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Chapter Twelve: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter Twelve: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter Twelve: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito

2 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon2 The easiest kind of relationship is with ten thousand people, the hardest is with one. Joan Baez

3 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon3 Friendship  Interpersonal Relationship  Between Two People  Mutually Productive Microsoft Image

4 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon4  Interpersonal Relationship : saling ketergantungan, bersifat produktif, penghargaan, sikap positif terjadi secara timbal balik.  Interaksi antara 2 orang yg saling mempengaruhi, fokus pada personal, reaksi satu sama lain saling melengkapi, tidak tergantukan oleh orang lain  Mutually produktif: meningkatkan potensi masing2 pihak  Mutual positive regards: kepercayaan, dukungan emosi, berbagi kepentingan & perhatian

5 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon5 Friendship (continued)  Mutual Positive Regard  Closer Friends More Interdependent  Matter of Choice Microsoft Image

6 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon6  Interdependent : tindakan yg satu akan memberi dampak signifikan pd yg lain  Saling ketergantungan, lebih bebas dalam sikap dan perilaku  Kurang dipengaruhi aturan2 dlm masyarakat. Mereka menentukan aturan interaksi  Bebas mengatakan sesuatu tanpa menyinggung perasaan  Matter of choice : memilih teman, sahabat sukarela atas kemauan sendiri-  relationship tradisional -  hub sederhana, tdk ada keistimewaan utk memilih org2 ttt dlm interaksi

7 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon7 Friendship Types  Friendships of Reciprocity are Ideal Types : loyalty,self –sacrifice, mutual affection,generosity  Friendships of Receptivity: imbalance in giving & receivance  Friendships of Association : transitory one Microsoft Image

8 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon8  Tindakan timbal balik : loyal,pengorbanan diri, kasih sayang, kemurahan hati, kebersamaan, saling memberi-menerima, reward dari hubungan  Kemampuan menerima perbedaan -  seseorg sbg pemberi dan yg lain sbg penerima  Association : hubungan singkat, ramah, tidak ada kesetiaan yg besar, kepercayaan, pemberian dan penerimaan, ramah ttp tidak intens

9 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon9 Needs Friendships Serve  Utility : someone who may have special talents,skills, or resources that will prove usefull to you in achieving your spesific goals & needs.  Affirmation: someone who wil affirm your personal value & help you to recognize your attributes  Ego-Support : someone who behaves in a supportive,encouraging, & helpful manner.  Stimulation : someone who introduces you to a new ways of seeing the world & helps you to expand your worldview  Security : someone who does nothing to hurt you Microsoft Image

10 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon10 Friendship and Communication  Depth of Communication Increases  Breadth of Communication Increases  Dynamic Tension Around Revealing Information about Self  Regressions May Pull Friendship Back

11 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon11  Depth : kedalaman topik yg dibicarakan, personal  Breadth : keluasan topik dalam semua bentuk komunikasi  Dynamic : ketegangan yg dinamis memberikan informasi ttg diri kita  ( motivasi dan keinginan) yg saling kontradiktif, dorongan yg saling bertentangan  Kemunduran-  menarik kembali persahabatan ketahap kurang intim

12 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon12 Types of Friendships  Initial Contact and Acquaintanceship  Casual Friendship  Close and Intimate Friendship Microsoft Image

13 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon13  Kontak awal : komunikasi terjaga drpd terbuka/ekspresif, agar tdk menunjukkan aspek2 diri yg akan dipandang negatif, kemampuan empati disesuaikan dan melihat kepantasan, melihat diri terpisah, berbeda, keyakinan yg ditunjukan lebih sbg fungsi daripada persahabatan, interaksi kaku/canggung  Involvement : kesadaran, kebersamaan, komunikasi sbg kesadaran, partisipasi, kualitas interaksi interpersonal yg efektif, ketrebukaan, empati, suportive, perilaku positif, komunikasi timbal balik, melihat kebutuhan & keinginan orang lain  Close/intimate : kesatuan yg eksklusif, dukungan emosi, saling mengenal dng baik ( nilai,opini, sikap), memprediksi perilaku secara akurat, pentingnya manajemen interaksi, membaca isyarat verbal dan non verb secara akurat

14 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon14 Friendship, Culture, and Gender  Friendships Closer in Collectivist Cultures  Women and Men Have Different Types of Friendships Microsoft Image

15 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon15  AS : sulit menjadi teman, budaya individualis  bersaing, mencoba lebih baik dari yg lain, tidak support dalam pengembangan hubungan  Asia, Timur Tengah : mudah menjalin pertemanan dlm budaya kolektivis, kerjasama, kebersamaan, kepentingan kelompok, memelihara hubungan dekat dengan ikatan, hal2 mutlak dlm persahabatan ( pengorbanan)  Gender : mempengaruhi pertemanan : dengan siapa berteman, bagaimana memandang pertemanan  Wanita : ekspresi diri, santai, akrab, komunikasi mnjd dimensi penting, berbagi pengalaman/hobi  Pria : tertutup, kurang akrab, keakraban tdk terlalu penting, pertemanan dibangun mll aktivitas bersama.

