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Powerpoint Templates Page 1 Powerpoint Templates Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing (Stephen L. Vargo & Robert F. Lusch) Andang Fazri PPIM.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Powerpoint Templates Page 1 Powerpoint Templates Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing (Stephen L. Vargo & Robert F. Lusch) Andang Fazri PPIM."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Powerpoint Templates Page 1 Powerpoint Templates Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing (Stephen L. Vargo & Robert F. Lusch) Andang Fazri PPIM UI

2 Powerpoint Templates Page 2 Questions / Gaps  Fragmented thought, pertanyaan-pertanyaan tentang masa depan marketing, tuntutan perubahan paradigma, dan kontroversi apakah services marketing merupakan bidang studi lain di luar marketing.  Are these calls for alarm?

3 Powerpoint Templates Page 3 Tujuan Penulisan Menjelaskan evolusi marketing thought dari awal hingga terbentuknya a new dominant logic.

4 Powerpoint Templates Page 4 A Summary of the Evolution Over the Past 100 Years Tabel 1.Tabel 1. School of Thought & Their Influence on Marketing Theory and Practice

5 Powerpoint Templates Page 5 Studi Marketing dari Masa ke Masa  Fokus pada distribution and exchange  Pendekatan pengambilan keputusan dan konsumen  Service marketing  Fokus pada network  New dominant logic, fokus bergeser dari pertukaran tangible goods ke pertukaran intangible, keahlian dan pengetahuan khusus, serta proses.

6 Powerpoint Templates Page 6 Fokus pada Distribusi dan Pertukaran  Fokus pada distribusi dan pertukaran komoditas dan produk manufaktur sebagai fondasi ekonomi (Marshall 1890 reprinted 1927; Shaw 1912; Smith 1776 reprinted 1904).  Mengarahkan attention menuju commodities exchange (Copeland 1920).  Institusi pemasar menyediakan barang dan arrange for possession (Nystrom 1915; Weld 1916).  Fungsi yang harus dilaksanakan adalah memfasilitasi pertukaran barang melalui institusi marketing.

7 Powerpoint Templates Page 7 Fokus pada Pendekatan Pengambilan Keputusan dan Konsumen  Awal 1950-an, functional school mulai berubah menjadi marketing management school dengan pendekatan decision-making untuk mengelola marketing functions dan fokus kepada kastemer (Drucker 1954; Levitt 1960; McKitterick 1957)  McCarthy (1960) dan Kotler (1967) menggambarkan marketing sebagai sebuah aktivitas decision-making untuk mencapai profit melalui kepuasan kastemer, dengan mentarget sebuah pasar dan kemudian membuat keputusan marketing mix (4P) yang optimal

8 Powerpoint Templates Page 8 Fokus pada Pendekatan Pengambilan Keputusan dan Konsumen (lanjutan)  Marketing management berupaya menemukan bauran variabel marketing decision bagi perusahaan yang akan memaksimalkan pencapaian perusahaan, melalui expected behavior of uncontrollable demand variables (Kotler 1972, p.42)

9 Powerpoint Templates Page 9 Fokus pada Services  Awal 1980-an, muncul paradigma standard microeconomic baru, yang berada pada separate lines of thought yaitu di dalam relationship marketing, quality management, market orientation, supply and value chain management, resource management, dan networks.  Mungkin yang paling populer adalah munculnya service marketing sebagai subdisiplin, menyusul keinginan para ahli untuk “break free” (Shostack 1977).  Dari product marketing dan disadarinya kurangnya dominant logic berkaitan dengan service marketing subject matter (Dixon 1990).

10 Powerpoint Templates Page 10 Fokus pada Network / Relationship  Disadarinya kekurangan 4P yang tidak dapat menerangkan marketing sebagai kekuatan untuk berinovasi atau beradaptasi.  Day dan Montgomery (1999), “with growing reservation about the validity or usefulness of the Four P’s concept and its lack of recognition of marketing as an innovating or adaptive force, the Four P’s now are regarded as merely a handy framework”.  Sheth and Parvatiyar (2000, p. 140) suggested that “an alternative paradigm of marketing is needed, a paradigm that can account for the continuous nature of relationships among marketing actors.”

