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Presentasi berjudul: "INTERAKSI EKOLOGIS AGROEKOSISTEM Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno jurs tanah fpub - des. 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INTERAKSI EKOLOGIS AGROEKOSISTEM Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno jurs tanah fpub - des. 2012

2 AGROEKOLOGI. Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012 Agroecologi adalah kajian tentang proses-proses ekologis yang berlangsung dalam sistem produksi pertanian. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. Pakar Agroecologi mengkaji berbagai macam agroecosystems, dan bidang agroekologi berkaitan dnegan semua metode pertanian, yaitu pertanian organik, terpadu, konvensional, intensif dan ekstensif.

3 AGROEKOLOGI. Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 How do Plants Grow? Several factors influence (enhance, reduce or limit) plant growth. These factors are either environmental factors (external factors) or plant factors (internal factors).

4 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Agroecology diartikan sebagai “kajian tentang interaksi antara tanaman, ternak, manusia dan lingkungannya di dalam sistem pertanian". Agroecology as a discipline therefore covers integrative studies within agronomy, ecology, sociology and economics. The classical, scientific disciplines, where some are within the window of agroecology, are lined up in the right column, ordered in a hierarchy with the ‘hard agroecology’ disciplines at the bottom and the 'soft agroecology' disciplines at the top. AGROEKOLOGI.

5 Diunduh dari: 2009/04/a8122/F1.html ….. 10/12/2012. AGROECOLOGY AS A SCIENCE, A MOVEMENT AND A PRACTICE. A REVIEW A. Wezel, S. Bellon, T. Doré, C. Francis, D. Vallod and C. David. Agron. Sustain. Dev. Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct-Dec 2009 Agroecology sebagai praktek pertanian muncul-berkembang pada 1980-an, dan seringkali dikaitkan dengan gerakan “pertanian ekologis”. The scales and dimensions of agroecological investigations changed over the past 80 years from the plot and field scales to the farm and agroecosystem scales. Ada tiga pendekatan, yaitu: 1.Investigasi pada petakan lahan dan sekala lapangan, 2.Investigasi pada tingkat agroecosystem dan sekala usahatani, 3.Investigasi yang mencakup keseluruhan sistem pangan. AGROEKOLOGI Disiplin Ilmu Geraka n Praktikal Pendekat an Petakan/ Hampara n Agro- ekosiste m Ekologi Pangan Environmen talisme Pertanian berkelanju tan Pengemban gan Wilayah Pedesaan Teknolo gi Pertania n

6 AGROEKOSISTEM Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012 Agroecosystem didefinisikan sebagai “unit aktivitas pertanian” secara spatial dan fungsional, dan meliputi komponen biotik (hidup) dan benda mati (abiotik) yang saling berinteraksi.. The core of an agroecosystem lies the human activity of agriculture. However, an agroecosystem is not restricted to the immediate site of agricultural activity (e.g. the farm), but rather includes the region that is impacted by this activity, usually by changes to the complexity of species assemblages and energy flows, as well as to the net nutrient balance. Traditionally an agroecosystem, particularly one managed intensively, is characterized as having a simpler species composition and simpler energy and nutrient flows than "natural" ecosystem. Agroecosystems are often associated with elevated nutrient input, much of which exits the farm leading to eutrophication of connected ecosystems not directly engaged in agriculture.

7 AGRO-EKOSISTEM Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Complex nature of an agriculture system, illustrated by the C-N cycle. Penyerapan air (H2O) PupukPencucian BOT : Bahan Organik Tanah Biomasa Mikroba

8 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM - USAHA PERTANIAN Ortega & Miller-Soybean Comparison

9 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS Diunduh dari: 3%29.pdf+&hl=id&gl=id&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgGEX13igkePBqKWi8qBLtUYN3wIrPL_DtLH3XCHk1f3bRS NHk8fCtHpxy8K902WBiSFz-UzwyHJnA- pWpXuzvWuCCTLnDADxcpnBVbYwEynXv0ouVRcVqXLdMRq8aStJIjBwGR&sig=AHIEtbQ8cp54TgiEKCu7raX HICbZb-Plcw ….. 10/12/2012 Interaksi-interaksi pada tingkat usahatani: Output dari suatu aktivitas digunakan sebagai input untuk aktivitas lainnya. 1.The use of crop straw or “residues” for animal feed. A typical consequence is the rejection by farmers of short-straw varieties of cereals such as rice and sorghum, due to the reduced biomass and the lower palatability to livestock of dwarf rice varieties (which have high levels of silica in the stem). 2.The use of livestock manure as fertilizer in crop fields (when alternative sources of fertility maintenance might be needed as grazing land decreases and/or mechanization is introduced).

10 INTERAKSI DI ANTARA KOMPONEN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM Diunduh dari: 3%29.pdf+&hl=id&gl=id&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgGEX13igkePBqKWi8qBLtUYN3wIrPL_DtLH3XCHk1f3bRS NHk8fCtHpxy8K902WBiSFz-UzwyHJnA- pWpXuzvWuCCTLnDADxcpnBVbYwEynXv0ouVRcVqXLdMRq8aStJIjBwGR&sig=AHIEtbQ8cp54TgiEKCu7raX HICbZb-Plcw ….. 10/12/2012 At the farm level, the relevant resource flows include labour and cash, and how these are deployed between different possible activities within and off the farm; how the outputs of one activity (e.g. a cropping system) might act as inputs for another; and the inputs and outputs of the farm system.

11 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS Diunduh dari: 3%29.pdf+&hl=id&gl=id&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgGEX13igkePBqKWi8qBLtUYN3wIrPL_DtLH3XCHk1f3bRS NHk8fCtHpxy8K902WBiSFz-UzwyHJnA- pWpXuzvWuCCTLnDADxcpnBVbYwEynXv0ouVRcVqXLdMRq8aStJIjBwGR&sig=AHIEtbQ8cp54TgiEKCu7raX HICbZb-Plcw ….. 10/12/2012 At the farm level, for example, such interactions include: The planting of two crops on the same plot within the same year or planting season. 1.Intercropping or mixed cropping – where two or more crops are planted at the same or similar times (e.g. maize accompanied with beans, cowpeas, sweet potatoes, rice, squash, etc. in many small holdings); 2.Relay cropping – where one crop is planted on the same plot towards the end of the life cycle of another (e.g. beans are often planted after the maize flowers and is doubled over in many parts of Latin America); 3.Sequential crops – where one crop is planted after the harvest of another.