16 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon16 Love Types  Eros - Beauty and Sexuality  Ludus - Entertainment and Excitement  Storge - Peaceful and Slow

17 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon17 Love Types (continued)  Pragma - Practical and Traditional  Mania - Elation and Depression  Agape - Compassionate and Selfless

18 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon18 Love  Is a Combination of the Six Types  Changes Across Stages  Different for Different Personality Types

19 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon19 Love in Stages  1 st - Eros,Mania and Ludis  2 nd - Storge  3 rd - Pragma Microsoft Image

20 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon20  Eros : Focuses on beauty & physical  Ludus: entertainment & excitement  Storge: Peaceful & slow  Pragma: Practical & traditional  Mania: elation & depression  Agape: compassionate & selfless

21 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon21  Eros : mementingkan kecantikan/image yg dimiliki. Bila tdk tercapai -  konsekuensi merasa tidak terpenuhi, sensitif terhadap ketidak sempurnaan seseorang  Ludus : hiburan, kegembiraan, tidak serius, tidak mengalami peningkatan emosi, kontrol yg kuat, serangan seksual, mempertahankan partner hanya sepanjang tertarik dan menyenangkan, kesetiaan kurang penting, narsis  Storge : kurang gairah/kekuatan dlm membangun hubungan, berbagi perhatian/aktivitas, perubahan lambat/perlahan  Pragma : praktis, kegunaan, melihat hubungan sbg kerja, perhatian pd kualitas dan kemampuan -  keluarga, latar belakang sangat penting, tergantung pada logika bukan perasaan, memandang cinta spt hubungan yg bermanfaat dan kehidupan lebih mudah-  shg mrk menanyakan ttg pencarian nafkah, peningkatan karier

22 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon22  Mania : kegembiraan, depresi, kadang sangat kuat/lemah, keras/lembut, pecinta mania punya kelainan jiwa  mencintai dng bersemangat tp pd saat yg sama khawatir kehilangan cinta, provokasi, cemburu, obsesive, kontrol, kurang citra diri, nilai hargai diri bersasal dr dicintai -  kepuasan yg dalam. Karena cinta penting -  tanda2 bhy dlm hubungan diabaikan -  percaya jika ada cinta tdk ada msl lain.  Agape : empatik, tdk mencari keuntungan diri, mencintai org yg tdk memiliki ikatan yg kuat/tdk dikenal, cinta yg berkenaan dng roh

23 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon23 Love and Communication  Exaggerate Beloved’s Virtues/Minimize Faults  Share Emotions and Experiences  Share Secrets  Create Personal Idioms

24 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon24 Love and Communication (continued)  Engage in Significant Self-disclosure  Nonverbally Communicate Love  More Eye Contact  Longer Periods of Silence  Become More Aware of Physical Self  Eliminate Taboo Adaptors  More and More Intimate Touch

25 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon25  Membesar-besarkan kehebatan pasangan, meminimalkan kegagalan  Berbagi emosi, pengalaman, tingkat kebaikan luar biasa, ekspresi sopan, komunikasi personal  Berbagi rahasia, menjaga rahasia, memiliki makna hanya dlm hubungan yg khusus  Menggunakan ungkapan personal, pet name ( nama panggilan menunjukan kasih sayang : kata, kalimat, gesture, bhs khusus)  Pentingnya keterbukaan diri, strategi resolusi konflik yg membangun, kesadaran yg tinggi ttg apa yg pantas/tdk utk dikatakan, mengabaikan norma sosial

26 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon26 Love, Culture, and Gender  Asian vs. European  Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures  Differences Between Women and Men Great in the US

27 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon27 Family Defined  Definition is Complex and Changing  Primary Relationship (Two Principal Parties)  Family Denotes Broader Constellation Microsoft Image

28 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon28  Cinta dipengaruhi budaya, gender dan teknologi, budaya-> memandang cinta, tipe cinta yg dicari & dipelihara)  Budaya individualis : menekankan pd cinta romantis, pemenuhan individu  Kolektivis : menyebarkan cinta pd jaringan yg lebih luas  Pria AS : cinta ludic, rendah ( pragma & erotic), kurang melihat ketidakpuasan emosi sbg sesuatu yg penting utlk mmlihara hubungan  Mexico : tenang, perasaan iba/hati2  Wanita Caucasian : mania

29 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon29

30 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Characteristics of Families  Defined Roles  Recognition of Responsibilities  Shared History and Future  Shared Living Space  Established Rules Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon30 Microsoft Image

