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Chapter 7 BAB 7 Consumer Learning Mempelajari konsumen.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter 7 BAB 7 Consumer Learning Mempelajari konsumen."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter 7 BAB 7 Consumer Learning Mempelajari konsumen

2 ©2000 Prentice Hall Cognitive Learning Theory KoqnitifTeorybelajar A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving. Sebuah teori pembelajaran berdasarkan teori jiwa,sering d gunakan dalam menanggapi pemecahan masalah

3 ©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Learning MempelajariKonsumen A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior. Sebuah proses dimana individu memperoleh pembelian, pengetahuan konsumsi dan pengalaman yang mereka berlakukan untuk perilaku terkait masa depan

4 ©2000 Prentice Hall Elements of Learning Theories unsur unsur belajar teori stimulus Motivation Cues Response Reinforcement 1.Motipasi 2.Isyarat 3.Tanggapan 4.Penguatan

5 ©2000 Prentice Hall ReinforcementPenguatan A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus. Sebuah hasil yang positif atau negatif yang mempengaruhi kemungkinan bahwa perilaku tertentu akan berulang di masa depan dalam menanggapi isyarat tertentu atau stimulus

6 ©2000 Prentice Hall Behavioral Learning Theories Teori mempelajari Perilaku Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory. Teori didasarkan pada premis bahwa pembelajaran terjadi sebagai hasil dari respon diamati terhadap rangsangan eksternal. Juga dikenal sebagai teori stimulus respon

7 ©2000 Prentice Hall Behavioral Learning Theories Classical Conditioning : Pengkondisian klasik Instrumental Conditioning : Pengkondisian instrumental Modeling or Observational Learning :Modeling atau Belajar Observasional

8 ©2000 Prentice Hall Classical Conditioning Pengkondisianklasik A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone. Sebuah teori belajar tingkah laku yang menurutnya stimulus dipasangkan dengan stimulus lain yang memunculkan respon diketahui yang berfungsi untuk menghasilkan respon yang sama ketika digunakan sendiri

9 ©2000 Prentice Hall Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and- error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors. Sebuah teori perilaku belajar berdasarkan proses trial-and-error, dengan kebiasaan paksa sebagai hasil dari pengalaman positif (reinforcement) yang dihasilkan dari respon tertentu atau perilaku.

10 ©2000 Prentice Hall Conditions for Optimal Conditioning Forward Conditioning (CS Precedes US) :Pengekondisian Maju ( CS Precedes US) Repeated Pairings of CS and US : Mengulang Pairing CS n US A CS and US that Logically Belong to Each Other: suatu CS dan US yang logika nya milik bersama A CS that is Novel and Unfamiliar : Sebuah CS yg novel dan terbiasa A US that is Biologically or Symbolically Salient : Sebuah US yang biologis atau simbolis salient

11 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.1A Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Meat paste Conditioned Stimulus Bell Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

12 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.1B Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Conditioned Stimulus 6 O’clock news Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 6 O’clock news Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

13 ©2000 Prentice Hall Basic Concepts of Classical Conditioning Dasar konsep Pengkondisian Klasik Repetition : Pengulangan Stimulus Generalization : Stimulus generalisasi Stimulus Discrimination : Stimulus Diskriminasi

14 ©2000 Prentice Hall Stimulus Generalization StimulusGeneralisasi The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli. The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli

15 ©2000 Prentice Hall Stimulus Generalization and Marketing Stimulus Generalisasi dan Pemasaran Product Line, Form and Category Extensions : Baris Produk, Formulir dan Kategori Ekstensi Family Branding : Merek Kluarga Licensing : Perizinan Generalizing Usage Situations : Generalisasi situasi penggunaan

16 ©2000 Prentice Hall Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Diskriminasi The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences. Kemampuan untuk memilih rangsangan tertentu dari antara rangsangan yang sama karena perbedaan persepsi

17 ©2000 Prentice Hall Stimulus Discrimination and Marketing Stimulus Diskriminasi dan Pemasaran Positioning : Posisi Differentiation : Diferensiasi