12 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS Diunduh dari: 3%29.pdf+&hl=id&gl=id&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgGEX13igkePBqKWi8qBLtUYN3wIrPL_DtLH3XCHk1f3bRS NHk8fCtHpxy8K902WBiSFz-UzwyHJnA- pWpXuzvWuCCTLnDADxcpnBVbYwEynXv0ouVRcVqXLdMRq8aStJIjBwGR&sig=AHIEtbQ8cp54TgiEKCu7raX HICbZb-Plcw ….. 10/12/2012 Interaksi pada tingkat komunitas atau regional: 1.The use of an input by one type of farmer of the output of another type of farmer (e.g. specialised livestock farmers who buy the maize residue from specialised crop farmers); 2.Different and competing uses of the same resource by different stakeholders; e.g.: a. Land - the conversion of communal land, used by pastoralists as specialized grazing reserves in dry years, to state-owned wheat farms in some parts of Africa. b. Water - the abstraction (or contamination) of stream water for irrigation by upstream crop farmers leading to lack (or pollution) of water used by downstream livestock owners). c. Labour – small farmers supplying wage labour for sugar or coffee harvest on plantations, leading to late planting or non-weeding on small holders own fields; farmers without livestock hiring their manual labour to ox-owners in exchange for ploughing services (which may then arrive later than the optimum planting time).


14 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Tanaman Hara dalam tanah Lengas Tanah Aerasi Tanah

15 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN (a)shallow soil without a B horizon has low water storage and can restrict root growth and (b)deeper soil with all three horizons with no physical constraints to root growth"( Tanah dangkal Tanah dalam

16 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Pola perakaran dan penyerapan air dari zone-akar Corn does not extract water uniformly throughout its rooting depth. Generally, more water is extracted from shallow depths and less from deeper depths. If water is applied to the soil surface, the typical extraction pattern follows the rule: 40 percent of the water comes from the top 1/4 of the root zone, 30 percent comes from the second 1/4 and so on. Formula

17 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN

18 Pengaruh ketersediaan air terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

19 Pola penyerapan air oleh tanaman yang tumbuh pada profil tanah yang tidak mempunyai lapisan penghambat dan suplai air tersedia cukup di seluruh zone perakaran tanaman Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 Formula:

20 Sistem Perakaran Serabut dan Perakaran Tunggang pada Tanaman umur dua bulan Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

21 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Relationship among unavailable, slowly available, and readily available potassium in the soil-plant system. Plants readily absorb the K dissolved in the soil water. As soon as the K concentration in soil water drops, more is released into this solution from the K attached to the clay minerals. The K attached to the exchange sites on the clay minerals is more readily available for plant growth than the K trapped between the layers of the clay minerals..

22 Air dari tanah CO2 dari Udara Fotosintesis: CO2 + H2O ---- Karbohidrat (Glukosa) Glukosa Pati dan senyawa organik lain dalam buah dan biji Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

23 Stomata: Pintu lalulintas CO2, O2, dan H2O Fotosintesis: CO2 + H2O Karbohidrat (Glukosa) CO2 dari Udara Glukosa Pati dan senyawa organik lain dalam biji Air dari tanah Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

24 Budidaya tanaman padi sawah memerlukan banyak air Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

25 Kurva Penggunaan Air Musiman oleh Tanaman KEBUTUHAN AIR TANAMAN A plant has different water needs at different stages of growth. While a plant is young it requires less water than when it is in the reproductive stage. When the plant approaches maturity, its water need drops. Curves have been developed that show the daily water needs for most types of crops. Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 Fase pertumbuhan tanaman Penggunaan air Perkecambahan Pertumbuha n vegetatif Masak

26 Diunduh dari: 2&Itemid=153 ….. 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM LINGKUNGAN HIDUP TUMBUHAN. The movement of solution through the plant is dictated by a complex combination of internal and external forces. Bagaimana unsur hara dan air dalam tanah bergerak mendekati dan memasuki akar tumbuhan ? As we briefly examine the root environment, we will quickly review the actual movement of nutrients in and around the media as it approaches the root surface. What are the driving forces that allow elements in remote areas of the soil to find their way to the roots?

27 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 SIKLUS KARBON Plant life 'recycles' carbon dioxide faster than previously estimated. Interaksi tumbuhan dengan lingkungannya dalam proses fotosintesis dan siklus karbon.


29 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 FOTOSINTESIS Photosynthesis takes in carbon dioxide and water from the environment. It then uses sunlight to convert this into glucose and oxygen. CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER ===  GLUCOSE + OXYGEN 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Autotrophs relate to plants which plants are living organisms and how they interact with the sun (nonliving) and uses photosynthesis that requires energy from the sun.

30 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Photosynthesis is a complex reaction. In a lot of ways, it's similar to the way your body breaks down food into fuel that it can store. Essentially, using energy from the sun, a plant can transform carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. In chemical terms:sun 6CO H 2 O + Light -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O

31 Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Plants can make their own food using light energy from the sun. This process is called photosynthesis, and it takes place in the chloroplasts, tiny green structures found in the green parts of plants. It is a complicated process, but basically, carbon dioxide and water are converted to glucose (a simple sugar) and oxygen.

32 Diunduh dari: … …. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS Photosynthesis is the single most important chemical process on earth. It is the process by which plants use solar energy to manufacture food. The term means “putting together with light,” and the process of photosynthesis uses solar energy to form simple sugars from water and carbon dioxide gas. Later these sugars are converted into starch, protein, or fat; and we eat them as fruits and vegetables. Thus photosynthesis changes light energy into food (chemical) energy. Photosynthesis sustains green plants and as a result all other living things as well. Both directly and indirectly green plants generate most of the world’s chemical energy. Wood and fossil fuels — coal, oil and natural gas formed from plants and animals that lived millions of years ago — provide much of our electricity and heat.

