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5 FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY.

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Presentasi berjudul: "5 FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY."— Transcript presentasi:

1 5 FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY

2 Copyright©2004 South-Western 13 The Costs of Production

3 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ WHAT ARE COSTS? Tujuan Perusahaan Maksimalisasi profit.

4 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit Profit = Total revenue - Total cost

5 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ The Production Function Diminishing Marginal Product Diminishing marginal product: keadaan dimana produk marginal menurun ketika jumlah input meningkat. Example: semakin banyak pekerja yang dipekerjakan, tambahan pekerja akan berkontribusi semakin rendah pada produksi karena perusahaan terbatas dalam peralatan produksi

6 Figure 2 Hungry Helen’s Production Function Copyright © 2004 South-Western Quantity of Output (cookies per hour) Number of Workers Hired Production function

7 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ From the Production Function to the Total- Cost Curve The relationship between the quantity a firm can produce and its costs determines pricing decisions. The total-cost curve shows this relationship graphically.

8 Table 1 A Production Function and Total Cost: Hungry Helen’s Cookie Factory Copyright©2004 South-Western

9 Figure 3 Hungry Helen’s Total-Cost Curve Copyright © 2004 South-Western Total Cost $ Quantity of Output (cookies per hour) Total-cost curve

10 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ THE VARIOUS MEASURES OF COST Biaya produksi fixed costs dan variable costs.

11 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fixed and Variable Costs Total Costs Total Fixed Costs (TFC) Total Variable Costs (TVC) Total Costs (TC) TC = TFC + TVC

12 Table 2 The Various Measures of Cost: Thirsty Thelma’s Lemonade Stand Copyright©2004 South-Western

13 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fixed and Variable Costs Average Costs Average Fixed Costs (AFC) Average Variable Costs (AVC) Average Total Costs (ATC) ATC = AFC + AVC

14 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Average Costs

15 Table 2 The Various Measures of Cost: Thirsty Thelma’s Lemonade Stand Copyright©2004 South-Western

16 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fixed and Variable Costs Marginal Cost Marginal cost (MC): peningkatan total cost yang timbul dari tambahan unit produksi Berapa banyak biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk memproduksi setiap tambahan output?

17 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Marginal Cost

18 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Biaya Produksi Misalkan saya ingin membuka bisnis jus lemon, maka saya akan membutuhkan: Human Capital Lemon Gula Plastik Cup Ice Tube Sedotan

19 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Variabel Costs (VC=f(Q)Fixed Costs

20 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Klasifikasi Biaya Variabel Costs (VC=f(Q)Fixed Costs

21 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/

22 Fungsi Produksi Misalkan usaha jus lemon saya berkembang dan saya dapat mendirikan suatu pabrik nutrisari lemon. Jumlah Pekerja ProduksiProduk Marginal Pekerja Biaya Pabrik Biaya Pekerja Biaya Total Permintaan pasar akan produk saya meningkat, sehingga dengan mempertimbangkan adanya peluang tersebut, saya memutuskan untuk menambah jumlah pekerja.

23 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fungsi Produksi Terkadang, dalam bisnis upaya untuk meningkatkan produksi dengan menambah jumlah pekerja (tanpa menambah input yang lain) cenderung menyebabkan turunnya total produksi. Mengapa? Jumlah Pekerja ProduksiProduk Marginal Pekerja Biaya Pabrik Biaya Pekerja Biaya Total

24 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fungsi Produksi Apa yang salah pada bisnis saya? Mengapa penambahan pekerja justru menurunkan produksi saya?

25 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Fungsi Biaya Buatlah grafik dengan sumbu horisontal (produksi) dan sumbu vertikal (ATC dan MC) ProduksiProduk Marginal Pekerja ATCMC , , , , , , , ,73 0,2 0,25 0,33 0,5 1 1,5

26 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Implikasi Bisnis saya mengalami diminishing marginal product, karena penambahan pekerja yang saya lakukan menyebabkan produksi turun. Artinya, kapasitas produksi saya sudah maksimal, sehingga dengan menambah pekerja baru justru akan mengakibatkan perusahaan menjadi tidak efisien. (?)Langkah perbaikan yang saya lakukan adalah dengan cara menambah peralatan baru untuk produksi.

27 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Q (output) FC $1000 VC $400 TCAFCAVCATCMC 0$2000$ 0$ Latihan Tentukan AFC, AVC, ATC dan MC.

28 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Q (output) FC $1000 VC $400 TCAFCAVCATCMC 0$2000$ 0$ $26,32$5,26$31,585, ,063,2311,292, ,072,446,501, ,552,044,591, ,82 3,641, ,411,693,111, ,171,642,811, ,021,642,661, ,941,692,642, ,911,822,735,26

29 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Marginal Cost Thirsty Thelma’s Lemonade Stand

30 Figure 4 Thirsty Thelma’s Total-Cost Curves Copyright © 2004 South-Western Total Cost $ Quantity of Output (glasses of lemonade per hour) Total-cost curve

31 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Cost Curves and Their Shapes Peningkatan Marginal cost seiring dengan jumlah output yang diproduksi: diminishing marginal product.

32 Figure 5 Thirsty Thelma’s Average-Cost and Marginal-Cost Curves Copyright © 2004 South-Western Costs $ Quantity of Output (glasses of lemonade per hour) MC

33 Figure 5 Thirsty Thelma’s Average-Cost and Marginal-Cost Curves Copyright © 2004 South-Western Costs $ Quantity of Output (glasses of lemonade per hour) ATC

34 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Big Bob’s Cost Curves

35 Figure 6 Big Bob’s Cost Curves Copyright © 2004 South-Western (a) Total-Cost Curve $ Quantity of Output (bagels per hour) TC Total Cost 0

36 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ COSTS IN THE SHORT RUN AND IN THE LONG RUN Karena sebagian besar biaya dalam jangka pendek merupakan fixed cost tapi menjadi variabled costs dalam jangka panjang

37 Figure 7 Average Total Cost in the Short and Long Run Copyright © 2004 South-Western Quantity of Cars per Day 0 Average Total Cost 1,200 $12,000 ATC in short run with small factory ATC in short run with medium factory ATC in short run with large factory ATC in long run

38 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/ Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Economies of scale? Diseconomies of scale? Constant returns to scale?


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