was to develop a method based on soil survey attributes that can be used to compare soil map units for how effectively a buffer installed in them could remove pollutants from crop field runoff. Three separate models were developed. The surface runoff models for sediment and for dissolved pollutants were quantitative, based mainly on slope, soil, and rainfall factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and were calibrated using the Vegetative Filter Strip Model (VFSMOD) for a standard buffer design and field management. The groundwater model categorized map units by the presence or absence of suitably-shallow groundwater and hydric conditions for interaction with the root zone of a buffer. The models were applied to a -65 km 2 ) (-25 ml 2 ) agricultural watershed in northwestern Missouri. Data acquisition, calculations, and map production utilized the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO). For surface runoff, soil survey-based values correlated strongly with corresponding VFSMOD estimates for sediment (R 2 = 0.94) and dissolved pollutant trapping efficiency (R 2 = 0.83) for a wide range of soil, slope, and rainfall conditions. A strong negative correlation between trapping efficiency and field runoff load was indicated. Mapped results revealed large differences in buffer capability for surface runoff across the test watershed (21 to 99 percent for sediment and seven to 47 percent for dissolved pollutants). Trapping efficiency for dissolved pollutants was much smaller than for sediment in every map unit. Lower values of trapping efficiency were associated with map units where runoff loads are higher and where a buffer will trap greater loads of sediment, but smaller loads of dissolved pollutants, than in units with higher values. Comparative rankings can be adjusted somewhat for site conditions that depart from the reference conditions, and recalibration may be desired to better account for them. For groundwater, the confluence of hydric conditions and shallow water table occurred only in the highest reaches of the test watershed, but a buffer can also interact with groundwater in most upland and riparian locations due to the prevalence of a seasonally shallow water table. By this approach, soil surveys may be used as a screening tool to guide planners to locations where buffers are likely to have a greater impact on water quality and away from those where impact is likely to be small.

97 Improved indexes for targeting placement of buffers of Hortonian runoff M.G. DosskeyM.G. Dosskey, Z. Qiu, M.J. Helmers and D.E. EisenhauerZ. QiuM.J. HelmersD.E. Eisenhauer Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2011 vol. 66 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Targeting specific locations within agricultural watersheds for installing vegetative buffers has been advocated as a way to enhance the impact of buffers and buffer programs on stream water quality. Existing models for targeting buffers of Hortonian, or infiltration- excess, runoff are not well developed. The objective was to improve on an existing soil survey–based approach that would provide finer scale resolution, account for variable size of runoff source area to different locations, and compare locations directly on the basis of pollutant load that could be retained by a buffer. The method couples the Soil Survey Geographic database with topographic information provided by a grid digital elevation model in a geographic information system. Simple empirical equations were developed from soil and topographic variables to generate two indexes, one for deposition of sediment and one for infiltration of dissolved pollutants, and the equations were calibrated to the load of sediment and water, respectively, retained by a buffer under reference conditions using the process-based Vegetative Filter Strip Model. The resulting index equations and analytical procedures were demonstrated on a 67 km 2 (25.9 mi 2 ) agricultural watershed in northwestern Missouri, where overland runoff contributes to degraded stream water quality. For both indexes, mapped results clearly mimic spatial patterns of water flow convergence into subdrainages, substantiating the importance of size of source area to a given location on capability to intercept pollutants from surface runoff. A method is described for estimating a range of index values that is appropriate for targeting vegetative buffers. The index for sediment retention is robust. However, the index for water (and dissolved pollutant) retention is much less robust because infiltration is very small, compared to inflow volumes, and is relatively insensitive to the magnitude of inflow from source areas. Consequently, an index of inflow volume may be more useful for planning alternative practices for reducing dissolved pollutant loads to streams. The improved indexes provide a better method than previous indexes for targeting vegetative buffers in watersheds where Hortonian runoff causes significant nonpoint pollution.

98 Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of conservation buffer placement strategies in a river basin Z. QiuZ. Qiu, C. Hall and K. HaleC. HallK. Hale Journal of Soil and Water Conservation September/October 2009 vol. 64 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Conservation buffer is a best management practice for repairing impaired streams and restoring ecosystem functions in degraded watersheds. This paper compares the cost- effectiveness of three conservation buffer placement strategies in the Raritan Basin in New Jersey. Three strategies are the fixed-width riparian buffer restoration strategy based on state and local regulatory rules, the variable-width riparian buffer restoration strategy based on a nonregulatory watershed protection initiative and the variable source area—based conservation buffer placement strategy derived from an alternative concept of watershed hydrology. The variable source area—based conservation buffer placement strategy targets the most hydrologically critical source areas in a watershed for buffer placement. A digital elevation model, land use, soil, and stream data are used to identify critical source areas for buffer placement. The results show there are only minor differences in the cost-effectiveness of the fixed- and variable-width riparian buffer restoration strategies and that variable source area- based buffer placement strategy is more cost effective than the fixed- and variable-width riparian buffer restoration strategies. The critical source areas for placing conservation buffers are useful information for local watershed management, soil and water conservation, and land use planning.

99 Erosion probability maps: Calibrating precision agriculture data with soil surveys using logistic regression T.G. MuellerT.G. Mueller, H. Cetin, R.A. Fleming, C.R. Dillon, A.D. Karathanasis, and S.A. ShearerH. CetinR.A. FlemingC.R. DillonA.D. Karathanasis S.A. Shearer Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2005 vol. 60 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Soil surveys provide information about the location of eroded areas across landscapes, but not at a scale that may be necessary for land use planning, precision agriculture, and conservation management. The objective of this paper was to determine whether sitespecific information and logistic regression could be used to improve the spatial resolution of soil surveys. This study was conducted on fragipan soils developed from loess in a western Kentucky agricultural field. Information about the presence and severity of erosion was obtained from a highly detailed first-order soil survey and less detailed second-order county soil surveys. Digital terrain attributes (slope, length-slope factor, wetness), reflectance (visible, red-NIR, and NIR), soil electrical conductivity, and direct contact electrical conductivity were used as regressor variables. Binary variables were assigned a value of one if they were located in eroded map phases and if slope values were greater than or equal to two percent. For all other cases they were assigned values of 0. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to develop models that were used to map probability that substantial soil erosion had occurred in the past. The resulting probability maps were remarkably similar for both survey orders indicating that this approach was robust to soil map unit inclusions and classification errors. Erosion probability maps created using the second order soil survey matched in many cases with the boundaries of the first order survey. Our results demonstrated that precision agriculture technologies and logistic regression analysis could potentially be used to improve the value and utility of existing second order soil surveys. Soil and water conservation, management, and planning will be more effective and economical if these methods can be adapted for soils in other regions of the United States.

100 Identifying critical agricultural areas with three-meter LiDAR elevation data for precision conservation J.C. GalzkiJ.C. Galzki, A.S. Birr and D.J. MullaA.S. BirrD.J. Mulla Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2011 vol. 66 no Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Determining which portions of agricultural landscapes are major sources of pollution within a watershed is time consuming and labor intensive. Small critical areas of the landscape contribute disproportionate amounts of sediment and phosphorus to nearby waterways. Critical areas are defined here as areas of accumulated overland runoff that are hydrologically connected to surface waters. With advancements in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, landscape topography can be represented with highly accurate terrain data. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using LiDAR– based terrain attributes to identify fine-scale critical areas in selected Minnesota watersheds and to analyze cost efficiency of this type of analysis. The LiDAR digital elevation model data were acquired for two south central Minnesota watersheds, and the terrain attributes slope, flow accumulation, and stream power index were calculated with a 3 m (9.8 ft) spatial resolution. Field surveys were conducted in these watersheds along the riparian corridor to identify side inlets and active gullies that contribute to surface water quality degradation. Terrain attributes were able to identify 80% of field- verified gullies in the study watersheds. Furthermore, an even higher percentage of gullies with a high sediment delivery potential were identified using terrain attributes. Gully size was ranked during field surveys, and 31 of the 32 largest gullies ranked in the field were successfully identified with LiDAR–based terrain attributes. In contrast, only 7 of these gullies could be identified using 30 m (98 ft) digital elevation model terrain attributes. The LiDAR approach for identifying critical source areas using terrain attributes has a large potential for cost savings relative to time-consuming field surveys. With an ever-increasing availability of LiDAR data, terrain analysis may prove very useful in the future for targeting best management practices to critical areas for reductions in nonpoint source pollution.

101 The importance of pedological soil survey in land use planning, resource assessment and site investigation E. M. LeeE. M. Lee and J. S. GriffithsJ. S. Griffiths Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications January 1, 1987, v. 4, p Diunduh dari: Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications January 1, 1987, v. 4, p …. 25/8/2012 The ever increasing pressure for infra-structural development in the UK heightens the conflict between the different land use demands placed on an area. This is reflected in the need for planning authorities to assess the relative suitability of potential land uses. Such assessments are important in guiding urban development away from good quality agricultural land. It is manifest that such planning decisions should be made on the basis of a comprehensive review of all relevant factors, and in particular, this includes the pedological soil conditions with their controlling influence on the ability of the land to support different land uses. Past pedological studies have tended to concentrate on the evaluation of land suitability for agricultural uses. However, such studies are also of value when assessing the suitability of other potential uses including, forestry, recreational uses, natural resources or general infrastructure development. In site investigations for infrastructure or resource development pedological studies have a role to play both at the feasibility and detailed investigation stages. During a feasibility study, particularly when used in conjunction with a programme of geotechnical mapping, a pedological approach to the examination of point samples can be an important aid in the determination of the areal extent of engineering soil units. In detailed investigations pedological assessments during pitting operations can determine such items as the depth of topsoil to be removed and stored during stripping, if a profile has developed through in-situ weathering of bedrock or a derived superifical cover and will assist in the identification of poor drainage areas In this paper examples are presented of soil surveys used to assess the suitability of areas for recreational use, urban development and forestry. Also, by comparing the approaches to soil description contained within BS 5930, Code of Practice for Site Investigations (British Standards Institution 1981), and the Soil Survey Field Handbook (Hodgson 1974), some recommendations are made for adopting pedological description techniques in geotechnical site investigations.