33 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world directly or indirectly. Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; it occurs in plants. Basically it is a process plants use light energy to make food. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen which is necessary for most life on earth. The photosynthesis general equation: Oxygen is a waste product of photosynthesis that altered life on earth. It is very similar to the cellular respiration equation. This is a redox process that makes complex organic molecules from simple molecules

34 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS Photosystems Photosystems are located in the thylakoid membrane and contain light harvesting complexes and a reaction center, a protein complex with two special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. When a pigment molecule in a light-harvesting complex absorbs a photon, the energy is passed from pigment to pigment until it reaches the reaction center. There are two types of photosystems: 1.Photosystem II (PSII)-the chlorophyll a molecule at the reaction center of this system is called P680 and absorbs very well 2.Photosystem I (PSI)-the chlorophyll a molecule molecule at the reaction center of this system is called P700.

35 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS

36 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS Organelles called chloroplasts, which are found primarily in the leaves, are the site of most photosynthetic production. However, before photosynthesis may occur, water, minerals, and carbon dioxide must accumulate in the leaves. Sunlight must also be present. Specialized vascular tissues known as xylem and phloem assist in the transportation process. Xylem carries water from the root system all the way up to the leaves, whereas phloem transports sugars. Specialized cells known as stomata regulate gas exchange in the leaves; they admit carbon dioxide and release oxygen as photosynthesis requires..

37 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS The sunlight strikes the chlorophyll and is captured in the leaves. The energy from the sunlight is used to create chemical bonds to hold the glucose molecules together. In this way, the sun's energy is stored as chemical energy. If the chemical bonds holding glucose together are broken, the energy will be released. The matter to form glucose comes from carbon dioxide and the hydrogen in water. The oxygen from water is released into the atmosphere. Glucose and other molecules produced in this process called photosynthesis are used to create the structures of plants.

38 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES FOTOSINTESIS During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide and sunlight to create fuel—glucose and other sugars—for building plant structures. This process forms the foundation of the fast (biological) carbon cycle. (Illustration adapted from P.J. Sellers et al., 1992.)

39 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES RESPIRASI Respiration between plants and animals are very similar except for the fact that plants perform photosynthesis which is the different function that plants and animals perform. Plant cells have more features in the cells causing the plants to only use photosynthesis because they have chloroplast. Respiration is the process in which the stomata in the leaves consume oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water. Air containing carbon dioxide enters through the stomata’s pores where it is used during photosynthesis and respiration. It is very important to understand that both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. Since respiration is the burning of sugars for energy to grow and do the internal work of living. It is very important to understand that both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. For respiration the stomata is used to consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Energy is released and water and carbon dioxide is produced from the burning of carbohydrates.

40 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES RESPIRASI Aerobic respiration recombines the oxygen with the carbohydrates, releases the stored energy and gives off carbon dioxide and water as waste products. These can then be used again by plants to create more food, meaning the same molecules can be used over and over to store and distribute energy down the food chain to where they are returned again to the plants as CO 2 and H 2 O from whatever part of the chain they reach before their stored chemical energy is consumed through respiration and they are released again.

41 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES RESPIRASI

42 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES RESPIRASI The respiratory system is the biological system of any organism that engages in gas exchange. Even trees have respiratory systems, taking in carbon dioxide and emitting oxygen during the day, consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen constantly.biological Plant respiration is limited by the process of diffusion. Plants take in carbon dioxide through holes on the undersides of their leaves known as stomata. However, most plants require little air. Most plants have relatively few living cells outside of their surface because air (which is required for metabolic content) can penetrate only skin deep. However, most plants are not involved in highly aerobic activities, and thus have no need of these living cells.diffusionstomata


44 SISTEM TANAH-TANAMAN Structure of water transport model for the soil- leaf continuum, with the inputs outlined in boxes. Root and shoot components are represented by a resistance network, each component of which varies according to the inputted K(y) function from vulnerability curves of xylem. Layers of roots reach to different soil depths according to an inputted root area profile. Canopy layers reflect an inputted leaf area and Y profile. Soil is modeled as a rhizosphere resistance connecting roots to bulk soil of an inputted y and K(y). The model predicts transpiration (E) as a function of the inputs. Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

45 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI Plants control the amount of water lost by transpiration by opening and closing their stomata. Cells surrounding the stomata become more or less stiff, which causes the stomata to open or close. In a dry atmosphere, such as in a desert, the stomata of plants stay closed much of the time. This keeps the water inside the plant. Thus, desert plants have a low transpiration rate. The opposite is true of plants that grow in tropical rain forests.

46 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI The transpiration flux must pass through several resistors between the interior of the leaf and the airstream above the plant canopy. First is the resistance imposed by the leaf skin, then the air resistance in the leaf boundary layer, and finally the air resistance between the interleaf air spaces and the atmosphere above the plant canopy. After all, there are a many number of factors that play a role in the regulation of these resistances. Some of these factors originate in the environment and some in the plant. The plant can exert a reflexive control under some circumstances. They can regulate the size of the openings in their leaf through which the vapor passes to the outside of the leaf, but perhaps no more than we can regulate the size of the pupils in our eyes. These openings, are the stomates. Plants regulate their stomatal aperture, and, in turn, their stomatal resistance in such a way as to limit or augment the flow of water to the outside.

47 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI The Process of Transpiration There are hundreds of stomata in the epidermis of a leaf. Most are located in the lower epidermis. This reduces water loss because the lower surface receives less solar radiation than the upper surface. Each stoma allows the carbon dioxide necessary for photosynthesis to enter, while water evaporates through each one in transpiration. Now that you have been introduced to the concept of transpiration, the questions on the following page will help you understand how the properties of water and water potential are important to this process.