18 ©2000 Prentice Hall Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement): Kepuasan Pelanggan (Penguatan) Reinforcement Schedules : penguatan Jadwal –Shaping : membentuk Massed versus Distributed Learning : Berkumpul vs Belajar Terdistribusi

19 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.6 A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Stimulus Situation (Need good- looking jeans) Try Brand D Try Brand C Try Brand B Try Brand A Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Reward Perfect fit Repeat Behavior

20 ©2000 Prentice Hall Observational Learning Belajar Observational A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, remember it, and imitate it. Also known as modeling. Sebuah proses dimana individu mengamati perilaku orang lain, ingat itu, dan menirunya. Juga dikenal sebagai pemodelan

21 ©2000 Prentice Hall Cognitive Learning Theory Teory belajar koqnitif Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment. Menyatakan bahwa jenis pembelajaran yang paling karakteristik dari manusia adalah pemecahan masalah, yang memungkinkan individu untuk mendapatkan kontrol atas lingkungan mereka.

22 ©2000 Prentice Hall Information Processing ProsesInformasi A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved. Sebuah teori kognitif belajar manusia berpola setelah pengolahan informasi komputer yang berfokus pada bagaimana informasi disimpan dalam memori manusia dan bagaimana itu akan diambil

23 ©2000 Prentice Hall Issues In Information Processing Masalah dalam pengolahan informsi How Consumers Store, Retain and Retrieve Information :Bagaimana Konsumen Menyimpan, Mempertahankan dan Ambil Informasi Limited and Extensive Information Processing :Limited dan ekstensif Informasi Pengolahan

24 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.9 Information Processing and Memory Stores Sensory Store Working Memory (Short- term Store) Long- term Store Sensory Input RehearsalEncodingRetrieval Forgotten; lost Forgotten; lost Forgotten; unavailable

25 ©2000 Prentice Hall Sensory Store The place in which all sensory inputs are housed very briefly before passing into the short-term store. Tempat di mana semua masukan sensorik disimpan sangat singkat sebelum melewati ke toko jangka pendek

26 ©2000 Prentice Hall Short-Term Store The stage of real memory in which information received from the sensory store for processing is retained briefly before passing into the long- term store or forgotten. Tahap memori nyata di mana informasi yang diterima dari toko sensorik untuk pengolahan dipertahankan sebentar sebelum melewati ke toko jangka panjang atau lupa

27 ©2000 Prentice Hall Long-Term Store In information-processing theory, the stage of real memory where information is organized, reorganized and retained for relatively extended periods of time. Dalam pemrosesan informasi teori, tahap memori nyata di mana informasi diatur, ditata ulang dan disimpan untuk waktu yang relatif lama

28 ©2000 Prentice Hall Rehearsal The silent, mental repetition of material. Also, the relating of new data to old data to make the former more meaningful. The silent, pengulangan diam mental materi. Juga, terkait data baru untuk data lama untuk membuat mantan lebih bermakna

29 ©2000 Prentice Hall Encoding The process by which individuals select and assign a word or visual image to represent a perceived object or idea. Proses dimana individu memilih dan menetapkan kata atau gambar visual untuk mewakili objek yang dirasakan atau ide

30 ©2000 Prentice Hall Retention Information is stored in long-term memory :Informasi disimpan dalam memori jangka panjang –Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired Episodik: oleh urutan di mana ia diperoleh –Semantically: according to significant concepts Semantik: menurut konsep-konsep yang signifikan

31 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.10 Conceptualization of Long-Term Storage of Personal Computer Information PERSONAL COMPUTERS Manufacturers Models SOFTWARE ManufacturerType Monitors Printers Operating Systems Manufacturer Type Word processing Databases Graphics Spreadsheets Games

32 ©2000 Prentice Hall Retrieval The stage of information processing in which individuals recover information from long-term storage. Tahap pengolahan informasi di mana individu memulihkan informasi dari penyimpanan jangka panjang.