11 Powerpoint Templates Page 11 Fokus Marketing Bergeser dari Tangible ke Intangible  Dominant logic telah bergeser dari pertukaran tangible goods ke pertukaran intangible (specialized skills, knowledge and process) yang mengintegrasi goods dengan services dan menyediakan fondasi yang kuat bagi perkembagngan marketing thought and practice.  Rust (1998, p.107), menekankan pentingnya integrasi goods and services: “The typical service research article documented ways in which services were different from goods.… It is time for a change. Service research is not a niche field characterized by arcane points of difference with the dominant goods management field.”

12 Powerpoint Templates Page 12 Fokus Marketing Bergeser dari Tangible ke Intangible (lanjutan)  The dominant, goods-centered view of marketing not only may hinder a full appreciation for the role of services but also may partially block a complete understanding of marketing in general (see, e.g., Gronroos 1994; Kotler 1997; Normann and Ramirez 1993; Schlesinger and Heskett 1991).  Customers do not buy goods or services: They buy offerings which render services which create value.… The traditional division between goods and services is long outdated. It is not a matter of redefining services and seeing them from a customer perspective; activities render services, things render services. The shift in focus to services is a shift from the means and the producer perspective to the utilization and the customer perspective.

13 Powerpoint Templates Page 13 A Fundamental Shift of Worldview  Figure 1. Eveloving to a New Dominant Logic for marketing Figure 1

14 Powerpoint Templates Page 14 Resources  Pada awanya yang dianggap resources terbatas pada tangible resources.  Malthus (1798) menyebut resources, mengacu kepada natural resources.  Kemudian pada 50 tahun terakhir, resources juga mencakup intangible dan dynamic function of human ingenuity (inventive skills or imagination) dan appraisal.  Perubahan pandangan inilah yang menyebabkan pergeseran menuju new dominant logic.

15 Powerpoint Templates Page 15 Operand Resources  Constantin dan Lusch (1994): Operand resources merupakan resources dimana sebuah operasi atau tindakan dilakukan kepadanya to produce an effect. Sedangkan operant resources, adalah yang digunakan untuk melakukan tindakan kepada operand resources (dan operant resources lainnya).  Goods-centered dominant logic terbentuk pada saat resources utama adalah operand.  Sebagai contoh: perusahaan memiliki faktor produksi (umumnya operand) dan teknologi (operant) yang memiliki kemampuan untuk membantu perusahaan mengubah operand menjadi output dengan biaya rendah.

16 Powerpoint Templates Page 16 Operant Resources  Adalah resources yang menghasilkan effects (Constantin dan Lusch 1994)  Muncul di akhir abad ke-20 ketika manusia menyadari bahwa skills dan knowledge adalah resources yang paling penting.  Ahli ekonomi yang mempelopori perubahan pandangan ini adalah Zimmermann (1951) dan Penrose (1959).  Hunt (2000, p.75): Penrose tidak menggunakan istilah popoler “factor of production”, tapi dia lebih suka menggunakan istilah “collection of productive resources”.

17 Powerpoint Templates Page 17 Operant Resources (lanjutan)  Penrose (1959, p.24-25), “it is never resources themselves that are the ‘input’, to the production process, but only the services that the resources can render”.  Umumnya invisble dan intangible, dynamic dan infinite.  Seringkali merupakan core competence atau organizational processes.  Produce effects, memungkinkan manusia untuk meningkatkan nilai natural resources dan menciptakan operant resources lainnya. Contoh populer operant resource adalah mikroprosesor (ide, knowledge, operant).

18 Powerpoint Templates Page 18 Operant Resources dan Service-centered Dominant Logic  Service-centered dominant logic menganggap operant resources sebagai sumberdaya utama, karena operant meruapakan producers of effects.  Perubahan resources utama ini berimplikasi pada cara exchage processes, markets, persepsi kastemer dan cara pendekatan kepada kastemer  Seringkali merupakan core competence atau organizational processes.  Produce effects, memungkinkan manusia untuk meningkatkan nilai natural resources dan menciptakan operant resources lainnya. Contoh populer operant resource adalah mikroprosesor (ide, knowledge, operant).

19 Powerpoint Templates Page 19 Goods Vs Services Goods Versus Services: Rethinking the Orientation

20 Powerpoint Templates Page 20 Goods-centered View  Pandangan tradisional, marketing terfokus terutama pada operand resources (primarily goods) sebagai unit of exchange.