48 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI The transpiration stream in a plant. The pathway followed by water and minerals from the soil, through the root into the vascular system and hence to the leaves, is indicated by the blue arrows. The whole process is driven by the loss of water vapour from the stomatal pores on the surfaces of the leaves. Plant physiology: Spreading a drought warning Alistair M Hetherington. Curent Biology. Volume 8, Issue 25, 31 December 1998, Pages R911–R913

49 Diunduh dari: ……. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI Environmental Effects There are many environmental factors that can affect the rate of transpiration. I will address five of the most important here; light, temperature, humidity, wind, and soil water. Light stimulates the opening of the stomata at daybreak. As the stomata opens to allow photosynthesis to occur, the transpiration rate increases. With light comes heat. The leaf can be heated by the temperature of the environment and also by the heat released during photosynthesis. Transpiration provides a cooling mechanism for the plant to release excess heat in the leaves and maintain internal temperature necessary for biological and chemical processes to occur. Transpiration occurs more quickly at higher temperatures due to increased evaporation. Summer tends to be a time of decreased transpiration in plants because of increased temperature. A difference of 10°C can lead to three times the amount of transpiration in a leaf.

50 Diunduh dari: … …. 24/12/2012 PROSES TRANSPIRASI Evaporation and transpiration occur simultaneously and there is no easy way of distinguishing between the two processes. Apart from the water availability in the topsoil, the evaporation from a cropped soil is mainly determined by the fraction of the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. This fraction decreases over the growing period as the crop develops and the crop canopy shades more and more of the ground area. When the crop is small, water is predominately lost by soil evaporation, but once the crop is well developed and completely covers the soil, transpiration becomes the main process. In Figure 2 the partitioning of evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration is plotted in correspondence to leaf area per unit surface of soil below it. At sowing nearly 100% of ET comes from evaporation, while at full crop cover more than 90% of ET comes from transpiration.

51 Ilustrasi tentang penurunan potensial air untuk suatu tanaman Plants develop the tension, or potential, to move soil water from the soil into the roots and distribute the water through the plant by adjusting the water potential, or tension, within their plant cells. The essence of the process is that water always moves from higher to lower water potential. For water to move from the soil, to roots, to stems, to leaves, to air the water potential must always be decreasing. Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

52 Lingkaran Tanah- Air- Tanaman LTAT mrpk sistem dinamik dan terpadu dimana air mengalir dari tempat dengan tegangan rendah menuju tempat dengan tegangan air tinggi. Serapan bulu akar Penguapa n Hilang melalui stomata daun (transpirasi) Air kembali ke atmosfer (evapo- transpirasi) Air dikembalikan ke tanah melalui hujan dan irigasi Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

53 The pore volume is actually a reservoir for holding water. Not all of the water in the reservoir is available for plant use. Figure represents a "wet" (saturated) soil immediately after a large rainfall. Note that all of the pores are filled with water. Gravity will pull some of this water down through the soil below the crop's root zone. The water that is redistributed below the root zone due to the force of gravity is gravitational water. In general, gravitational water is not available to plants, especially in sandy soils, because the redistribution process occurs quickly (in two days or less). Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012

54 Sumber dan perilaku air yang ditambahkan ke tanah Diunduh dari: ……. 12/12/2012 Transpirasi Irigasi Curah Hujan Evaporasi Drainage Dalam Dasar Zone Akar

55 Diunduh dari: 12/12/2012 HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Water covers over two thirds of the Earth‘s surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. All water within biological bodies and the primary supply of that in the plant-soil system is defined as green water.

56 Diunduh dari: 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM: Neraca Air Tanaman Plant–environment interactions. Source: Licht and Isebrands (2005).

57 Diunduh dari: 10/12/2012 NERACA AIR DI LAHAN PERTANIAN Evapotranspiration (ET) ada;ah jumlah evaporation dan transpiration dari permukaan lahan ke atmosfir. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves.


59 Diunduh dari: 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi Tanaman-Gulma Tumbuhan menghasilkan beragam senyawa alamiah yang mampu menghambat atau menstimulir pertumbuhan tumbuhan lainnya (allelopathy) dan /atau mempengaruhi mikroba tanah yang ada di sekitarnya. As a result, crops, weeds, and soil life are linked through a web of chemical and microbiological communications that can be quite species-specific. Utilizing these chemical and microbiological interactions to design weed-suppressive crop rotations is a fascinating and potentially fruitful frontier in organic farming research. Figure: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

60 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi Multitrophic antara tumbuhan dg mikroba di bawah tanah dan serangga di atas tanah. Different soil-borne microbes induce changes in the plant that affect herbivorous insects, their natural enemies and pollinators. The beneficial microbes enhance plant growth and induce resistance in aerial plant tissues, which both affect herbivore performance. The emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the main cue triggering the attraction of beneficial insects, and this emission changes in response to microbe-plant interactions. Aboveground herbivory affects microbial communities belowground, possibly via changes in nutrient allocation, broad-spectrum induced defences and root exudates.

61 Diunduh dari: 2010/02/a8185/F5.html ….. 10/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM Tanaman Brassica ditanam untuk menghasilkan minyak, panganm dan pakan, dan sangat penting secara ekonomis karena nilai gizinya, bahan obat, bahan bioindustri, biocontrol dan lainnya. Insect pests cause enormous yield and economic losses in Brassica crop production every year, and are a threat to global agriculture. In order to overcome these insect pests, Brassica species themselves use multiple defence mechanisms, which can be constitutive, inducible, induced, direct or indirect depending upon the insect or the degree of insect attack.

62 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 INTERAKSI AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi allelopathy dan perilaku serangga: (A) herbivory influences production of allelopathic substances. (B) Chemical inducers enhance production of allelopathic substances. (C) Chemical compounds have both allelopathic and insect behavioural activity. (D) Plants exposed to allelopathy become less attractive to herbivores. (E) Plants exposed to allelopathy become more attractive to herbivore natural enemies.