102 Abella, Scott R.; Denton, Charles W.; Brewer, D. G.; Robbie, W. A.; Steinke, R. W.; and Covington, W. Wallace, "Using a terrestrial ecosystem survey to estimate the historical density of ponderosa pine trees in northern Arizona" (2010). Faculty Publications (SEPA). Paper 375. Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 The Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey (TES) delineates ecosystems according to their climate, geology, soils, and potential natural vegetation (U.S. Forest Service 1986). Land managers and planners can use this information to help interpret site suitability for natural regeneration, reforestation, and revegetation potential as well as site suitability for road building, range and timber, range structures (watering sources), and other land uses. However, the TES can be used for other purposes as Ganey and Benoit (2002) demonstrated in their report about identifying potential habitat for Mexican spotted owl on national forest lands. Similarly, Bell and colleagues (2009) used the TES and its specific survey units (TESU) to analyze the characteristics of the Woolsey plots in northern Arizona—plots the Forest Service established in the early 1900s to examine tree regeneration. In our study, we identified historic ponderosa pine densities on various TES mapping units and then correlated our findings with what the TESU predicted we should find.

103 A survey of long-term terrestrial ecology studies in Australia K. N. YOUNGENTOB, G. E. LIKENS, J. E. WILLIAMS, D. B. LINDENMAYER. Austral Ecology. Article first published online: 18 JUL 2012 DOI: /j x © 2012 The Authors. Austral Ecology © 2012 Ecological Society of Australia Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Long-term ecological studies (LTES) are critical for understanding and managing landscapes. To identify important research gaps, facilitate collaborations and communicate results, several countries have established long-term ecological research networks. A few initiatives to create such a network in Australia have been undertaken, but relatively few published data exist on the current state of LTES in Australia. In this paper, we present the results of an online survey of terrestrial LTES projects sent to academic, government and non-governmental organization- based researchers across Australia. We asked questions pertaining to the focus, scope, support and outcomes of LTES spanning 7 years or longer. Based on the information reported from 85 Australian LTES, we: (i) identify the biomes, processes and species that are under-represented in the current body of research; (ii) discuss important contributing factors to the successful development and survival of these projects; and (iii) make recommendations to help increase the productivity and influence of LTES across research, management and policy sectors.

104 Sustainable use of ecosystem services under multiple risks – a survey of commercial cattle farmers in semi-arid rangelands in Namibia Roland Olbrich. Martin F. Quaas and Stefan Baumgärtner Working Paper Series in Economics. No number pages. Sept 2009 Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Studying the sustainable use of ecosystem services under uncertainty requires the consideration of the stochastic dynamics of the system under study, risk and time preferences, risk management strategies and normative views pertaining to sustainability. To gather this information for an important ecological-economic system, we conducted a survey of commercial cattle farmers in semi-arid rangelands of Namibia, a system that features risks on various space and time scales. Here we present a description of the research aims, design and conduction of the survey, and analyze and discuss the homogeneity and representativeness of our survey population. The survey consisted of a mail-in questionnaire and in-field experiments. We combined two existing farm-address databases, reaching 77% of the estimated 2,500 cattle farmers. The return rate of questionnaires exceeded 20%, and response rate to individual questions surpassed 95% and 90% for the majority of non-sensitive and sensitive questions, respectively. Distinct sub-sample groups within the survey population did not differ in the analyzed characteristics with the exception of ethnicity, regional location of farmland and an intentionally induced bias for residency on farm. It has turned out that we have undersampled distinct population segments of farmers, such as indigenous farmers or farmers not belonging to the main interest group of commercial cattle farming. Notwithstanding, we consider the survey to be highly successful, yielding a rich dataset which allows diverse analyses.

105 Estimating The Local Economic Benefits Of Riparian Ecosystem Restoration Using Iterated Contingent Valuation Holmes, Thomas P., Bergstrom, John C., Huszar, Eric, Kask, Susan B., Orr, Fritz, III. University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics in its series Faculty Series. Faculty Series 2002 Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 A computerized survey instrument was developed to estimate the economic value of riparian restoration along the Little Tennessee River in western North Carolina. Restoration benefits were described in terms of five indicators of ecosystem services: abundance of game fish, water clarity, wildlife habitat, allowable water uses, and ecosystem naturalness. An iterative sequence of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions were presented to local residents to assess household willingness to pay increased county sales taxes for differing amounts of riparian restoration. Our results showed that the benefits of ecosystem restoration were "super- additive". That is, the total value of conducting many restoration projects exceeded the sum of the value of projects evaluated independently or at too small of a spatial scale. We also estimated the costs of riparian restoration activities by collecting and analyzing data from riparian restoration projects in the study area. After adjusting our estimated valuation function for socio-economic characteristics of the population, the benefit/ cost ratio for riparian restoration throughout the entire watershed was about 2.2 to 1.

106 Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science Milan Chytrý, Joop H. J. Schaminée, Angelika Schwabe. Applied Vegetation Science. Volume 14, Issue 4, pages 435–439, October 2011Volume 14, Issue 4, Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we reflect on the historical development and current state of vegetation survey worldwide and introduce the Special Feature ‘Vegetation Survey’, as well as the new section of the same name in Applied Vegetation Science. The current Special Feature contains eight vegetation survey studies from North America, New Zealand, Europe and Asia. Most of these studies describe diversity of important vegetation types across large areas and some are also innovative from the methodological viewpoint. They illustrate current trends in vegetation survey in different parts of the world and also represent some examples of the type of studies that we wish to publish in the ‘Vegetation Survey’ section in future issues of Applied Vegetation Science. Simpson's Diversity Index A community dominated by one or two species is considered to be less diverse than one in which several different species have a similar abundance. Simpson's Diversity Index is a measure of diversity which takes into account the number of species present, as well as the relative abundance of each species. As species richness and evenness increase, so diversity increases. n = the total number of organisms of a particular species N = the total number of organisms of all species. The value of D ranges between 0 and 1. With this index, 1 represents infinite diversity and 0, no diversity. Diunduh dari: ….. 4/9/2012

107 Marriott, Hollis and Hartman, Ronald L A Survey of the Vegetation of Jewel Cave National Monument. Completion Report, U.W.-N.P.S. Research Center Project. 17+ p. Diunduh dari: jewel-cave-national-monument.htm…. 25/8/2012 Jewel Cave National Monument (hence referred to as JECA) occupied 516 ha on the southwestern edge of the Limestone Plateau area of the Black Hills (Custer Co., South Dakota). Underlain by the resistant Pahasapa limestone (Mississippian), it is characterized by steep topography and deep canyons, with elevations ranging from roughly 1550 to 1750 m above sea level. Ponderosa pine forest dominates the landscape. Much of the forest was logged at least once prior to being incorporated into the Monument during a US Forest Service - National Park Service land swap in the early 1960's. Roughly one quarter section (the "old area") was part of the original Monument and has not been logged. Prior to 1985, studies of the vegetation and flora at JECA were limited to small projects by seasonal staff; this project was carried out to satisfy the need for more thorough baseline information. The primary objectives were two: to compile a flora (a list of vascular plants) of JECA, and to map plant communities present at the time of the study. As well as serving as a baseline for resource management, this information will be useful for above-ground interpretation. Other benefits from the project include an herbarium for the Monument, a wildflower checklist for visitor use, and several specific recommendations for management of the Monument's vegetation and flora.

108 KEGAGALAN-KEGAGALAN DALAM MEMBUAT KUESIONER Diunduh dari: …. 31/8/ Luncuran pertanyaan ganda: Jangan menanyakan satu masalah dalam satu pertanyaan. Contoh, apakah anda sering menyobek buku di perpustakaan selagi tidak ada pengawas yang melihatnya; dan apakah anda juga sering mencoreti buku milik perpustakaan untuk kepentingan penjelasan secara khusus?. 2.Pertanyaan yang mengaahkan: Hindari bentuk pertanyaan seperti ini. Contoh, menurut presiden, kita harus mengencangkan ikat pinggang dalam menghadapi krisis ekonomi yang berkepanjangan ini. Anda setuju, bukan?. Pertanyaan seperti ini biasanya dijawab secara langsung dengan kata ‘setuju’. Bisa dibayangkan bahwa jika semua pertanyaan dijawab dengan setuju. 3.Pertanyaan sensitif: Hati-hati dengan pertanyaan sensitif seperti contoh berikut: Anda pernah melakukan onani?; Anda pernah melakukan hubungan seks sebelum nikah?. Pertanyaan jenis ini termasuk kategori sensitif, bahkan kurang ajar. 4.Pertanyaan yang menakut-nakuti Contoh: Di daerah ini sering terjadi perampokan dan penodongan di malam hari. Dapatkah Anda sebutkan orangnya?; atau, Anda tentu mengetahui peristiwa pembunuhan yang terjadi beberapa waktu lalu di daerah ini, karena anda yang paling dekat dengan tempat kejadian perkara (TKP). Kami datang untuk menyelidikinya, oleh karena itu tolong jawab dengan sejujurnya pertanyaan- pertanyaan kami.