33 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive Learning AttentionCognitive ActionConativePurchase Postpurchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest EvaluationPersuasion Knowledge AwarenessAwareness Knowledge Interest Desire Sequential Stages of Processing Innovation Adoption Model Decision- Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model

34 ©2000 Prentice Hall Limited and Extensive Information Processing Extensive and complex processing of information may not apply to all purchase decisions :Pengolahan luas dan kompleks dari informasi yang mungkin tidak berlaku untuk semua keputusan pembelian Involvement may influence extent of information processing :Keterlibatan dapat mempengaruhi tingkat pengolahan informasi

35 ©2000 Prentice Hall Involvement Theory A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase. Sebuah teori pembelajaran konsumen yang mendalilkan bahwa konsumen terlibat dalam berbagai kegiatan pengolahan informasi dari luas untuk masalah yang terbatas pemecahan, tergantung pada relevansi dari pembelian.

36 ©2000 Prentice Hall Issues in Involvement Theory Involvement Theory and Media Strategy : Keterlibatan Teori dan Strategi Media Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance : Keterlibatan Teori Relevansi dan Konsumen Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Tengah dan Peripheral Rute menuju Persuasi Measures of Involvement : Tindakan Keterlibatan

37 ©2000 Prentice Hall Hemispheral Lateralization Learning theory in which the basic premise is that the right and left hemispheres of the brain “specialize” in the kinds of information that they process. Also called split brain theory. Belajar teori di mana premis dasar adalah bahwa belahan otak kanan dan otak kiri "mengkhususkan diri" dalam jenis informasi yang mereka memproses. Juga disebut teori otak split.

38 ©2000 Prentice Hall Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion A theory that proposes that highly involved consumers are best reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the product (the central route) while uninvolved consumers can be attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route). Sebuah teori yang mengusulkan bahwa konsumen sangat terlibat yang terbaik dicapai melalui iklan yang fokus pada atribut tertentu dari produk (rute pusat) sementara konsumen tidak terlibat dapat menarik melalui isyarat iklan perifer seperti model atau pengaturan (rute perifer).

39 ©2000 Prentice Hall Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. Sebuah teori yang mengemukakan bahwa tingkat seseorang keterlibatan selama pemrosesan pesan merupakan faktor penting dalam menentukan rute ke persuasi kemungkinan efektif.

40 ©2000 Prentice Hall The Elaboration Likelihood Model Involvement Central Route Peripheral Route Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes Message Arguments Influence Attitudes HIGHLOW

41 ©2000 Prentice Hall TO ME, (INSERT PRODUCT OR PRODUCT CATGORY) IS: Table 7.2 Measuring Involvement on a Semantic Differential Scale 1. Important 2. Interesting 3. Relevant 4. Exciting 5. Meaningful 6. Appealing 7. Fascinating 8. Priceless 9. Involving 10. Necessary Unimportant Boring Irrelevant Unexciting Meaningless Unappealing Ordinary Worthless Uninvolving Unnecessary

42 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 7.3 Product Involvement Inventory Measuring Consumers’ Enduring Involvement With Products 1. I would be interested in reading about this product. 2. I would read a Consumer Reports article about this product. 3. I have compared product characteristics among bands. 4. I usually pay attention to ads for this product. 5. I usually talk about his product with other people. 6. I usually seek advice from other people prior to purchasing this product. 7. I usually take many factors into account before purchasing this product. 8. I usually spend a lot of time choosing what kind to buy.

43 ©2000 Prentice Hall Measures of Consumers Learning Recognition and Recall Measures :Pengakuan dan Recall Tindakan –Aided and Unaided Recall : Tanpa bantuan dan dibantu Recall Cognitive Responses to Advertising :Kognitif Responses to Iklan –Copytesting Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty : Sikap dan perilaku Ukuran Loyalitas Merek

44 ©2000 Prentice Hall Brand Loyalty Consistent preference and/or purchase of the same brand in a specific product or service category. Konsisten preferensi dan / atau pembelian merek yang sama pada produk tertentu atau kategori layanan.

45 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 7.16 Brand Loyalty As a Function of Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior Latent Loyalty No Loyalty Spurious Loyalty Loyalty Low High HighLow Repeat Patronage Relative Attitude

46 ©2000 Prentice Hall Brand Equity The value inherent in a well- known brand name. Nilai yang melekat dalam nama merek terkenal.


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