63 Kegiatan Pertanian  Mengubah dan menggantikan vegetasi alami (Foto: Meine van Noordwijk) Tebang & bakar vegetasi hutan untuk: Tambahan hara Membunuh hama, gulma Mempermudah kegiatan di lahan Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

64 .KONVERSI HUTAN Diunduh dari: …..9/12/2012 Konversi hutan berupa perubahan hutan alam menjadi bentuk-bentuk penggunaan lahan yang lebioh intensif pengelolaannya. Often it is a process of gradual forest degradation, which may begin with removal of valuable timber and eventually lead to clearing of the land for plantations, crops, pasture, industry or urban settlement. During the last twenty years of the twentieth century, nearly one fifth, or 300 million hectares, of tropical forests were converted to non-forest landuses worldwide. Konversi hutan dapat mengakibatkan timbulnya biaya sosial dan dampak lingkungan yang parah, a.l.: 1.Loss of biodiversity due to destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats, 2.Water shortages, 3.Loss of natural vegetation where fires used to clear land burn uncontrollably into surrounding areas, 4.Disregard for the rights and interests of local or indigenous communities.

65 Pemanfaatan dan Konversi Hutan Tropika Diunduh dari: forests_a927#….. 9/12/2012 Tropical forests hold the largest terrestrial carbon store and are active carbon sinks. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is a vital component of tackling dangerous climate change. In addition, tackling illegal and ill-managed logging will be an important part of reducing emissions from forestry. Total emisi C oleh respirasi 24.5 Total emisi C 25.1 Total absorpsi C oleh fotosintesis 30.4 Total absorpsi C oleh fotosintesis

66 Tanam ubikayu terus menerus, tanah jadi PANAS!! Photo: Kurniatun Hairiah Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

67 PERGILIRAN TANAMAN. Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Pola tanaman pangan dan Pakan The concept of food-feed intercropping in both lowland and upland small farm systems is relatively new. The two principal advantages are: a)that the system aims to provide sustainability through involving the complimentary role of crops and animals; b)the use of appropriate forage crops provides fodders and crop residues which are valuable both ruminants and non-ruminants. Cropping patterns involving rice and food crop - forage intercropping

68 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012.ROTASI TANAMAN The Living Jigsaw: Planning for Crop Rotation in Your Vegetable Garden Leaves, Fruits, Roots, Rebuild. That's your new mantra. Leaves, fruits, roots, rebuild. Think of a salad: lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, peas. What you are eating are the leaves of the lettuce, the fruits of the tomato vine, and the root of the carrot. The pea... you are eating the fruit (seed) of the pea vine, but more important to your garden is that fact that peas and beans are soil rebuilders because of their marvelous nitrogen fixing capacity.

69 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Vegetable garden crop rotation is a process where different types of plant groups are grown in different spaces, rotating each season. The purpose is to ensure healthy vigorous vegetable growth and minimise pests and disease. Different vegetable plant groups have different nutritional needs and are affected by different pests and diseases. Continually growing the same vegetable plants in the same place, year after year drains the soil of particular groups of nutrients and increases the risk of the build up of pests and diseases in the soil, eventually leading to poor health in the crop and reduced productivity. ROTASI JENIS-JENIS SAYURAN The logic behind this crop rotation is that Legumes are known as nitrogen fixing plants, that is, as they grow, the put nitrogen into the soil naturally.

70 Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012. Crop rotation is a method of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of problems and pests that normally occur when one kind of crop is grown year after in the same place. I have in my vegetable garden four sections and I choose plants from the same group to go in each section. The next year I move all them on into the next section as shown in the diagram. Thus each group will only go back to its original section every fourth year. Pergiliran = ROTASI TANAMAN

71 INTERAKSI AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012 Agroecosystem merupakan asosiasi dinamik antara tanaman, hijauan-pakan, ternak, flora & fauna, tanah, air, dan atmosfir. Agroecosystems are contained within larger landscapes, which include uncultivated land, drainage networks, rural communities, and wildlife.

72 Lanskap pertanian Sumberjaya, Lampung Barat Hutan alami Kopi monokultur Sayuran (+ mulsa) Kopi campuran Kopi monokultur Kopi campuran Tan. semusim belukar Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

73 Photo: Kurniatun Hairiah Hutan Lindun g Menebang & membakar vegetasi hutan alami Menanam jenis tan. Baru Mengolah tanah, Memupuk Memanen Kegiatan Pertanian Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

74 .KOMPOSISI AGROEKOSISTEM Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012 Agroekosistem dicirikan oleh komposisi spesies dan aliran-energi yang lebih sederhana dibandingkan dengan ekosistem- alamiah yang stabil.. The agroecosystem needs energy input to maintain its balance. The wet paddy ecosystem, although an artificial system, has a rather complex composition of biotic and non-biotic elements, providing it with relative stability. Injudicious use of pesticides, however, disturbs this balance due to the killing of natural enemies and other organisms in the rice field.

75 Komponen Lanskap Pertanian 1.Area produksi tanaman Dikelola secara intensif, “gangguan” lahan terjadi secara rutin, domestikasi spesies alami 2.Area pertanian dengan tingkat gangguan sedang Area campuran jenis native dan non-native, yang dapat menjadi habitat bagi beberapa jenis hewan. Contohnya padang penggembalaan, hutan tanaman untuk produksi timber, dan sistem agroforestri. 3.Area alamiArea yang masih terdapat flora/fauna alami (asli) daerah tersebut, tetapi luasannya lebih kecil, terdapat pula spesies non-native, sering terjadi gangguan manusia (Source: Gliessman, 2000, p 286) Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

76 Lanskap managemen: sekitar perumahan dibangun jalan setapak, parit drainasi, tiang listrik, pagar  berpengaruh sangat besar terhadap suksesnya konservasi biodiversitas Kebun apel Sayuran Hutan bambu Hutan Tanaman Pinus Semak belukar Kebun apel Hutan bambu Hutan alami Kandang ternak Hutan bambu (Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah) desa Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