109 Vegetasi (dari bahasa Inggris: vegetation) dalam ekologi adalah istilah untuk keseluruhan komunitas tumbuhan. Vegetasi merupakan bagian hidup yang tersusun dari tumbuhan yang menempati suatu ekosistem. Beraneka tipe hutan, kebun, padang rumput, dan tundra merupakan contoh-contoh vegetasi. Analisis vegetasi biasa dilakukan oleh ilmuwan ekologi untuk mempelajari kemelimpahan jenis serta kerapatan tumbuh tumbuhan pada suatu tempat. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012 SURVEI VEGETASI

110 STREAM BANK VEGETATION SURVEY Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

111 STREAM BANK VEGETATION INFLUENCES 1.The amount of sunlight entering a stream, which controls photosynthesis and stream temperature. 2.Affect stream flow and bank erosion. 3.Important sources of organic material for aquatic organisms. Direct relationship between riparian vegetation and macroinvertebrate community. 4.Act as important buffers between upslope land use and the stream. SEMPADAN SUNGAI Sempadan sungai, terutama di daerah bantaran banjir, merupakan daerah ekologi dan sekaligus hidrologis sungai yang sangat penting. Sempadan sungai tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan badansungainya yaitu "alur sungai", karena secara ekologis dan hidrologis merupakan satu kesatuanekologi yaitu satu ekosistem sungai. Secara hidrologis sempadan sungai merupakan daerahbantaran banjir yang berfungsi "memberikan luapan air banjir ke samping kanan kiri sungai,sehingga kecepatan air ke hilir dapat dikurangi, energi air dapat diredam di sepanjang sungai,serta erosi tebing dan erosi dasar sungai dapat dikurangi secara simultan“ Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012 Tipe umum penampang sungai dan penentuan lebar daerah sempadan sungai (menurut Maryono 2003)

112 PURPOSE OF VEGETATION SURVEY Create a data set that can be used by County and State agencies to monitor riparian buffers in Baltimore County. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

113 TUJUAN SURVEI VEGETASI 1.Access the woody plant diversity of the stream bank a.Density: how many trees b.Which species are present c.Diversity Index 2.Basal Area: % of area covered by trunk of tree 3.Assess canopy closure over the stream Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

114 Getting to know the plants Urban areas often have stands of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants A transect is a designated area in which plant diversity is assessed. This makes the task of identifying all the plants more manageable A permanent transect is placed at each school that has a stream. Long term monitoring site. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 KOMUNITAS VEGETASI Komunitas vegetasi diklasifikasikan dalam beberapa cara menurut kepentingan dan tujuannya. Pada umumnya dan yang banyak disukai ialah klasifikasi berdasarkan: Fisiognomi; Habitat; DAN Komposisi dan dominasi spesies. Struktur Komunitas Vegetasi Studi mengenai struktur dan klasifikasi komunitas tumbuhan dapat juga disebut Fitososiologi. Analisisnya disebut analisis vegetasi, yang terdiri atas analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Analisis kuantitatif komunitas tumbuhan Untuk analisis ada beberapa metode pengambilan sampel, yaitu: 1. Metode kuadrat (Quadrat methode) 2. Metode transek (Transeck methode) 3. Metode loop (Loop methode) 4. Metode titik (Point less/point methode) Metode Transek Transek adalah jalur sempit melintang lahan yang akan dipelajari/diselidiki. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan perubahan vegetasi dan perubahan lingkungan; atau untuk mengetahui jenis vegetasi yang ada di suatu lahan secara cepat. Ada dua macam transek, yaitu transek sabuk dan transek garis. Belt transek merupakan jalur vegetasi yang lebarnya sama dan sangat panjang. Lebar jalur ditentukan oleh sifat-sifat vegetasinya untuk menunjukkan bagan yang sebenarnya. Lebar jalur untuk hutan antara 1-10 m. Transek 1 m digunakan jika semak dan tunas di bawah diikutkan, tetapi bila hanya pohon-pohonnya yang dewasa yang dipetakan, transek 10 m yang baik. Panjang transek tergantung tujuan penelitian. Setiap segment dipelajari vegetasinya. Line transect (transek garis). Dalam metode ini garis-garis merupakan petak contoh (plot). Tanaman yang berada tepat pada garis dicatat jenisnya dan berapa kali terdapat/dijumpai. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012

115 Transect Design in relation to stream reach LeftRight Direction of sampling 180 ft. 30 ft Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

116 Dimensions of Transect 60 feet 30 feet 90 feet 30 feet 15 feet 30 feet Direction of sampling Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

117 Quadrants 60 feet Quad 4 Quad 1Quad 2 Quad 3 30 feet 90 feet Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

118 MEASURING CANOPY TREES Identify the species –Take students to site and collect leaves, fruit, pieces of bark (if you have trouble identifying) –Tree Identification guide –Any field guide to trees Measure all trees in the transect that are larger than 3 inches in diameter. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 How to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover By Diane Bacher, eHow Contributor Tree canopy cover is defined as the area of ground covered by the extension of plant foliage. Determining canopy cover in a forest helps determine the amount of photosynthesis from trees within the forest--which is critical to climate-change and global-warming policies. Canopy cover is also important for the basic international definition of a forest, which, according to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, is land measuring at least 0.5 hectares with 10 percent potential canopy cover and tree height of at least five meters. Instructions Measuring Tree Canopy 1.Lay out a grid of points across the forest floor. Consider whether you are going to measure along a transect line or a grid pattern. When measuring along a transect line, the percentage of canopy cover is calculated as the ratio of the line length where the canopy was measured to the entire length of the transect line. Transect lines should cover the entire plot but can be random or systematically placed. 2.Set up the Cajanus tube at predetermined sample points. A Cajanus tube looks like a periscope, but it has an internal mirror and crosshairs to ensure it points directly up at the canopy. It has a special holder so the tube can hang freely; measurements are taken in a vertical direction. This vertical perspective gives the most accurate measurement. 3.Using a Cajanus tube, make and record a measurement of tree canopy cover at each predetermined point. For each measurement, record 1 if the view is obstructed and 0 if you can view the sky. 4.Canopy cover is the estimated mean of a binomial distribution, also known as a Bernoulli distribution. This type of distribution uses a sample to determine the probability of something occurring across the entire population. In this case, the sample is the transect line or grid of measurements predicting the canopy cover over the entire forest. To arrive at probabilities with low variance, sample points should be measured. Read more: How to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover | eHow.com to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover | eHow.com

119 MEASURING DBH Measure diameter breast height (dbh) using the special measuring tape provided dbh is measured in inches DBH Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree. DBH is one of the most common dendrometric measurements. Tree trunks are measured at the height of an adult's breast, which is defined differently in different countries and situations. In continental Europe, Australia, the UK, and Canada the diameter is measured at 1.3 metres above ground. In The US, New Zealand, Burma, India, Malaysia, and South Africa, breast height diameter is measured at a height of 1.4 metres. Previously 4.5 ft (1.37 m) was used. In many cases the height makes little difference to the measured diameter. Ornamental trees are usually measured at 1.5 metres above ground. Diunduh dari: st_height ….. 28/8/2012 DBH is used in estimating the amount of timber volume in a single tree or stand of trees utilising the allometric correlation between stem diameter, tree height and timber volume. It can also be used in the estimation of the age of veteran trees, given that diameter increment is the only, "constant non-reversible feature of tree growth",

120 ESTIMATING CANOPY CLOSURE OVER STREAM At the water’s edge, hold the densitometer perpendicular to the bank 1 ft. from the shoreline. Hold the densitometer as shown at right. A reading is obtained by leveling both of the densitometer’s bubble levels (centered between the two lines) and then sighting through the instrument so that the sighting marks (dot in the center circle) are aligned. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Crown closure is a term used in forestry Crown closure, also known as canopy cover, crown cover, or canopy closure, is defined as the percent of canopy overlying the forest floor. Another definition of crown closure is the proportion of a stand covered by the crowns of live trees. Crown closure helps predict volume, stand density, crown width, and crown competition factor. Crown closure is often determined using aerial photographs because ground evaluations become difficult to obtain. Stands are usually placed in to different classes (1- 6) after viewing the aerial photographs. Very Sparse 1-9% Sparse 10-29% Low 30-49% Medium 50-69% Dense 70-84% Very Dense % Although sometimes referred to as canopy cover and canopy closure, crown closure is different from these two concepts. Canopy cover represents the aggregate of all vertically projected tree crowns onto the ground surface, while canopy closure represents the amount of the sky obscured by the canopy from a certain point on the ground. Ground measurement Each tree’s measurements are used to calculate the area projected by the crown onto the ground. Summing the crown areas for all trees measured on a fixed plot area and dividing by the ground area will give the crown closure. The "moosehorn" crown closure estimator is a device for measuring crown closure from the ground.crown Other methods for estimating crown closure include the use of line-intercept, spherical densiometer, and hemispherical photography. Exact cover measurements should be made in vertical direction, or the cover percent will be overestimated. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012

121 TransectQuadSpeciesDbhCanopy Cover 0 ft Data Sheet Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

122 TransectQuadspecies# dbh (in)dbh 2 basal areacanopy 0ft_left1tulip American Elm American Elm American Elm maple ft_left tulip muscle wood hornbean139 60ft_left tulip American Elm American Elm American Elm tulip poplar American Elm hickory American Elm ft_left1Ash Ash Tulip Ash ft_left Ash American Elm Ash American Elm Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

123 60ft_right Paw Paw Paw Paw Paw tulip Paw American Elm Buckeye ft_right1beech Buckeye American Elm ft_right1tulip white oak American Elm American Elm ft_right1tulip American Elm American Elm # individuals counted61 Average dbh9 Sum basal area (in 2 ) # pts closed canopy32 % canopy closure67 Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