31 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon31  Pembagian peran yg jelas, setiap bagian sadar akan statusnya apa yg hrs dan layak dilakukan utk menjalankan peran  Sadar akan tugas/tanggung jawab  Berbagi riwayat utk masa depan bersama  Berbagi tempat tinggal -  AS, keluarga mrpk sekumpulan org yg saling terikat, hidup bersama ditempat yg sama  Aturan yg jelas, dibuat & disepakati bersama

32 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon32 Family Types - Primary Relationships  Traditionals  Independents  Separates Microsoft Image

33 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon33  Tradisional : hub saling melengkapi, menghargai, setiap anggota punya peran interupsi, saling merespon, mutual relationship untuk menjaga kelangsungan, makan makanan yg sama, wanita menaruh nama akhir suami setelah menikah, membagi sistem dasar kepercayaan & filosofi hidup, saling bergantung, pengorbanan utk kebaikan hubungan, mempertahankan peran gender sesuai tradisi, jarang peran menimbulkan perselisihan, sedikit konflik krn patuh pd peran  Komunikasi : respon yg tinggi, saling interupsi, senyum, bicara banyak.

34 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon34  Independen : kebenaran individu paling diutamakan  Masing2 individu tidak takut menghadapi konflik utk mempertahankan pendapat  Beresiko disfungsi  sikap frontal dlm menghadapi org lain  Pentingnya identitas pribadi, jadwal utk bersama, menghabiskan waktu dng teman diluar  Komunikasi : konflik terbuka, tanpa takut.  Separates : sedikit waktu utk aktivitas bersama, kedekatan/keterbukaan bukan hal penting, rawan disfungsi.  Equality : pola persamaan : berbagi, persamaan hak/tanggungjawab/kedudukan, peran sama dlm transaksi komunkasi, tingkat kepercayaan sama, memberi kebebasan, komunikasi : terbuka, jujur, langsung, kebebasan, pengambilan keputasan bersama berdasar ide bersama.

35 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon35 Family and Communication  The Equality Pattern  The Balanced Split Pattern  The Unbalanced Split Pattern  The Monopoly Pattern

36 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon36  Equality : pola persamaan : berbagi, persamaan hak/tanggungjawab/kedudukan, peran sama dlm transaksi komunkasi, tingkat kepercayaan sama, memberi kebebasan, komunikasi : terbuka, jujur, langsung, kebebasan, pengambilan keputasan bersama berdasar ide bersama  B Split : anggota punya kewenangan atas setiap bagian yg berbeda  suami mencari nafkah, konflik dipandang tidak mengancam, krn individu punya kewenangan dlm setiap bag yg berbeda  Unbalanced split : seseorg dominan, tdk ad pembagian wilayah kerja, kesempatan yg sama berbagi ide tp ada 1 org pembuat keputusan, pernyataan/opini bebas, power games utk memelihara kontrol, jarang minta opini balik  Monopoli ; pengambilan keputusan didominasi satu org, anggota lain sbg pengikut atas keputusan tnp perduli mrk setuju/tidak

37 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon37 Workplace Relationships  Romantic Relationships  Often Frowned Upon  Often Entail Problems  Would Not Arise in Other Contexts Microsoft Image

38 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon38  Konteks yg mana semua bentuk komunikasi terjadi  Konteks dipengaruhi budaya tempat kerja ; ritual, norma, aturan utk komunikasi  Aturan situasi komunikasi : percakapan ramah/kaku, batas – batas perilaku verbal & nonverbal  Romantic relationship : merugikan, aturan melarang keterlibatan hub yg romantis, larangan informal, tdk tertulis  Office romans : puas, menyenangkan jika hubungan baik dan saling memuaskan (suportiv, kooperatif, ramah). Menimbulkan gossip -  kehancuran

39 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon39 Workplace Relationships  Romantic Relationships  Mentoring Relationships Microsoft Image

40 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon40 Workplace Relationships  Romantic Relationships  Mentoring Relationships  Networking Relationships Microsoft Image

41 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace  Mentoring R : individu membantu org yg kurang pengalaman, mentoring penting utk membangun hirarki, pengembangan ketrampilan, hub yg ideal utk mempelajari lingkungan baru. Hub bersifat mendukung, percaya, timbal balik, terbuka bagi inf, fokus pd pekerjaan  Manfaat bagi mentor : mengklarifikasi pikiran, melihat perspektif pekerjaan pd new comer  Networking : menggunakan org lain utk menyelaikan masalah, menjamin pekerjaan, hub bisa formal ( strategis, sistematis)& informal Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon41

42 Chapter 12: Interpersonal Relationships: Friendship, Love, Family, and Workplace Kekerasan dalam hubungan  Hub produktif & bermakna, tp berpotensi tdk produktif & menghancurkan  Kekerasan verbal, emosi, fisik, seksual  Efek : kerugian fisik dan psikologis  Alternatif /upaya : resolusi konflik yg adil, bukan kontrol/isolasi, bukan intimidasi & kekerasan ekonomi, bukan ancaman, distribusi tanggung jawab yg adil, bukan kekerasan seksual. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon42

43 The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed.


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