77 Pertanian Intensif Terpadu, multifungsi: pohon, tan pangan, padang rumput & hutan tersisa 100 % Segregasi 100 % Integrasi Mosaik produksi lindung konservasi Hutan Alami Deforestasi Perke- bunan ekstensive intensive Kehutanan Pertanian ‘Fungsi hutan hilang’ Agroforestri Keterpaduan tutupan lahan di tingkat lanskap Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

78 Hutan Alami AFmulti -strata AF seder hana Pinus/Maho ni monokultur AFmulti -strata Tan semusim Padi sawah Contoh: Mosaik agroforestri di desa Tulung Rejo, Kec. Ngantang Milik PERHUTANI Milik MASYARAKAT Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

79 .TRANSEK TOPOSEKUENS Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012 A transect is a diagram that is produced during a walking discussion with villagers and shows the key features of different land use zones in a community. Transects are particularly useful when there is a range of land use systems in one community. This is often the case when communities are located on the coast, in hilly areas, on rivers or lakes, or in areas where soils vary over short distances.

80 Hutan alami Lahan pertanian campuran (Agroforest ) padi Agroforestri sederhana Lanskap di Krui (Lampung Barat) Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

81 Apa yang dimaksud dengan Batas dan tepi? Lanskap yang ‘patchy’ (terpecah- pecah) Zona di bagian tepi yang membatasi 2 ekosistem disebut ‘batas’ yang lingkungannya (mis. cahaya yang masuk) berbeda dengan patch di bagian dalam dan bagian tepinya Agroforestri Tan.semusim Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

82 Edges (batas tepian hutan) Komposisi dan struktur biodiversitas serta kondisi iklim mikro berbeda dengan zona di bagian dalam Sumber: Diunduh 10/12/2012 The Edge Effect The edge effect is a term used to describe the various consequences on vegetative communities. These edges can be natural (woodland into heath and creek passing through arid zones) or human induced ( pasture next to forest and road through rainforest). Species (flora & fauna) diversity and numbers are affected by the human induced edges. Managing edge effects can improve the long term viability of a reserve.

83 .. Forest Edge effects include: Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/ Micro-climatic changes ; solar radiation, humidity, air temperature, wind speed and soil temperature. Increase in sunlight & air temperature raises soil temperature and decreases soil moisture which can prevent seeds from shade tolerant species from germinating. Existing vegetation will be put under stress leading to dieback through wind damage, insect attack etc. 2.Edge species ; Rainforest plants will be replaces with species of a wider tolerance range. Aggressive edge- dwelling species such as the Noisy Miner will displace most to all other resident species. Parrots & cockatoos use edges for perching and nesting. Kangaroos and wallabies feed and move along edges. Natural edges (ecotones) are often rich in species. 3.Increase in exotic fauna ; Foxes, cats and dogs tend to move and harbour along roads, tracks and cleared areas adjacent to or in bushland. Edges improve access causing decline in native fauna populations through predation and competition. Both platypus and quoll have suffered from predation by foxes moving along bush tracks. 4.Weed invasion ; edges provide ideal locations for weed establishment and invasion. Weeds seeds spread by wind, water, animals, dumpings, vehicles, soil, RTA, councils, SRA, and livestock are spread to and then from edges. 5.Adjacent land use (miss-use); chemical & fertiliser drift from farmland, trampling & grazing by stock, altered fire regimes, recreational use (big blokes in big machine etc), new tracks creating changed hydrology with erosion and compaction. 6.Noise & movement; extra human activity has direct impacts on native species. Wedge tailed Eagles will abandon nests because of disturbance. Eastern Grey Kangaroos like the edge habitat so the more edge the more kangaroos.

84 EDGE EFFECTS OF CORRIDORS Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Corridors established in woodlands or grasslands can create negative edge effects that extend into the woodland or grassland. Examples include open corridors cleared for roads in woodlands and hedgerows established in grasslands.

85 Key Considerations for Reducing Negative Edge Effects Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Negative edge effects include increased risk of parasitism or disease, increased risk of predation, adverse microclimate conditions, and competition from invasive species. 1.Locate corridors along existing edges and avoid fragmenting habitat patches. 2.Consolidate corridor uses to minimize fragmentation (e.g., combine road and utility corridors). 3.In woodlands, create a dense, feathered edge with vegetation to reduce penetration of edge effects. 4.Narrower corridors will generally have less edge effects into adjacent habitat. 5.If the landscape already consists of patches dominated by edge, a corridor will probably not contribute additional negative impacts.

86 Key Considerations for Reducing Negative Edge Effects Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 These graphs provide a summary of documented edge effects. These distances can be used for estimating the zone of impact and for designing ways to reduce these impacts.

87 Hutan alami Agroforestri = corridor Lahan pertanian semusim Corridor Corridor : zona kecil memanjang yang menghubungkan 2 habitat, dimana kondisinya berbeda dengan kondisi ke 2 habitat yang dihubungkan. (Sumber: ICRAF 2009, Singkarak) Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

88 Transek lereng dan alur sungai

89 FUNGSI AGROEKOSISTEM Fungsi Lahan pertanian dalam konservasi biodiversitas: o Complementary / supplementary habitat o Tempat bernaung o Tempat mencari makan Lahan pertanian dengan diversitas tanaman yang tinggi  struktur lebih kompleks (mis. Agroforestri )  berpeluang lebih besar untuk konservasi biodiversitas dari ekosistem alami Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

90 Hutan tanama n Belukar Photo: Kurniatun Hairiah Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

91 Maksimalisasi Tutupan Hijau Lahan dengan Agroforestry Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 “Agroforestry” mencerminkan nama kolektif untuk sistem dan penggunaan lahan, dimana tanaman keras berkayu (pepohonan, perdu, palem, bambu, dsb) ditanam secara bersamaan dalam unit lahan yang sama dengan tanaman pertanian dan/atau ternak, dengan tujuan tertentu, dalam bentuk pengaturan ruang atau urutan waktu, dan didalamnya terdapat interaksi ekologi dan ekonomi di antara berbagai komponen yang bersangkutan.