124 Species Species present# Ind Relative Abundance (pi)ln pipi ln pi Slippery ElmUlmus rubrum American BeechFagus grandifolia Ohio BuckeyeAesculus glabra Tulip treeLiriodendron tulipfera Paw Asimina triloba White oakQuercus alba Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica MusclewoodCarpinus caroliniana MapleAcer rubrum Hop HornbeamOstrya virginiana Bitternut HickoryCarya cordiformis Sums Species Richness 11 Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index1.94 Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

125 Results: Vegetation Sampling Santee Branch Bascom RunHerbert Run BIOL 104ENVSSchmitz/Klein trees/transect BA (in 2 ) % canopy closure Species richness Diversity Index Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012

126 VEGETATION ANALYSIS  Age structure of population  Dominant species  Contribution of leaf litter to stream  Biomass  Productivity Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 ANALISIS VEGETASI HUTAN Analisis vegetasi adalah cara mempelajari susunan dan bentuk vegetasi. Untuk kepentingan deskripsi vegetasi ada tiga macam parameter kuantitatif vegetasi yang sangat penting yang umumnya diukur dari suatu tipe komunitas tumbuhan yaitu: 1. Kerapatan (density) Kerapatan adalah jumlah individu suatu jenis tumbuhan dalam suatu luasan tertentu, misalnya 100 individu/ha. 2. Frekwensi Frekwensi suatu jenis tumbuhan adalah jumlah petak contoh dimana ditemukannya jenis tersebut dari sejumlah petak contoh yang dibuat. Biasanya frekwensi dinyatakan dalam besaran persentase. 3. Cover (Kelindungan) Kelindungan adalah proporsi permukaan tanah yang ditutupi oleh proyeksi tajuk tumbuhan. Oleh karena itu, kelindungan selalu dinyatakan dalam satuan persen. Diunduh dari: …. 28/8/2012

127 Vegetation analysis, phenological patterns and chorological affinities in Wadi Qena, Eastern Desert, Egypt Fawzy M. Salama, Mohamed K. Ahmed, Noha A. El-Tayeh, Sabah A. Hammad. African Journal of Ecology. Volume 50, Issue 2, pages 193–204, June 2012.Volume 50, Issue 2, Diunduh dari: …. 28/8/2012 The present study, which was conducted between 2009 and 2010, provides an analysis of the floristic composition, life forms, phenology, chorological spectrum and analysis of the vegetation in the deltaic part of Wadi Qena using multivariate analysis techniques. Twenty-five stands were sampled to represent, as much as possible, the vegetation variation in the study area. A total of 54 species (nineteen annuals and 35 perennials) belonging to 47 genera and nineteen families were recorded. The largest families were Fabaceae and Brassicaceae (nine and seven, respectively), Asteraceae and Poaceae (six for each), Chenopodiaceae (five), and Zygophyllaceae (four). Therophytes are the predominant life form (37%) followed by chamaephytes (24%), phanerophytes (18.5%), hemicryptophytes (9.29%) and cryptophytes (5.5%). Chorological analysis revealed that Saharo-Arabian (48%) and the Sudano-Zambezian (19.2%) chorotypes constitute the main bulk (67.2%) of the total flora of the studied area. The majority of the perennial species behave similarly to each other in their phenology, and usually perennials sprout at the end of February, become leafy in March, flower in April and produce fruits between April and July. Three main vegetation groups resulted from classification of the dominant vegetation. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that magnesium, potassium and pH were the most effective soil variables.

128 Vegetation Analysis along an Altitudinal Gradient of Juniperus indica forest in Southern Manang Valley, Nepal B.K. Ghimire, H.D. Lekhak, R.P. Chaudhary, Ole R. Vetaas IJED Winter 2008, Volume 9, Number W08. Diunduh dari: …. 28/8/2012 A quantitative vegetative analysis of Juniperus indica forest was done along an altitudinal gradient on southern aspect of U-shaped Manang valley ( m asl), during May-October The study area was divided in to three elevation ranges: m, m and m. Thirty five square quadrats (10 m X10 m) for tree and seventy square quadrats (5 m X 5 m) for shrub/sapling were sampled. Altogether 19 species (3 trees and 16 shrubs) were identified. J. indica was the most dominant tree species in all elevation range. Tree density and basal area showed inverse relation with elevation. Above 3700 m J. indica was found in bushy (scrubby) form so there was no measurable basal area of the tree. Diversity index did not show any specific relation with altitude. Index of dominance indicated that forest was dominated by one or two species and the value of beta diversity showed the more or less homogeneous distribution of the plants in all stands.

129 METODE DAN TEKNIK SURVEI TANAH

130 LINGKUP SURVEI TANAH Purpose Types Methods and Techniques Mapping units Procedures Equipments Description and sampling legends and symbols in soil maps Contents of soil survey reports Interpretation soil information system Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 A Compendium of On-Line Soil Survey Information Compiled by D. G. Rossiter Department of Earth Systems Analysis University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-information Science & Earth Observation Enschede, the Netherlands Soil is the thin skin of the Earth's surface where the atmosphere meets the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and of course the anthrosphere. Soils vary tremendously in their properties and ecological function. The job of soil survey is to map the distribution of the different soil types, describe these types, and interpret the maps in a form that is useful for land management and ecosystem studies. Systematic soil survey has been carried out for over one hundred years. As in other applied sciences, conceptual and technological advances are making soil survey more reliable, cheaper and useful. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012http://www.itc.nl/~rossiter/research/rsrch_ss.html

131 TUJUAN SURVEI TANAH Systematic description and identification of soils properties Soil classification study the pedogenic processes Soil mapping Interpretation for different land uses, including crop suitability, utility, soil management, soil productivity, soil quality,… Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Klasifikasi Tanah Usaha membeda-bedakan dan mengelompokkan tanah berdasarkan sifat- sifatnya Tujuan Mengetahui sifat dan ciri tanah pada masing-masing kelompok tanah (kelas tanah) sehingga memudahkan pengguna tanah untuk mengelola tan ah tersebut agar dapat berproduksi secara optimal Why Classify Soils? 1.Organize knowledge to enable investigation and communication (structure/organization) 2.Provide framework for establishing relationships among soils and their environment (scientific) 3.Establish groupings for interpretations (utilitarian) – Optimal use – Hazard/limitation/remediation assessment – Potential productivity – Framework for technology transfer/information dissemination Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012http://dc366.4shared.com/doc/N3Svf2Wj/preview.html

132 TIPE-TIPE SURVEI TANAH 1.1st order: very intensive (individual sites), <1 ha, 1:15,840 or larger scale 2.2nd order: intensive (general agriculture, urban planning), ha, 1:12,000 -1: 31,680 scale 3.3rd order: intensive (range, community planning), ha, 1:20,000- 1:64,000 scale. 4.4th order: extensive (broad statement,land use potential and land management), ha, 1:64,000 to 1:250,000 scale. 5.5th order:very extensive (region planning), 250-4,000 ha, 1:250,000 to 1:1,000,000 scale. Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Survei Tanah (Bagian I: Kerapatan Pengamatan setiap Survei) by Dr. Ir. Abdul Madjid, MS Berdasarkan intensitas pengamatannya, survei tanah ada 6 tingkatan, yaitu: (1) Bagan, (2) Eksplorasi, (3) Tinjau, (4) Semi Detail, (5) Detail, dan (6) Sangat Detail. Survei Tanah Tingkat Sangat Detail: Survei tanah tingkat sangat detail mensyaratkan pengamatan lapang dengan tingkat kerapatan pengamatan lapangan: 2 titik pengamatan untuk setiap 1 hektar; kisaran skala yang dihasilkan antara: 1 : atau skala yang lebih besar. Pada umumnya skala yang dihasilkan adalah 1 : 5.000; sehingga memiliki luas tiap 1 cm2 pada peta adalah 0,25 hektar; Satuan peta yang diperoleh adalah: Konsosiasi; satuan tanah yang ditampilkan adalah Fase dari Seri. Contoh penggunaan peta tanah ini adalah untuk Perencanaan dan pengelolaan lahan di tingkat petani, penyusunan rancangan usaha tani konservasi; intensifikasi penggunaan lahan kebun. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012

133 METODE SURVEI TANAH Grid sampling (every 200m, or 500m, or larger distance) Transect sampling Random sampling Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland David McGrath, Chaosheng Zhang, Owen T. Carton Environmental Pollution. Volume 127, Issue 2, January 2004, Pages 239–248.Volume 127, Issue 2 Spatial distribution and hazard assessment of soil lead in the mining site of Silvermines, Ireland, were investigated using statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of Pb and other heavy metals were observed. Box–Cox transformation was applied in order to achieve normality in the data set and to reduce the effect of outliers. Geostatistical analyses were carried out, including calculation of experimental variograms and model fitting. The ordinary point kriging estimates of Pb concentration were mapped. Kriging standard deviations were regarded as the standard deviations of the interpolated pixel values, and a second map was produced, that quantified the probability of Pb concentration higher than a threshold value of 1000 mg/kg. These maps provide valuable information for hazard assessment and for decision support.

