Open Source Vs Free Software Founder Prize Motivation Enemy Free Software Opensource
History of Open Source In the mid 1990s, Open Source Initiative (OSI) is founded by Eric S. Raymond as Reaction of Free Software. Open source software is an evolution of the Free Software movement of the 1980s. Raymond and the OSI realise that there are more persuasive advantages inherent in the use and development of Free Software than the less quantifiable advantages based in concepts of morality.
History of Free Software Founded by Richard Stallman, an engineer at MIT"s AI Laboratory, the Free Software movement was meant to create, from the ground up, a free Unix equivalent called GNU ("GNU"s not Unix"). While it never achieved this lofty goal, Stallman"s Free Software Foundation (FSF) produced the widely used GNU General Public License for free software (GPL), as well as a number of useful utilities which were instrumental in the creation of the free operating system called Linux.
Founding Fathers of Free SW and Open Source Richard StallmanEric S. Raymond
What is Free Software Kebebasan untuk menjalankan programnya untuk tujuan apa saja Kebebasan untuk mempelajari bagaimana program itu bekerja serta dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan Anda. Akses pada kode program merupakan suatu prasyarat. Kebebasan untuk menyebarluaskan kembali hasil salinan perangkat lunak tersebut sehingga dapat membantu sesama Anda. Kebebasan untuk meningkatkan kinerja program, dan dapat menyebarkannya ke khalayak umum sehingga semua menikmati keuntungannya. Akses pada kode program merupakan suatu prasyarat juga. Focused on user rights
What is Open Source “The basic idea behind open source is very simple: When programmers can read, redistribute, and modify the source code for a piece of software, the software evolves. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. And this can happen at a speed that, if one is used to the slow pace of conventional software development, seems astonishing.” Focused more on programmers and development method
Open Source Methodology Open Source methodology is described as a highly decentralized development system, enabled by the Internet. By a common versioning control system, developers over the whole world can keep their local copy of the source code and develop on their workstation. When they have a feature that they want to add, or a bug they have a fix for, they send a request to the maintainer to include the new code into the source code tree. The maintainer acts as a relay for approving additions to the source code, in large projects there might be multiple levels of maintainers, each responsible for a certain part of the code
Open Source Methodology [cont.] - Distributed Development via Internet - Program is released including source code - Users use software, notice missing features and bugs - Programming savvy users add features and fix bugs - Users then release own changes with source code - Cycle repeats
Strengths of the OSS model Exponential growth of the Internet Cumulative IQ Parallel development Parallel debugging Communication with downstream developers Easiness to contribute
Exponential growth of the Internet Open source projects developers rely on the Internet to communicate and exchange the source code of the programmes. As the penetration of the Internet grows exponentially, more and more people around the world are possible contributors to open source projects.
Cumulative IQ The development of open source software is not centralised. No specific group or individual is assigned a precise task. When a problem has to be addressed anyone can try to solve it. The parallel development helps choose the best solution to a problem and increases the creativity involved in a project.
Parallel debugging “Given a large enough beta-tester and co- developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone” (Raymond, Oct. 1998). Parallel debugging increases the speed and effectiveness of debugging by an order of magnitude over commercial software and makes open source programmes often more stable and reliable than commercial alternatives.
Communication with downstream developers Developers of software meant to run atop an open source software can easily make sure that their application is fully compatible with the underlying programme by checking the source code and even having the possibility to modify it and adapt it to the specific tasks they want their programme to perform.
Easiness to contribute Everyone can contribute OSS project. A highly skilled programmer and a low-skill developer can be involved
Weaknesses of the OSS model Lack of customer focus No entity is accountable No centralized technical support OSS is sometimes perceived as “hackerware”
Lack of Customer Focus Open Source Community do not feel concerned by the other possible uses of their programs – especially use by corporations – neither do they give importance to the user-friendliness of their software. Potential non- specialist users are often scared by the austerity of the user interfaces and deterred by the high level of technical knowledge needed to run the programs.
No Entity is Accountable Another hurdle to the wide use of OSS by corporate customers is that OSS projects are not run by a firm which can be hold accountable if something goes wrong. The contributors to the program are scattered all over the world and have no legal status.
No centralized technical support The fact that open source software is not produced by companies also means that there is no one to help the “clients” out if they encounter problems with the software they downloaded free of charge. The OSS developers instead help each other by e-mail or on newsgroups. It is not rare to obtain an answer by the very person who developed the software or a specific part of it. The efficiency of the help can thus be much higher than in the corporate model and hackers are always willing to help each other or even less computer-savvy persons. However, for Internet newcomers, asking questions on newsgroups or e-mailing the programmers is not a natural reflex.
OSS is sometimes perceived as “hackerware” People who are not familiar with the OSS model, and especially company managers, often think of hackers as of juvenile offenders trying to break into CIA computers for fun rather than skilled IT professionals helping to solve their profession’s problems.
Tugas Individu Buat makalah tentang contoh penggunaan teknologi/software open source pada perusahaan Meliputi: -Deskripsi Perusahaan -Teknologi apa saja yang digunakan -Referensi / Sumber
Tugas Kelompok Diskusikan dengan Anggota kelompok: -Legal-kah kita menggunakan Open Source software untuk perusahaan yang menghasilkan profit? -Legal-kah kita menjual CD yang berisi Open Source software? –Legal-kah jika kita modifikasi source code untuk keperluan sendiri? –Legal-kah jika sebagai developer software mengubah lisensi software dari open source menjadi commercial?
Jawaban tugas (individu dan kelompok) dikumpulkan dalam bentuk softcopy (file word) Dikirim via email ke email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Paling lambat kamis 21 Sept 2006 jam 24.00 WIB