92 WaNuLCAS a model of Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The WaNuLCAS model was developed to represent tree-soil-crop interactions in a wide range of agroforestry systems where trees and crops overlap in space and/or time (simultaneous and sequential agroforestry). The model is based on above and below ground architecture of tree and crop, elementary tree and crop physiology and soil science (daily water, N, P and SOM balance for 4 soil layers and 4 horizontal zones).

93 WaNuLCAS a model of Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The model is conceived as four layers of soil exploited by roots of two components: a crop and a tree. A simple vertical water balance is maintained on the basis of precipitation entering the top layer and drainage leaving the bottom layer. Water leaching downwards carries nutrients, based on the current average concentration in soil solution. Each layer of soil has its own potential uptake of water and nutrient; actual uptake is based on a comparison of the summed potential uptake from all layers and the current 'demand' as determined by the plant biomass. Plant growth is limited by light supply as well as the minimum of relative nutrient and relative water uptake. The two plants interact primarily via the belowground resources and also by shading.

94 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION Nguyen Van So National University of Ho Chi Minh City, College of Agriculture and Forestry Vietnam, Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Within the farming system are the household, crop, animal, soil, weed, insect, and other subsystems. The household, crop, and animal subsystems are integrated and interdependent. The household provides labor and management, crops provide feed, and the animals generate power, manure, meat, milk, and capital. The farming system is part of a larger agroecosystem composed of non- agricultural systems, market and credit systems, and other farming systems. The Interaction of the Three Sub-Systems under an Agroforestry System

95 .. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 The Interdependent Elements of a Farming System And Their Connection with Other Elements within the Agrosystem

96 KomposisiStrukturManagemenKonteks regional Land use saat iniPatchy dari segi ukuran dan bentuk Managemen tanaman: pengolahan tanah, cara pemanenan, rotasi tanaman, Native ecosystem, biofical characteristics Floristic dan komposisi structural Pengaturan secara spasial lahan pertanian – non pertanian Ladang penggembalaan dan pengelolaan ternak Lokasi relatif terhadp kawasan konservasi Land use membentuk matriks pertanian Letak patch antar native habitat (jarak, pengaturan) Pengendalian tanaman atau hewan penggangu Temporal Land Use change Proporsi lanscape dengan native vegetation Tingkat konektivitas habitat native dalam lanskap pertanian Degradasi dari patch native vegetation yang tersisa Sejarah pertanian di lanskap Heterogenitas Lanskap, tepi/border Temporal dynamics of land use change Karakteristik utama Lanskap yang mempengaruhi pola dan diversitas hewan dan tanaman (Harvey, 2007: Farming with Nature hal 148) Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

97 Macam lanskap berdasar ketersediaan habitat alami Macam lanskap % Hutan alami tersisa 1Intact> 90% habitat original (hutan alami) 2Variegated60-90% habitat original 3Fragmented10-60% habitat original 4Relictual< 10% hutan alami tersisa Lahan-lahan pertanian umumnya termasuk kategori ‘Fragmented’ atau ‘Relictual’ lanskap Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

98 MANAJEMEN LANDSEKAP MANAJEMEN LANDSEKAP Merawat habitat “non-crop” patch: melalui peningkatan diversitas, kerapatan dan ukuran habitat non- crop patch Merawat dan mengembangkan tumbuhan native (asli) Meningkatkan kerapatan dan variasi tutupan lahan Mengupayakan lanskap selalu tertutup tanaman Meminimalkan penggunaan bahan- bahan kimia

99 Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

100 .AGROEKOSISTEM PADI SAWAH Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan hasil padi dalam ekosistem sawah. The paddy ecosystem response models can be developed to predict changes in rice growth and crop yields in response to climate change, incorporating factors including water, soil, rice variety and cultivation conditions.

101 JARING-JARING MAKANAN DALAM EKOSISTEM SAWAH. Diunduh dari: management/ ….. 9/12/2012 The rice ecosystem, especially in the tropics, is a usually richly endowed with a great diversity of generalist predators and parasitoids, which tend to be more species specific. As the rice habitat is an ephemeral habitat, most pest species that can cause significant damages and yield losses are generally immigrants. Many of these pest species are also specific rice feeders, monophagous or oligophagous (limited host range). Such specialization may be constrained by local host availability. Trophic relationships in a rice ecosystem showing the importance of detritivores and non crop vegetation components.

102 PROSES MIKROBIA TANAH YANG MENGENDALIKAN EMISI GAS METHAN DARI LAHAN SAWAH Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Lahan sawah merupakan sumber gas methan yang sangat penting. Methane is produced anaerobically after the flooding of rice fields, either from acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide as substrate. In contrast, methanotrophic microorganisms oxidize methane to carbon dioxide in the presence of molecular oxygen in the root zone or at the air/water interface, thus reducing the overall methane emissions to the atmosphere. Microbial turnover of methane and transport pathways of gases in wetlands

103 .AGROEKOSISTEM LAHAN SAWAH Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Paddy field ecosystem is composed of surface water, plowed soil layer and subsoil, and the plowed soil layer is divided into two layers; thin oxidized soil layer and reduced soil layer. These soil layers are connected by percolating water. The rice roots are developed and plant residues such as rice straw and stubble after rice harvest are incorporated into the plowed soil layer. These microsites are different habitats for microorganisms, and unique microbial communities inhabit depending on the microsites.