134 SATUAN PEMETAAN TANAH Definition: a collection of areas defined and named the same in terms of their soil components or miscellaneous area or both. Soil series (or soil types, or soil phase) as a mapping unit in Taiwan rural soils Soil complexes : Two soil series in one mapping unit for detail soil survey (>1:24,000) Soil association : Two soil series in one mapping unit for reconnaissance soil survey (<1:24,000) Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 A pedon is a three-dimensional sample that extends from the soil surface to the deepest roots or genetic soil horizons. The area covered by a pedon varies from square feet, depending on changes in soil properties. Groups of pedons with very similar characteristics that are closely associated in the landscape are called polypedons. Polypedons that have a common set of characteristics that fall within a particular range are referred to as a soil series (Brady and Weil, 1999). Soil series are the basic units used by the U.S.D.A Natural Resources Conservation Service to map soils within the United States. Diunduh dari: 27/8/2012http://www.soilsurvey.org/tutorial/page1.asp

135 PROSEDUR SURVEI TANAH Collect the environmental maps including climate, geology, river, vegetation types, topography, …….. Legands sampling based on different conditions for establish the classification system in survey area. Selections of soil survey methods Lab. preparation on Land units in slopelands or sampling sites in rural soils soil survey in the field and soil maping in the field revised the legand series and soil mapping Publish the soil survey reports and soil maps Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Spatial variability of Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain soil physical properties: Implications for site-specific management Miressa DufferaMiressa Duffera, Jeffrey G. White, Randy Weisz.Jeffrey G. White Geoderma. Volume 137, Issues 3–4, 15 January 2007, Pages 327–339 Map of North Carolina showing the three physiographic regions, location of the study field within the Coastal Plain, and distribution of soil sampling sites within soil map units in the study field.

136 PERLENGKAPAN SURVEI TANAH Spades, shavels, picks, and bars Soil Augers or tubes A pickup truck with a power probe and a tool compartment mounted in the back. A backhoe mounted on the rear of a small tractor A powerful auger mounted on a pickup truck a sampling tube mounted on a pickup truck all-terrain vehicle Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 How to collect a soil sample Your objective is to collect 15 to 20 cores from the area to be sampled (Figure 1). You need to collect more cores per field in a pasture than in a row-crop field because there typically is much more variation in a pasture from manure piles and urine spots. The best approach is to travel across the entire area to be sampled in a zigzag pattern, randomly selecting spots to take a core (Figure 1). Sampling depth is 6 to 7 inches for most objectives in pastures (Figure 2). Do not take too shallow a sample as this will overestimate the soil fertility level in your pasture. Diunduh dari: 27/8/2012http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9215. Figure 1. Obtaining a quality soil sample. Figure 2 Obtaining a 6- to 7-inch core for soil sampling. Discard organic duff on top of soil. Put 6- to 7-inch soil core in sampling bucket. Discard soil below 6 to 7 inches.

137 DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH (PEDON) Environmental conditions including locations, geology, topography, climate, vegetation, parent materials, drainage, stoneness, horizons, samplers, describers, ….. Morphological characteristics of soil pedons including soil color, depth, texture, structure, consistence, mottles, roots, biopores, stone %, other properties, boundary, ………... Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 As you dig down into the ground the soil composition (the way the soil is made up) changes. There are four distinct layers of soil under the leaf litter. Diunduh dari: 27/8/2012

138 INTERPRETASI TANAH Soil management groups National specific-use placements including limitation ratings, suitability rating, …… Local relative placements Interpretive soil properties for soil and crop quality Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Land Evaluation The main activities in a land evaluation are as follows: 1.Initial consultations, concerned with the objectives of the evaluation, and the data and assumptions on which it is to be based 2.Description of the kinds of land use to be considered, and establishment of their requirements 3.Description of land mapping units, and derivation of land qualities 4.Comparison of kinds of land use with the types of land present 5.Economic and social analysis 6.Land suitability classification (qualitative or quantitative) 7.Presentation of the results of the evaluation. The identification and description of the type" of land use which are to be considered is an essential part of the evaluation procedure. Some restrictions to the range of uses relevant for consideration will have been set by the objectives and assumptions. Two situations may be distinguished: 1.The kinds of land use are specified at the beginning of the evaluation procedure. 2.The kinds of land use are broadly described at the beginning and subject to modification and adjustment in accordance with the findings of the evaluation procedure. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012

139 INTERPRETATIVE APPLICATIONS äNational Inventory grouping äLand use planning 4 farmland, rangeland, forest lands, windbreaks, recreation, wildlife habitat, construction materials, building sites, waste disposal, water management, ……... Soil management grouping Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Matching of Land Use with Land Matching represents the essence of the interpretative step following the resources surveys in the land evaluation procedure, and is based on the functional relationships that exist between the land qualities, the possibilities for land improvement and the requirements of the land use. In its simplest form matching is the confrontation of physical requirements of specific crops (or grasses, trees, etc.) with the land conditions to give a prediction of crop performance. Matching becomes more complex when the production factor is complemented by other performance conditioning characteristics of the land utilization type, including non-physical aspects like labour intensity and capital intensity. Among the purposes served by matching are: 1.To check the relevance and refine the descriptions of land utilization types 2.To permit systematic determination of the management and improvement specifications of each land utilization type on each land mapping unit to which it is suited, and thus of the required inputs (in terms of capital, labour, etc.) 3.To estimate the magnitude of the benefits from each land utilization type on each suitable land mapping unit. Diunduh dari: 28/8/2012

140 SISTEM INFORMASI TANAH Use of soil survey information General soil maps Technical reports Automated soil data bases for soil interpretation and computer storage for land planning and soil management Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Mapping Technology Mapping Technology is a combination of the fields of cartography and geographic information systems. The program at Mansfield provides a strong background in map design and compilation as well as a good understanding of data management and an introduction to programming. The curriculum requires courses in map reading and air photo interpretation, remote sensing and GIS as well as the series of cartography courses. Graduates of this relatively new program (established in 2000) work for engineering firms, mapping firms and local and regional government offices. Diunduh dari: study/mapping-technology/…..28/8/2012

141 Soil Maps Scale is 1:25,000 in soil maps Soil type is the mapping unit in rural soils and soil phase in hillland soils and forest soils Relationships of soil series was based on parent material, profile texture, soil reaction, and categories of drainage Diunduh dari: 25/8/2012 Jenis Tanah Tinjau DAS Jeneberang Jenis tanah yang ada di DAS Je’neberang berdasarkan dari data dan peta skala 1 : yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak Bappeda Kabupaten Gowa ada empat jenis yaitu: (1) Aluvial yaitu jenis tanah yang terangkut oleh sungai dan setiap horison pada umumnya bertalihan dengan sejarah pegendapan, (2) Andosol cokelat adalah umumnya berwarna hitam, kerapatan lindak kurang dari 0,85% gr/cm 3, banyak mengandung bahan amorf, atau lebih dari 60% terdiri dari abu vulkanik, (3) Litosol Cokelat Kekuningan yaitu merupakan bagian dari tanah entisol yaitu masih menunjukkan asal bahan induk, dan (4) Komplek mediteran kemerahan dan Latosol yaitu tanah dengan zarah-zarah lempung diendapkan pada horison B (berlempung) dan jenuh dengan basa (>50%). Diunduh dari; 28/8/2012

142 DESIGNING SURVEY Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012

143 METODE SURVEI DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN Soil biota and effects of land use change Effectiveness of extension organisations Market chains for farm produced timber Local knowledge of water management Genetic variation in medicinal trees Livelihood – environment interactions Mechanisms for science influencing policy Participatory assessment of NRM problems Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Investigating variations in quality of life between different localities The quality of life at a national or global scale is measured by the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), devised in the 1980s. The PQLI is the average of three characteristics: Literacy, life expectancy and infant mortality. However, the term is often used in urban studies of towns or cities to represent a multiple index of different criteria that reflects residents' housing standards and the environmental conditions in which they live. Other indicators, such as traffic levels, complete the picture of a particular area. The basic primary data for this investigation is obtained from surveys of land use plus housing condition and environmental quality at various sample sites in chosen areas. The number of locations should be a reflection of the location area (population density) and the amount of time required. There are additional techniques that can be used, as shown in below: 1.General landscape evaluation. Based on gut feelings, for example boring vs. stimulating, ugly versus attractive, crowded versus peaceful, threatening versus welcoming, drab versus colourful. A street quality survey (JPG) can be usedstreet quality survey (JPG) 2.Scale of visual pollution. Scores from zero to three: no pollution - badly polluted. Criteria might include, obviousness of pollution, litter, smalls, state of buildings, impact on surrounding area 3.Index of burgaralibility. Based on penalty points. Absence of burglar alarm, security cameras, metal bars on windows, metal shutters, neighbourhood watch sticker etc 4.Graffiti assessment. Criteria include: size of words, size of pictures, style of writing, visible from, method of writing/inscription, for example pen, paint, etc 5.Physical condition of buildings/index of decay. Range of options; none, little, some, much. Criteria: deterioration of walls, peeling paint, slipped tiles, broken glass, broken gutters, etc 6.Shopping survey. Looks at shopping quality and street appearance. Quality of shops: type, other land use, quality of goods, number of vacant units, etc. Street appearance: safety for pedestrians, crowdedness, street cleanliness, etc DIUNDUH DARI: s/Quality+of+life.htm ….. 28/8/2012

144 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Principles are very widely applicable –you better know what they are! Application depends on possibilities and constraints of the context –know your situation well –be familiar with methods used by others –refer to guides and methods sections of papers BUT… –traditions and common practice can be inefficient or flawed –some of the most innovative and informative research comes from transfer of methods between disciplines Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 An analysis of health levels and various indicators of urban environments for Healthy Cities projects T. Takano, K. Nakamura. J. Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55: doi: /jech Interrelation between the health determinants and the health status. “Health Status” is represented by the health index. “Healthcare resources”, “Preventive activities”, “Environmental quality”, “Housing”, “Urban clutter”, “Education”, “Employment”, “Income”, “Local economy” individually represent health-determinant factors. Fine thread arrows indicate pairs of health determinant indices with statistically significant correlation with Pearson correlation coefficients. Thick thread arrows show relation between health determinant indices and the index of health with Pearson correlation coefficients. (http://jech.bmj.com/content/55/4/263.full)