21 Powerpoint Templates Page 21 Earliest Fragmentation  Sebelum 1960, marketing dipandang sebagai perpindahan kepemilikan barang dan distribusi fisiknya (Savitt, 1990).  Marketing dipandang sebagai “application of motion to matter” (Shaw 1912, p.764).  Literatur marketing jarang menyebut “immaterial products” atau “services” dan ketika itu disebut, hanya sebagai pelengkap “membantu produksi atau pemasaran barang” (Converse 1921, p.vi: see Fisk, Brown, and Bitner 1993).  Fragmentasi berawal ketika Shostack (1977, p.73) menekankan. “The classical ‘marketing mix,’ the seminal literature, and the language of marketing all derive from the manufacture of physical-goods.”

22 Powerpoint Templates Page 22 Dissatisfaction Led to Services  Ketidakpuasan terhadap tidak dilibatkannya services didukung oleh Shaw (1912), Weld (1916).  Meskipun sebenarnya juga ada perbedaan sudut pandang terhadap utilitas dan value seperti Beckman (1957) dan Alderson (1957).  Dixon (1990), “tiap penulis (Bekman dan Alderson) menggunakan konsep yang berbeda tentang value. Beckman berargumen berdasarkan konsep value-in-exchange berdasarkan perhitungannya terhadap value- added pada produk ‘selling value’. Sedangkan Alderson berargumen berdasarkan value-in-use.

23 Powerpoint Templates Page 23 Dissatisfaction Led to Services (lanjutan)  Berdasarkan pendapat Cox (1965), Dixon (1990, p.342) meyakini bahwa, The “conventional view” of marketing as adding properties to matter caused a problem for Alderson and “makes more difficult a disinterested evaluation of what marketing is and does” (Cox 1965). This view also underlies the dissatisfaction with marketing theory that led to the services marketing literature. If marketing is the process that adds properties to matter, then it can not contribute to the production of “immaterial goods.”  Alderson (1957, p.69): yang dibutuhkan bukan interpretasi utilitas yang dibuat oleh marketing, namun interpretasi marketing terhadap seluruh proses penciptaan utilitas.  Dixon (1990, p.342) mendukung pendapat di atas.

24 Powerpoint Templates Page 24 Service-centered View  Memandang marketing sebagai proses sosial dan ekonomi berkesinambungan yang terfokus kepada operant resources yang digunakan perusahaan untuk secara terus menerus menciptakan tawaran pasar yang lebih unggul dibandingkan pesaing.  Perusahaan mempelajari posisi tawaran pasarnya dari feedback yang diberikan pasar yang tergambar pada kinerja keuangan.  Perusahaan dapat mempelajarinya dan membuat tawaran berikutnya yang lebih baik.  oleh karena itu service-centered view menganggap marketing sebagai continous learning process (directed at improving operant resources).

25 Powerpoint Templates Page 25 Service-centered View (lanjutan)  Pandangan ini didasari dan konsisten dengan teori Resource Advantage (Conner & Prahalad 1996; Hunt 2000; Srivastava, Fahey & Christensen 2001) dan core competence theory (Day 1994; Prahalad & Hamel 1990).  Core competences bukan aset fisik, namun merupakan intangible processes; merupakan kesatuan skills dan teknologi (Hamel & Prahalad 1994, p.202)  Core competences sering berupa kegiatan rutin, tindakan, atau operasi yang tidak diungkapkan (tacit), menyebabkan ambigu, dan idiosyncratic (unusual individual reaction), Nelson and Winter 1982; Polanyi 1966.

26 Powerpoint Templates Page 26 Service-centered View (lanjutan)  Pandangan yang menganggap core competence sebagai operant resource didukung oleh: Hunt (2000): as a higher-order resource karena merupakan kumpulan resources dasar; Teece dan Pisano (1994): keunggulan bersaing lahir dari kemampuan dinamis yang mengakar pada kinerja operasional rutin di dalam perusahaan, tertanam dalam proses yang dilakukan, dan dibentuk oleh sejarah perusahaan tersebut.  Fokus marketing pada core competence menempatkan sebagai pusat integrasi fungsi bisnis dan disiplin ilmu.  Channel intermediaries dan network partners juga merupakan core competence.

