Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

NUCLEOTIDES, NUCLEIC ACID, AND HEREDITY Nucleotides are the building blocks (monomer) of nucleic acids. Nucleic acid is a polymer composed of nucleotides.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "NUCLEOTIDES, NUCLEIC ACID, AND HEREDITY Nucleotides are the building blocks (monomer) of nucleic acids. Nucleic acid is a polymer composed of nucleotides."— Transcript presentasi:

1 NUCLEOTIDES, NUCLEIC ACID, AND HEREDITY Nucleotides are the building blocks (monomer) of nucleic acids. Nucleic acid is a polymer composed of nucleotides Heredity is the transfer of characteristics, anatomical as well as biochemical, from generation to generation.

2 SEJARAH PENEMUAN ASAM NUKLEAT 1879, Albrecht Kossel menemukan asam nukleat yang tersusun oleh suatu gugus gula, gugus fosfat, dan gugus basa

3 el Structure of Cell

4 Nucleoprotein Nucleic acidProtein Nucleotide NucleosidePhosphate BaseRibose Nuclease Nucleotidase Nucleosidase Degradation of nucleic acid

5 (Inti sel) Nucleus (Inti sel) Setiap sel makhluk hidup mempunyai nucleus (inti sel) dimana didalamnya terdapat nucleoplasma Nucleus berperan dalam: 1.Menyimpan informasi genetik 2.Duplikasi DNA 3.Transkripsi  dalam sintesis protein

6 Nucleic Acids (Asam nukleat) Dalam tubuh setiap makhluk hidup mengandung asam nukleat. Merupakan makromolekul. Bentuknya bisa berupa DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dan RNA (ribonucleic acid). Beberapa organisme bersel tunggal seperti virus tubuhnya hanya terdiri dari DNA atau RNA saja.

7 Structure of nucleotides Below is the general structure of a nucleotide. The pentose sugar, the base, and the phosphate moieties all show variations among nucleotides. Know this!

8 Pyrimidine and purine Know these! Nucleotide bases in nucleic acids are pyrimidines or purines.

9 Major bases in nucleic acids Among the pyrimidines, C occurs in both RNA and DNA, but T occurs in DNA, and U occurs in RNA Know these! The bases are abbreviated by their first letters (A, G, C, T, U). The purines (A, G) occur in both RNA and DNA

10 Gula pada asam nukleat adalah ribosa. Ribosa (  -D-furanosa) adalah gula pentosa (jumlah karbon 5). Perhatikan penomoran. Dalam penulisan diberi tanda prime( ' ) untuk membedakan penomoran pada basa nitrogen GULA RIBOSA

11 PERHATIKAN Ikatan gula ribosa dengan basa nitrogen (pada atom karbon nomor 1). Ikatan gula ribosa dengan gugus fosfat (pada atom karbon nomor 5). Gugus hidroksil pada atom karbon nomor 2

12 Structure of nucleotides A phosphate group Nucleotides have three characteristic components: A nitrogenous base (pyrimidines or purine) A pentose sugar

13 Structure of nucleosides Remove the phosphate group, and you have a nucleoside. H

14

15 Nucleotide nomenclature

16 Phosphodiester linkages in the covalent backbone of DNA and RNA

17 Some adenosine monophosphates

18 The major deoxyribonucleotides

19 The major ribonucleotides

20 Schematic representation of the nucleotide sequences of nucleic acids

21 nucleosidenucleotides nucleic acids Nucleoside, nucleotides and nucleic acids The chemical linkage between monomer units in nucleic acids is a phosphodiester

22 Ribonucleosides/RibonucleotidesTerminology (where sugar = ribose) BaseNucleosideNucleotide Adenine (A)Adenosine (A) =Adenylate Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Guanine (G)Guanosine (G) =Guanylate Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Cytosine (C)Cytidine (C) = Cytidylate Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) Cytidine diphosphate (CDP) Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) Uracil (U)Uridine (U) =Uridylate Uridine monophosphate (UMP) Uridine diphosphate (UDP) Uridine triphosphate (UTP) Thymine (T)Thymidine (T) =Thymidylate Thymidine monophosphate (TMP) Thymidine diphosphate (TDP) Thymidine triphosphate (TTP)

23 DeoxyNucleosides/DeoxyNucleotidesTerminology where sugar = deoxyribose BaseNucleosideNucleotide Adenine (A)Deoxyadenosine (A) =Deoxyadenylate Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) Deoxyadenosine diphosphate (dADP) Deoxyadenosine triphophate (dATP) Guanine (G)Deoxyguanosine (G) =Deoxyguanylate Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) Deoxyguanosine diphosphate (dGDP) Deoxyguanosine triphophate (dGTP) Cytosine (C)Deoxycytidine (C) =Deoxycytydylate Deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) Deoxycytidine diphosphate (dCDP) Deoxycytidine triphophate (dCTP) Uracil (U)Deoxyuridine (U) =Deoxyurydylate Deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) Deoxyuridine diphosphate (dUDP) Deoxyuridine triphophate (dUTP) Thymine (T)Deoxythymidine (T) =Deoxythymidylate Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) Deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP) Deoxythymidine triphophate (dTTP)


Download ppt "NUCLEOTIDES, NUCLEIC ACID, AND HEREDITY Nucleotides are the building blocks (monomer) of nucleic acids. Nucleic acid is a polymer composed of nucleotides."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google