145 Objectives It all starts here! Infinite variety, but often either: – current state (and change over time) – patterns, associations, differences… But they need to be very clear. Expect to iterate between objectives and study details Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Metode Survei Seringkali kita dihadapkan pada suatu kondisi untuk menerima tugas survei ke suatu tempat sesegera mungkin. Ketika tiba di lokasi yang muncul adalah kebingungan karena tak tahu apa yang harus diperbuat. Hal ini tidak saja terjadi pada mahasiswa. Para peneliti kadangkala belum dapat memilih metode survei yang tepat. Beberapa pertanyaan yang harus kita jawab dari sebuah survei, yaitu: (1) Tentukan tujuan survei; (2) Pahami kondisi budget dan waktu yang dimiliki. Pengamatan Komunitas Pemilihan fokus pada multi species atau single species dapat dijadikan patokan pemilihan metodenya. Mengapa didasarkan pada multi atau spesies tunggal? Pengamatan yang dilakukan pada banyak burung membutuhkan konsentrasi yang berbeda dengan pengamatan hanya pada satu jenis saja. Tujuan mengamati suatu komunitas adalah ‘menangkap’ segala jenis yang ada di suatu lokasi sehingga tergambar kekayaan jenis, tingkat dominansi (kemerataan), serta komposisi jenis burung lokasi tersebut. Diunduh dari: ….. 29/8/2012

146 Two examples 1.Increased elephant damage reported in some villages. Are elephants moving along usual migration routes? 2.Is striga infestation worse when fields are suffering from soil erosion? Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery PNAS August 14, 2007 vol. 104 no Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long- articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (≈1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. Diunduh dari: ….. 29/8/2012

147 UNIT PENELITIAN The items being studied May be several –person, household, village –tree, field, watershed –gene, individual, family, population –farmer, extension officer, project, organisation Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 COSTA, Adriana Monteiro daCOSTA, Adriana Monteiro da et al. DETAILED SOIL SURVEY OF THE HYDROGRAPHIC SMALL WATERSHED OF TERRA DURA (RS) FORESTRY GARDEN AND CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT MAPPING SCALES. Ciênc. agrotec. [online]. 2009, vol.33, n.5, pp ISSN The adequate utilization of information gathered from soil survey furnishes subsides for planning projects on diverse areas of activity, being agricultural or non-agricultural. However, it is being observed an increase of soil maps of hydrographic small watersheds and counties developed from small-scale maps without fieldwork. This practice is not recommended since it can lead to wrong interpretations. So, this work had the objective to perform the detailed soil survey of a hydrographic small watershed situated in Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare the information obtained from the detailed soil survey (1:10,000 scale) to those from the amplified maps of reconnaissance soil survey of that state, (1:750,000 scale) and of the exploratory soil survey (1:1,000,000 scale). The soil mapping units were quantified in terms of geographical expression area and percentage of total area. The detailed soil survey identified 12 soil mapping units in the small watershed, while the amplified soil maps identified only one. In about 40% of the small watershed area, important attributes of forestry suitability for eucalyptus cultivation could not be adequately evaluated from amplified small-scale maps. Diunduh dari: ….. 29/8/2012

148 Problems Don’t confuse: unit(s) which are determined by objective and those you measure – may need to move information to new levels ‘Ecological fallacy’ – trying to make inferences about individuals from measurements on groups The opposite also fails! ‘Modifiable areal unit problem’ : the relationship between X and Y depends on the scale at which they are measured. Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Ecological fallacy : Inferences about the nature of specific individuals are based solely upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong. The Ecological Fallacy is a situation that can occur when a researcher or analyst makes an inference about an individual based on aggregate data for a group. For example, a researcher might examine the aggregate data on income for a neighbourhood of a city, and discoverer that the average household income for the residents of that area is $30,000. To state that the average income for residents of that area is $30,000 is true and accurate. No problem there. The ecological fallacy can occur when the researcher then states, based on this data, that people living in the area earn about $30,000. This may not be true at all, and may be an ecological fallacy. Close examination of the neighbourhood might discover that the neighbourhood is actually composed of two housing estates, one of a lower socio-economic group of residents, and one of a higher socio-economic group. The poorer part of town residents earn on average $10,000 while the more affluent citizens can average $50,000. When the researcher stating that individuals who live in the area earn $30,000 (the mean rate) this did not account for the fact that the average in this example is constructed of two disparate groups, and it is likely that not one person earns $30,000. Assumptions made about individuals based on aggregate data are vulnerable to the ecological fallacy. This does not mean that identifying associations between aggregate figures is necessarily defective, and it doesn't necessarily mean that any inferences drawn about associations between the characteristics of an aggregate population and the characteristics of sub-units within the population are absolutely wrong either. What it does say is that the process of aggregating or disaggregating data may conceal the variations that are not visible at the larger aggregate level, and researchers, analysts and crime mappers should be careful. Diunduh dari: … 31/8/2012

149 POPULATION The complete set of units you wish to study Determined by the domain of the study – the extent of the problem you want the information to apply to Common problem – poorly defined population – not stated but implied by sampling Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 POPULASI PENELITIAN Secara singkat “populasi” adalah : 1.Sekumpulan unsur atau elemen yang menjadi obyek penelitian dan elemen populasi itu merupakan stuan analisis; 2.Sekolompok obyek, baik manusia, gejala, nilai tes, benda atau peristiwa; 3.Semua individu untuk siapa kenyataan-kenyataan yang diperoleh dari sampel itu hendak digeneralisasikan ; 4.Jumlah keseluruhan unit analisis yang ciri-cirinya akan diduga. Dari beberapa pengertian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa : “Populasi” adalah keseluruhan obyek penelitian yang dapat terdiri dari manusia, benda, hewan, tumbuhan, gejala, nilai tes, atau peristiwa; sebagai sumber data yang memiliki karakteristik tertentu dalam suatu penelitian. (Sumber: sciences/education/ populasi-penelitian/#ixzz25KrIzLWE).http://id.shvoong.com/social- sciences/education/ populasi-penelitian/#ixzz25KrIzLWE Populasi Survei Populasi Target merupakan populasi yang telah ditentukan sesuai dengan masalah penelitian. Populasi survei merupakan populasi yang terliput dalam penelitian yang dilakukan. Pada dasarnya, dalam keadaan ideal, populasi target hampirsama dengan populasi survei, tetapi dalam praktek populasi target berbeda dengan survei. (Sumber:

150 Sampling Ada empat hal penting dalam kaitannya dengan sampling: Simple random sampling Stratification Hierarchical (multistage) sampling Systematic sampling Note: good practical sampling schemes will probably use a combination of these Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 SAMPEL Sampel adalah sebagian dari populasi, artinya tidak akan ada sampel jika tidak ada populasi. Populasi meruipakan keseluruhan elemen atau unsur yang akan diteliti. Penelitian yang dilakukan atas seluruh elemen dinamakan sensus. Idealnya, agar hasil penelitiannya lebih dapat dipercaya, seorang peneliti harus melakukan sensus. Namun karena sesuatu hal, peneliti dapat meneliti sebagian dari keseluruhan elemen atau unsur tadi. Syarat sampel yang baik Secara umum, sampel yang baik adalah sampel yang dapat mewakili sebanyak mungkin karakteristik populasi. Dalam bahasa pengukuran, artinya sampel harus valid, yaitu bisa mengukur sesuatu yang seharusnya diukur. Kalau yang ingin diukur adalah masyarakat Sunda sedangkan yang dijadikan sampel adalah hanya orang Banten saja, maka sampel tersebut tidak valid, karena tidak mengukur sesuatu yang seharusnya diukur (orang Sunda). Sampel yang valid ditentukan oleh dua pertimbangan, yaitu Akurasi dan Presisi. Akurasi atau ketepatan, yaitu tingkat ketidakadaan “bias” (kekeliruan) dalam sample. Dengan kata lain makin sedikit tingkat kekeliruan yang ada dalam sampel, makin akurat sampel tersebut. Tolok ukur adanya “bias” atau kekeliruan adalah populasi. Presisi mengacu pada persoalan sedekat mana estimasi kita dengan karakteristik populasi. Presisi diukur oleh simpangan baku (standard error). Semakin kecil perbedaan di antara simpangan baku yang diperoleh dari sampel (S) dengan simpangan baku dari populasi (s), semakin tinggi pula tingkat presisinya. Ukuran sampel Ukuran sampel atau jumlah sampel yang diambil menjadi persoalan yang penting manakala jenis penelitian yang akan dilakukan adalah penelitian yang menggunakan analisis kuantitatif. Pada penelitian yang menggunakan analisis kualitatif, ukuran sampel bukan menjadi nomor satu, karena yang dipentingkan alah kekayaan informasi. Walau jumlahnya sedikit tetapi jika kaya akan informasi, maka sampelnya lebih bermanfaat. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING 2/9/2012

151 Common problems No explicit sampling scheme – bias – subjective results Weak use of stratification – can greatly improve studies to identify relationships Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Menentukan ukuran sampel menurut Slovin Menggunakan rumus : n = ukuran sampel N = ukuran populasi e = persen kelonggaran ketidaktelitian karena kesalahan pengambilan sampel yang masih dapat ditolerir atau diinginkan misalnya 2%. Diunduh dari: af-file.googlecode.com/files/populasi-dan-sampel-.pptx ….. 2/9/2012

152 Stratification to estimate relationships Example: survey to look at ‘market integration’ and relation with poverty. Two variables associated with market integration (mi); distance from main road (d), length of time settled (t) mi dt Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012