27 Powerpoint Templates Page 27 Perubahan Strategi  Service-centerd view pada pemasaran adalah customer-centric (Sheth, Sisodia & Sharma 2000), dan market driven (Day 1999).  Lebih dari sekedar consumer oriented, namun merupakan kolaborasi dengan dan belajar dari kastemer dan adaptive terhadap kebutuhan individu dan dinamis mereka.  Bahwa value ditentukan oleh dan cocreated bersama konsumen.  Haeckel (1999) boserved bahwa perusahaan yang sukses berubah dari strategi “make-and- sell” ke strategi “sense-and-respond”.  Day (1999).”...firms are in a process of continual hypothesis generation and testing”

28 Powerpoint Templates Page 28 6 Perbedaan Goods- dan Service-centered View  Tabel 2. Tabel 2.

29 Powerpoint Templates Page 29 8 Foundational Premises (FPs) Help Present the Patchwork of the Emerging Dominant Logic 1.The application of specialized skills and Knowledge is the fundamental unit of exchange 2.Indirect exchange masks the fundamental unit of exchang 3.Goods are distribution mechanism for service provision 4.Knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive advntage 5.All economies are service economies 6.The customer is always a coproducer 7.The enterprise can only make value proposition 8.A service-centered view is customer oriented and relational.

30 Powerpoint Templates Page 30 1.The application of specialized skills And knowledge is the fundamental unit of exchange.  Manusia memiliki 2 operant resources dasar yaitu physical dan mental skills, dimana skill setiap orang tidak sama.  Maka dari itu dibutuhkan spesialisasi keahlian, yang lebih efisien bagi individu dan lingkungannya.  Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh studi Macneil (1980); Smith (1904); Mauss (1990).  Frederic Bastiat (1860) merupakan salah satu ekonom pertama yang menolak bahwa value hanya terkait dengan tangible objek. Dia berpendapat, the foundations of economics were people who have “wants” and who seek “satisfactions.” Although a want and its satisfaction are specific to each person, the effort required is often provided by others.

31 Powerpoint Templates Page 31 1.The application of specialized (lanjutan)  Kemudian Bastiat (1860) mengemukakan, “the great economic law is this: Services are exchanged for services…. It is trivial, very commonplace; it is, nonetheless, the beginning, the middle, and the end of economic science.” He argued (1860, p. 43) the following: “[I]t is in fact to this faculty … to work the one for the other; it is this transmission of efforts, this exchange of services [this emphasis added], with all the infinite and involved combinations to which it gives rise …which constitutes Economic Science, points out its origin, and determines its limits.”  Namun pendapat Bastiat diabaikan dengan berkembangnya value yang sebagai embedded utility or value added seperti yang dikemukakan Marshall (1927) dan Walras (1954)

32 Powerpoint Templates Page 32 1.The application of specialized (lanjutan)  Shostack (1977) argue for a “new conceptual framework, “One unorthodox possibility can be drawn from direct observation of the nature of market “satisfiers” available to it.… How should the automobile be defined? Is General Motors marketing a service, a service that happens to include a by-product called a car? Levitt’s classic “Marketing Myopia” exhorts businessmen to think exactly this generic way about what they market. Are automobiles “tangible services”?  Penulis meyakini bahwa service-centered model yang muncul saat ini sesuai dengan Shostack’s challenge, sejalan dengan argumen Alderson, dan cocok dengan desakan Levitt (1960).

33 Powerpoint Templates Page Indirect exchange masks the fundamental unit of exchange  Peningkatan skala usaha, mengakibatkan diperlukannya mikro-spesialis, dimana orang- orang tidak menghasilkan barang jadi, hanya merupakan bagian dari produk akhir, sehingga pembuat produk sesungguhnya tidak pernah bertemu dengan customer.  Perusahaan pun demikian, produsen menggunakan jasa wholesaler dan retailer untuk memasarkan produk.  Dalam perusahaan seperti ini orang-orang exchange and distribute mikrospesialis skill- nya.

34 Powerpoint Templates Page Goods are distribution mechanism for service provision  Marketing telah bergeser dari distribusi dan saat ini menekankan lebih dari hanya sekedar pertukaran barang.  Produk utama saat ini adalah aplikasi specialized knowledge, mental skills dan physical skills.  Knowledge dan skills dapat ditransfer dengan cara: 1) langsung, 2) melalui pendidikan dan latihan, atau 3) secara tidak langsung dengan menanamkannya di dalam suatu objek.  Komputer membantu pekerjaan manusia, vacuum cleaner mempermudah membersihkan rumah, dsb.  Gutman (1982) Goods merupakan alat untuk menyampaikan services.

35 Powerpoint Templates Page Knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive advantage  Knowledge is composed of propositional knowledge, which is often referred to as abstract and generalized, and prescriptive knowledge, which is often referred to as techniques (Mokyr 2002)  The techniques are the skills and competences that entities use to gain competitive advantage. This view is consistent with current economic thought that the change in a firm’s productivity is primarily dependent on knowledge or technology (Capon and Glazer 1987; Nelson, Peck, and Kalachek 1967)  The use of knowledge as the basis for competitive advantage can be extended to the entire “supply” chain, or service- provision chain.

36 Powerpoint Templates Page Knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive advantage  Evans and Wurster (1997, p.72) state this idea as follows: “The value chain also includes all the information that flows within a company and between a company and its suppliers, its distributors, and its existing or potential customers. Supplier relationships, brand identity, process coordination, customer loyalty, employee loyalty, and switching costs all depend on various kinds of information.” Evans and Wurster suggest that every business is an information business.  The move toward a service-dominant logic is grounded in an increased focus on operant resources and specifically on process management. Webster (1992) and Day (1994) emphasize the importance of marketing being central to cross-functional business processes. To better manage the processes, Moorman and Rust (1999) suggest that firms are shifting away from a functional marketing organization and toward a marketing process organization.

37 Powerpoint Templates Page Knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive advantage  Taking this even further, Srivastava, Shervani, and Fahey (1999, p. 168) contend that the enterprise consists of three core business processes: (1) product development management, (2) supply chain management, and (3) customer relationship management.

38 Powerpoint Templates Page All economies are service economies  Batasan goods dan services menjadi tidak jelas.  The US Government melalui the Economic Classification Policy Committee pada Biro Analisis Ekonomi (1994) mengeluarkan aturan sebagai berikut: [O]ne in the same activity, such as painting, may be classified as goods or service production depending purely on the organization of the overall process of production... If the painting is done by employees within the producer unit [that] makes the good, it will be treated as [part of] the goods production, whereas if it is done by an outside painting company, it will be classified as an intermediate input of services. Thus, when a service previously performed in a manufacturing establishment is contracted out, to a specialized services firm, data will show an increase in services production in the economy even though the total activity of “painting,” may be unchanged.

39 Powerpoint Templates Page All economies are service economies  Services menjadi sangat penting saat ini, menjadi penting pada lingkungan ekonomi yang membutuhkan spesialisasi dan exchange sesuai dengan sistem klasifikasi output manufaktur yng dominan pada aktivitas ekonomi saat ini.

40 Powerpoint Templates Page The Customer is always a coproducer  From a service-centered view of marketing with a heavy focus on continuous processes, the consumer is always involved in the production of value.  Even with tangible goods, production does not end with the manufacturing process; production is an intermediary process. As we have noted, goods are appliances that provide services for and in conjunction with the consumer.  However, for these services to be delivered, the customer still must learn to use, maintain, repair, and adapt the appliance to his or her unique needs, usage situation, and behaviors. In summary, in using a product, the customer is continuing the marketing, consumption, and value-creation and delivery processes.

41 Powerpoint Templates Page The Customer is always a coproducer  Normann and Ramirez (1993, p. 69) state that “the key to creating value is to coproduce offerings that mobilize customers.” Lusch, Brown, and Brunswick (1992) provide a general model to explain how much of the coproduction or service provision the customer will perform.  Oliver, Rust, and Varki (1998) echo and extend the idea of coproduction in their suggestion that marketing is headed toward a paradigm of “real-time” marketing, which integrates mass customization and relationship marketing by interactively designing evolving offerings that meet customers’ unique, changing needs.  Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) note that the market has become a venue for proactive customer involvement, and they argue for co-opting customer involvement in the value- creation process.  In summary, the customer becomes primarily an operant resource (coproducer) rather than an operand resource (“target”) and can be involved in the entire value and service chain in acting on operand resources.