153 Quota Types of Sampling Methods Samples Non-Probability Samples Judgement Convinience Probability Samples Simple Random Systematic Stratified Cluster Snow ball Area Purposive

154 Random sampling 1.Most observations clustered around the mean d, hence poor estimate of response Diunduh dari: …af-file.googlecode.com/files/populasi-dan-sampel-.pptx... 2/9/2012 SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING Cara Undian Dengan cara memberikan nomor-nomor pada seluruh anggota populasi, lalu secara acak dipilih nomor-nomor sesuai dgn banyaknya jumlah sampel yang dibutuhkan. Ada dua rancangan cara undian : Pengambilan sampel tanpa pengembalian, yang berarti sampel yang pernah terpilih tidak akan dipilih lagi. Akan menghasilkan nilai probabilitas yang tidak konstan Pengambilan sampel dengan pengembalian, yang berarti sampel yang pernah terpilih ada kemungkinan terpilih lagi. Megnghasilkan nilai probabilitas yang konstan Cara Tabel bilangan random Menggunakan tabel bilangan random (acak), yaitu suatu tabel yang terdiri dari bilangan-bilangan yang tidak berurutan. Secara prinsip, pemakaiannya adalah dengan memberi nomor pada setiap anggota populasi dalam suatu daftar (sample frame) Selanjutnya dipergunakan jumlah digit pada tabel acak dengan digit populasi Pilih salah satu nomor dengan acak, gunakan dua digit terakhirnya, cocokkan dengan nomor pada sample frame. Jika ada yang sama, maka data pada sample frame diambil sebagai anggota sampel.

155 Sample size Should be based on rational analysis –How much variation is there? –How precise do you want the answer to be? Too large – waste of effort Too small – can not meet objectives Software available to help Expect to iterate –make objectives more modest if required sample size too large Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Ukuran sampel Ukuran sampel atau jumlah sampel menjadi hal yang penting apabila penelitian menggunakan analisis kuantitatif. Pada penelitian yang menggunakan analisis kualitatif, ukuran sampel bukan menjadi hal utama, yang dipentingkan adalah kekayaan informasi. Walau jumlah sampel sedikit tetapi jika kaya informasi, maka sampel itu lebih bermanfaat. Dalam kaitannya dengan ukuran sampel, selain tingkat kesalahan, ada beberapa faktor lain yang harus dipertimbangkan, yaitu: (1) derajat keseragaman, (2) rencana analisis, (3) biaya, waktu, dan tenaga yang tersedia. Semakin tidak seragam sifat atau karakter setiap elemen populasi, semakin banyak sampel yang harus diambil. Jika rencana analisisnya mendetail atau rinci maka jumlah sampel harus banyak. Semakin sedikit waktu, biaya, dan tenaga yang dimiliki peneliti, semakin sedikit pula sampel yang dapat diperoleh. Perlu dipahami bahwa apapun alasannya, penelitian haruslah dapat dikelola dengan baik (manageable). Menurut Gay dan Diehl (1992), untuk penelitian deskriptif, sampelnya 10% dari populasi; untuk penelitian korelasional, paling sedikit 30 elemen populasi; untuk penelitian perbandingan kausal, 30 elemen per kelompok, dan untuk penelitian eksperimen 15 elemen per kelompok. Menurut Roscoe (1975) (dalam Uma Sekaran, 1992), pedoman penentuan jumlah sampel : 1.Sebaiknya ukuran sampel di antara 30 s/d 500 elemen 2.Jika sampel dipecah lagi ke dalam subsampel (laki/perempuan, SD?SLTP/SMU, dsb), jumlah minimum subsampel harus 30 3.Pada penelitian multivariate (termasuk analisis regresi multivariate) ukuran sampel harus beberapa kali lebih besar (10 kali) dari jumlah variable yang akan dianalisis. 4.Untuk penelitian eksperimen yang sederhana, dengan pengendalian yang ketat, ukuran sampel bisa antara 10 s/d 20 elemen. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING ….. 2/9/2012

156 Common problems Arbitrary selection of sample size – illegal in other disciplines! ‘Rules’ which have no basis – ‘at least 30 farms for farmer survey’ – ‘10% sample’ – NB. Sample fraction (almost) never relevant 50 from 5000 (=1%) gives same precision as 50 from (=0.01%) Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 KESALAHAN SAMPLING In statistics, sampling error or estimation error is the amount of inaccuracy in estimating some value that is caused by only a portion of a population (i.e. a sample) rather than the whole population. This amount of inaccuracy is commonly referred to as an error.error Sampling error can be measured and quoted in many different ways, but in practice the reported error itself is almost always an estimate of the real error rather than an absolute measure of the error (which would usually require analyzing the entire population). Sampling error is the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. The sampling error can be found by subtracting the value of a parameter from the value of a statistic. Sampling bias is a possible source of sampling errors. It leads to sampling errors which either have a prevalence to be positive or negative. Such errors can be considered to be systematic errors. Diunduh dari: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_error….. 2/9/2-12

157 Sampling and non-sampling errors Sampling error: – Due to not measuring whole population – Described by statistical measures (eg standard error, confidence interval) – Control by statistical methods Non-sampling error Non-response measurement errors inaccurate sampling frame Coding or data entry errors Operator differences – Manage by good survey practice – Make allowance in sample size calculation – NB: larger not always better! Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Definition of 'Non-Sampling Error' A statistical error caused by human error to which a specific statistical analysis is exposed. These errors can include, but are not limited to, data entry errors, biased questions in a questionnaire, biased processing/decision making, inappropriate analysis conclusions and false information provided by respondents. Read more: samplingerror.asp#ixzz25LbLQw6Shttp://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/non- samplingerror.asp#ixzz25LbLQw6S

158 Measurement Focus on objectives, use conceptual frameframe Only measure what you know how to use There are always alternatives – How can you measure maize yield in a farmer’s field? Check how others have done it – many guides and manuals available Pilot EVERY measurement tool Diunduh dari: …www.ruforum.org/.../Surveys/Designing%20S... 25/8/2012 Pengukuran (measurement, disebut juga pengamatan, observasi) adalah prosedur menentukan kualitas atau kuantitas dari karakteristik subjek penelitian yang disebut variabel. Pengukuran variabel merupakan elemen kunci metodologi riset epidemiologi. Pengukuran yang benar terhadap variabel penelitian merupakan prinsip yang tidak dapat dikompromikan dari sebuah riset. Pengukuran variabel menghasilkan sekumpulan nilai atau atribut dari individu- individu yang disebut data. Data dianalisis untuk menghasilkan informasi. Informasi diinterpretasikan dan digunakan oleh pengguna hasil penelitian. Kesalahan dalam pengukuran, disebut “measurement -error”, menghasilkan data yang tidak valid, mengakibatkan hasil-hasil penelitian tidak valid, tidak benar. Kesalahan dalam pengukuran merupakan kesalahan yang sangat serius, jauh lebih serius daripada ukuran sampel (sample size) yang sering dipersoalkan oleh orang-orang yang awam dalam metodologi riset, baik di dalam maupun di luar kampus. Ibarat orang menembak ke sasaran tembak, laras senapan yang digunakan hendaknya lurus, tidak lancung (bengkok). Senapan lancung (measurement error) tidak akan mengenai sasaran dengan benar meski digunakan berkali-kali (ukuran sampel besar). Dikutip dari: VALIDITAS DAN RELIABILITAS PENGUKURAN. ( Prof. dr. Bhisma Murti, MPH, MSc, PhD. Institute of Health Economic and Policy Studies (IHEPS), Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sebelas Maret ).(diunduh dari: fk.uns.ac.id/index.php/download/file/61….2/9/2012)

159 Nonprobability/Nonrandom Sampling atau Sampel Tidak Acak Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012 Jenis sampel ini tidak dipilih secara acak. Tidak semua unsur atau elemen populasi mempunyai kesempatan sama untuk dapat dipilih menjadi sampel. Unsur populasi yang terpilih menjadi sampel dapat disebabkan karena kebetulan atau karena faktor lain yang sebelumnya sudah direncanakan oleh peneliti. Convenience Sampling atau sampel yang dipilih dengan pertimbangan kemudahan. Dalam memilih sampel, peneliti tidak mempunyai pertimbangan lain kecuali berdasarkan kemudahan saja. Seseorang diambil sebagai sampel karena kebetulan orang tadi ada di situ atau kebetulan dia mengenal orang tersebut. Oleh karena itu ada beberapa ahli menggunakan istilah accidental sampling – tidak disengaja – atau juga captive sample (man-on-the-street) Jenis sampel ini sangat baik jika dimanfaatkan untuk penelitian penjajagan, yang kemudian diikuti oleh penelitian lanjutan yang sampelnya diambil secara acak (random). Beberapa kasus penelitian yang menggunakan jenis sampel ini, hasilnya ternyata kurang obyektif.