42 Powerpoint Templates Page The enterprise can only make value preposition  Services marketing scholars have been forced both to reevaluate the idea of value being embedded in tangible goods and to redefine the value-creation process.  As with much of the reexamination and redefinition that has originated in the services marketing literature, the implications can be extended to all of marketing. For example, Gummesson (1998, p. 247) has argued that “if the consumer is the focal point of marketing, value creation is only possible when a good or service is consumed. An unsold good has no value, and a service provider without customers cannot produce anything.”  Likewise, Gronroos (2000, pp. 24–25; emphasis in original) states,

43 Powerpoint Templates Page The enterprise can only make value preposition Value for customers is created throughout the relationship by the customer, partly in interactions between the customer and the supplier or service provider. The focus is not on products but on the customers’ value-creating processes where value emerges for customers and is perceived by them,… the focus of marketing is value creation rather than value distribution, and facilitation and support of a value-creating process rather than simply distributing ready-made value to customers. Penulis mendukung pendapat tersebut dan mengatakan bahwa prusahaan hanya dapat mengajukan tawaran nilai dimana perusahaan berusaha agar tawaran tersebut lebih unggul daripada tawaran pesaing.

44 Powerpoint Templates Page A service-centered view is customer oriented dan relational  Interactivity, integration, customization, and coproduction are the hallmarks of a service-centered view and its inherent focus on the customer and the relationship.  Davis and Manrodt (1996, p. 6) approach a service-centered view in their discussion of the customer-interaction process: “It begins with the interactive definition of the individual customers’ problem, the development of a customized solution, and delivery of that customized solution to the customer. The solution may consist of a tangible product, an intangible service, or some combination of both. It is not the mix of the solution (be it product or service) that is important, but that the organization interacts with each customer to define the specific need and then develops a solution to meet the need.

45 Powerpoint Templates Page A service-centered view is customer oriented dan relational  Barabba (1995, p. 14) extends the customer-centric idea to the “integration of the voice of the market with the voice of the enterprise,” and Gummesson (2002) suggests the term “balanced centricity,” concepts that may be particularly compatible with a services-for-services exchange perspective.  writers also suggest that the interactive and integrative view of exchange is more compatible with the other normative elements of the marketing concept, the idea that all activities of the firm be integrated in their market responsiveness and the idea that profits come from customer satisfaction (rather than units of goods sold) (Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990).

46 Powerpoint Templates Page A service-centered view is customer oriented dan relational  In a service-centered model, humans both are at the center and are active participants in the exchange process.  What precedes and what follows the transaction as the firm engages in a relationship (short- or long-term) with customers is more important than the transaction itself. Because a service-centered view is participatory and dynamic, service provision is maximized through an iterative learning process on the part of both the enterprise and the consumer.  The view necessarily assumes the existence of emergent relationships and evolving structure (e.g., relational norms of exchange learned through reinforcement over time; see Heide and John 1992). The service-centered view is inherently both consumer-centric and relational.

47 Powerpoint Templates Page 47 Discussion  Service-centered view challenges marketing to become more than a functional area and to represent one of the firm’s core competences;  it challenges marketing to become the predominant organizational philosophy and to take the lead in initiating and coordinating a market-driven perspective for all core competences.  As Srivastava, Shervani, and Fahey (1999) suggest, marketing must play a critical role in ensuring that product development management, supply chain management, and customer relationship management processes are all customer-centric and market driven.  If firms focus on their core competences, they must establish resource networks and outsource necessary knowledge and skills to the network.  This means that firms must learn to be simultaneously competitive and collaborative (Day 1994), and they must learn to manage their network relationships.

48 Powerpoint Templates Page 48 Conclusion  Fokus marketing telah berubah dari tangibles ke intangibles seperti skills, informasi, dan knowledge, dan menuju interactivity dan connectivity dan ongoing relationship  Orientasi bergeser dari produser ke konsumer  Fokus akademik berubah dari pertukaran benda ke proses pertukaran  Ifokus science berubah dari mekanik ke dinamik, evolutionary development, dan munculnya sistem adaptasi yang kompleks.  Unit of exchange yang sesuai saat ini mungkin adalah aplikasi kompetensi, atau spesialisasi knowledge dan skills yang memberikan benefit kepada penerima.  Operant resource di atas intangible, continuous dan dinamik.


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