160 SAMPLING BOLA SALJU SNOWBALL SAMPLING Some populations that we are interested in studying can be hard-to-reach and/or hidden. These include populations such as drug addicts, homeless people, individuals with AIDS/HIV, prostitutes, and so forth. Such populations can be hard-to-reach and/or hidden because they exhibit some kind of social stigma, illicit or illegal behaviours, or other traits that makes them atypical and/or socially marginalised. Snowball sampling is a non-probability based sampling technique that can be used to gain access to such populations. Creating a snowball sample To create a snowball sample, there are two steps: 1.Try and identify one or more units in the desired population 2.Use these units to find further units and so on until the sample size is met Imagine that the population we are interested in are students that download pirate music over the Internet or that take drugs. Let’s go with the latter: students that take drugs. Each student is referred to as a unit Collectively, all student drug users make up our population. However, we are only interested in examining a sample of these student drug users. First, we need to try and find one or more units from the population we are studying (i.e. one unit would be one student that takes drugs). Finding just a small number of individuals willing to identify themselves and take part in the research may be quite difficult, so the aim is to start with just one or two students (i.e. one or two units). Diunduh dari: 2/9/2012 Snowball Sampling – Sampel Bola Salju Cara ini banyak dipakai ketika peneliti tidak banyak tahu tentang populasi penelitiannya. Peneliti hanya tahu satu atau dua orang yang berdasarkan penilaiannya dapat dijadikan sampel. Karena peneliti menginginkan lebih banyak lagi, lalu dia minta kepada sampel pertama untuk menunjukkan orang lain yang kira-kira dapat dijadikan sampel. Misalnya, seorang peneliti ingin mengetahui pandangan kaum lesbian terhadap lembaga perkawinan. Peneliti cukup mencari satu orang wanita lesbian dan kemudian melakukan wawancara. Setelah selesai, peneliti tadi minta kepada wanita lesbian tersebut untuk bisa mewawancarai teman lesbian lainnya. Setelah jumlah wanita lesbian yang berhasil diwawancarainya dirasa cukup, peneliti bisa menghentikan pencarian wanita lesbian lainnya. Hal ini dapat dilakukan pada pencandu narkotik, para gay, atau kelompok-kelompok sosial lain yang eksklusif (tertutup) Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012

161 PURPOSIVE SAMPLING Sampel diambil dengan maksud atau tujuan tertentu. Seseorang atau sesuatu diambil sebagai sampel karena peneliti menganggap bahwa seseorang atau sesuatu tersebut memiliki informasi yang diperlukan bagi penelitiannya. Dua jenis sampel ini dikenal dengan nama judgement dan quota sampling. Judgment Sampling Sampel dipilih berdasarkan penilaian peneliti bahwa dia adalah pihak yang paling baik untuk dijadikan sampel penelitiannya.. Misalnya untuk memperoleh data tentang bagaimana satu proses produksi direncanakan oleh suatu perusahaan, maka manajer produksi merupakan orang yang terbaik untuk bisa memberikan informasi. Jadi, judment sampling umumnya memilih sesuatu atau seseorang menjadi sampel karena mereka mempunyai “information rich”. Dalam program pengembangan produk (product development), biasanya yang dijadikan sampel adalah karyawannya sendiri, dengan pertimbangan bahwa kalau karyawan sendiri tidak puas terhadap produk baru yang akan dipasarkan, maka jangan terlalu berharap pasar akan menerima produk itu dengan baik. (Cooper dan Emory, 1992). Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012 Quota Sampling Teknik sampel ini adalah bentuk dari sampel distratifikasikan secara proposional, namun tidak dipilih secara acak melainkan secara kebetulan saja. Misalnya, di sebuah kantor terdapat pegawai laki-laki 60% dan perempuan 40%. Jika peneliti ingin mewawancari 30 orang pegawai dari kedua jenis kelamin tadi maka dia harus mengambil sampel pegawai laki-laki sebanyak 18 orang sedangkan pegawai perempuan 12 orang. Teknik pengambilan ketiga puluh sampel itu tidak dilakukan secara acak, melainkan secara kebetulan saja.

162 Stratified Random Sampling atau Sampel Acak Distratifikasikan Populasi MEMPUNYAI karakteristik yang heterogen, dan heterogenitas ini mempunyai arti yang signifikan pada pencapaian tujuan penelitian, maka peneliti dapat mengambil sampel dengan cara ini. Misalnya, seorang peneliti ingin mengetahui sikap “Kepala Desa” terhadap suatu kebijakan pengelolaan Lingkungan. Dia menduga bahwa “Kepala Desa” di wilayah pedesaan cenderung positif sikapnya terhadap kebijakan pengelolaan lingkungan tadi. Agar dapat menguji dugaannya tersebut maka sampelnya harus terdiri atas paling tidak para “Kepala Desa” di wilayah pedesaan, perkotaan dan pinggiran kota. Dengan teknik pemilihan sampel secara random distratifikasikan, maka dia akan memperoleh kepala-desa di ketiga wilayah tersebut. Dari setiap stratum tersebut dipilih sampel secara acak. Prosedurnya adalah sbb: 1.Siapkan “sampling frame” 2.Bagi sampling frame tersebut berdasarkan strata yang dikehendaki 3.Tentukan jumlah sampel dalam setiap stratum 4.Memilih sampel kepala-desa dari setiap stratum secara acak. Pada saat menentukan jumlah sampel dalam setiap stratum, peneliti dapat menentukan secara (a) proposional, atau (b) tidak proposional. “Proposional” berarti jumlah sampel dalam setiap stratum sebanding dengan jumlah unsur populasi dalam stratum tersebut. Misalnya, untuk stratum kepala-desa di wilayah pedesaan (I) terdapat 15 orang, di wilayah pinggiran 45 orang (II), dan di wilayah perkotaan (III) ada 100 orang. Artinya jumlah seluruh kepala-desa ada 160 orang. Kalau jumlah sampel yang akan diambil seluruhnya 100 kepala- desa, maka untuk stratum I diambil (15:160)x100 = 9 orang, stratum II = 28 orangh, dan stratum 3 = 63 orang. Jumlah sampel dalam setiap stratum “tidak – proposional”, jika jumlah unsur atau elemen di salah satu atau beberapa stratum sangat sedikit. Misalnya saja, kalau dalam stratum kepala desa strata I hanya ada 4 orang, maka peneliti dapat mengambil semua kepala-desa dalam stratum tersebut, dan untuk kepala-desa stratum II ditambah 5, sedangkan kepala-desa stratum III, tetap 63 orang. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012

163 Cluster Sampling atau Sampel Gugus Teknik ini biasa juga disebut cara pengambilan sampel berdasarkan gugus. Dalam teknik pengambilan sampel acak yang distratifikasikan, setiap unsur dalam satu stratum memiliki karakteristik yang homogen (stratum A : laki-laki semua, stratum B : perempuan semua). Dalam sampel gugus, setiap gugus boleh mengandung unsur yang karakteristiknya berbeda- beda atau heterogen. Misalnya, dalam satu kabupaten terdapat 100 kawasan persawahan. Dalam setiap kawasan sawah terdapat banyak jenis padi dengan karakteristik berbeda. Beda umurnya, beda tingkat produksinya, beda cara penanamannya, beda cara panennya, dan perbedaan-perbedaan lainnya. Jika peneliti bermaksud mengetahui tingkat respon padi terhadap suatu strategi pemupukan yang akan diterapkan oleh petani, maka peneliti dapat menggunakan cluster sampling untuk mencegah terpilihnya sampel hanya dari satu atau dua kaweasan sawah saja. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012 Prosedurnya adalah sbb : 1.Susun sampling frame berdasarkan gugus – Dalam kasus di atas, elemennya ada 100 kawasan sawah. 2.Tentukan berapa gugus yang akan diambil sebagai sampel 3.Pilih gugus sebagai sampel dengan cara acak 4.Teliti setiap pegawai yang ada dalam gugus sample (sampel kawasan sawah).

164 Systematic Sampling atau Sampel Sistematis Jika peneliti dihadapkan pada ukuran populasi yang banyak dan tidak memiliki alat pengambil data secara random, maka dapat digunakan cara pengambilan sampel sistematis. Cara ini menuntut kepada peneliti untuk memilih unsur populasi secara sistematis, yaitu unsur populasi yang dapat dijadikan sampel adalah yang “ke berapa”. Misalnya, setiap unsur populasi yang ke enam, yang dapat dijadikan sampel. Soal “ke berapa” -nya satu unsur populasi dapat dijadikan sampel tergantung pada ukuran populasi dan ukuran sampel. Misalnya, dalam satu populasi hutan jati ada 5000 tegakan (pohon) jati. Sampel yang akan diambil adalah 250 pohon dengan demikian interval di antara sampel ke satu, ke dua, dan seterusnya adalah 25. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012 Prosedurnya sbb: 1.Menyusun sampling frame 2.Menetapkan jumlah sampel yang ingin diambil 3.Menentukan K (kelas interval) 4.Menentukan angka atau nomor awal di antara kelas interval tersebut secara acak atau random – biasanya melalui cara undian saja. 5.Memulai mengambil sampel dimulai dari angka atau nomor awal yang terpilih. 6.Memilih sebagai sampel angka atau nomor interval berikutnya

165 Area Sampling atau Sampel Wilayah Teknik ini dapat digunakan kalau populasi penelitiannya tersebar di berbagai wilayah. Misalnya, seorang penyuluh pertanian lapangan ingin mengetahui tingkat penerimaan petani di Kabupaten Malang atas sebuah program-penyuluhan pertanian, teknik pengambilan sampel dengan area sampling sangat tepat. Prosedurnya adalah: 1.Menyusun sampling frame yang menggambarkan peta wilayah (Kabupaten Malang) – Kecamatan, dan Desa. 2.Menentukan wilayah yang akan dijadikan sampel (Kecamatan mana ?, Desa mana?) 3.Menentukan berapa wilayah yang akan dijadikan sampel penelitiannya. 4.Memilih beberapa wilayah untuk dijadikan sampel dengan cara acak atau random. 5.Kalau ternyata masih terlampau banyak responden yang harus diambil datanya; maka wilayah yang terpilih dapat dibagi lagi menjadi beberapa sub wilayah. Diunduh dari: home.unpar.ac.id/~hasan/SAMPLING…. 2/9/2012 Diunduh dari: se.2006.pdf...2/9/2012

166 METODE SURVEI DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN


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