104 Diunduh dari: 9/12/ Better understand the paddy ecosystem response to climate change 2.Quantify the impacts of climate change on methane emission (feedback effect) 3.Explore/test options to enhance adaptation/mitigation under future climate conditions.AGROEKOSISTEM LAHAN SAWAH

105 Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 FACE-N: 1.Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment study for paddy rice with a focus on its effect on nitrogen cycle 2.Further understand the paddy ecosystem response to climate change through the interdependency of the carbon and nitrogen cycles 3.Quantify the N flow and the impacts of climate change on N 2 O and NH 3 emissions 4.Develop a combined numerical models to describe the N cycle in the paddy ecosystem..AGROEKOSISTEM LAHAN SAWAH FACE: Free Air CO2 Enrichment

106 . ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY OF THE PADDY SOIL-RICE SYSTEM IN ASIA Kazutake Kyuma Department of Environmental Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka-cho, Hikone City, Japan 522, Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 The paddy soil-rice system has efficient nutrient replenishing mechanisms. Basic cations and silica are supplied by irrigation water, while biological fixation works as an inexhaustible source of N in the system, and phosphorus availability is enhanced under anaerobic conditions. This, along with almost perfect resistance to soil erosion, gives the paddy rice system high productivity as well as high sustainability. To cope with an increasing world population, the paddy rice system has to be intensified by developing the infrastructure for irrigation and drainage, and adopting high-input technologies. Schematic Diagram of Nitrogen Cycle in Paddy Soil Ecosystem

107 Persepsi petani: Kebun campuran meberikan hasil terus menerus TANPA menurunkan kesuburan tanah, dan menurunkan penggunaan pupuk kimia Sumber: Kurniatun Hairiah Bahan Kuliah Ekologi Pertanian, Jurs Tanah FPUB

108 .TUMPANGSARI Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Practice crop rotation for the intercrops. Plant leguminous nitrogen-fixing crops after grain crops to replenish losses from grain harvest. Some legume crops improve nitrogen gains through symbiotic fixation. Example of a crop sequence: mungbeancorn/rice-cowpea. Practice crop rotation for the intercrops

109 Integrating local tree species into family farms Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The local farmers' organization, have been gradually planting trees to create "forests,, on sections of their own farms. These "family forests are planted with exotic trees and a variety of local forest species that traditionally provided the farm families with food, timber, fuelwood, herbal medicines and other useful products. The Hutan keluarga have evolved into highly varied systems in terms of species composition and planting distances resulting from individual preferences and selection of each household. FAMILY FOREST = HUTAN KELUARGA

110 . LAHAN PEKARANGAN Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The pekarangan (homegarden) is a mixture of annual crops, perennial crops and animals (including livestock) in the area surrounding a house. It is an integrated system with definite boundaries that serves a variety of economic, biophysical and sociocultural functions. The homegarden system originated in Central Java and spread to East and West Java in the middle of the eighteenth century. Kebun-talun and homegardens in West Java generate relatively good income and are good sources of calcium, vitamin A and vitamin C. A typical homegarden in West Java A typical homegarden has a similar structure from year to year, though there may be some seasonal variations. The lowest two layers (up to 2 m in height) are dominated by starchy food plants, vegetables and spices. Cassava and ganyong (Canna edulis) are the most common plants found in the homegarden. The next layer (two to five meters) is dominated by bananas, papayas and other fruit trees. The five to ten meters layer is also dominated by fruit trees or other cash crops, such as cloves. The top layer, higher than 10 meters, is dominated by coconut and other trees, e.g., Albizia, for building materials and firewood.

111 .KEBUN CAMPURAN Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 Development from garden to mixed garden to mixed tree garden The economic value of the mixed garden is less than that of the garden, but the biophysical value becomes higher. The diversified nature of the kebun campuran also enhances soil and water conservation. Erosion in the talun system is minimal, because undergrowth and litter are abundant. When the undergrowth and litter are removed, erosion may increase substantially. In the kebun campuran, shade-tolerant plants such as taro occupy the space below one meter. Cassava forms the second layer from one to two meters height and the third layer is occupied by bananas and trees.

112 .STS = SISTEM TIGA STRATA Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 The three-strata system The three-strata system is a method of planting and harvesting grasses, legumes, shrubs and trees in such a way that animal fodder will be available throughout the year. The practice was developed by households in the island of Bali. The first layer, consisting of grasses and legumes is intended to supply fodder at the beginning of the wet season. The second layer, consisting of shrubs, is to supply fodder in the middle and the end of the wet season. The third layer, comprised of trees, is to supply fodder during the dry season. The three-strata system divides a piece of land into three parts: nucleus; blanket; boundary. The nucleus is maintained for food production. The blanket is divided into a number of compartments, with each compartment cultivated with various grasses and legumes.

113 .. Rice terraces-forest agroforestry system Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 A series of bench terraces is constructed along steep mountainsides and rice is planted throughout the year. Irrigation is provided through a network of canals along dikes which originate from natural springs emanating from small forest stands celled pinugo. These are managed and protected by Ifugaos based on a set of tribal laws. Advantages : Sustainable; Steep slopes are put to productive use. Limitations : Laborious to establish and maintain; Limited to areas where there are natural springs.

114 THE COFFEE ECOSYSTEM Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The coffee ecosphere consists of all living things, all inorganic materials and physical forces interacting with one another. Understanding the coffee ecosphere aids in unraveling the energy flows, deciphering the interactions between living things and the environment, the transfer of food, the flow of energy and the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic compounds. The coffee grid in turn depends upon the delicate balance of ecological processes for the fulfillment of its needs. The coffee ecosystem closely interacts with the BIOTIC (LIVING) & the ABIOTIC (NON-LIVING) environment. PRODUCERS OR AUTOTROPHS: These are the green plants with the help of chlorophyll prepare their own food. Since, green plants or producers convert solar energy into chemical energy, they are sometimes referred to as transducers of energy.

115 SHADE EFFECT ON COFFEE PRODUCTION AT THE NORTHERN TZELTAL ZONE OF THE STATE OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO Lorena Soto-Pinto, Ivette Perfecto, Juan Castillo-Hernandez, Javier Caballero-Nieto Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Vol. 80, Issues 1–2, August 2000, Pages 61–69 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 A typical coffee stand profile from Chilón Mexico. The shade cover percentage and coffee shrub density had significant effects on yields. Coffee density had a significant effect on yields but shade tree density had no effect. Coffee cultivar, age of coffee stand, species richness, shade tree density, basal area, slope and aspect did not have significant effects on coffee yields. Shade tree cover had a positive effect between 23 and 38% shade cover and yield was then maintained up to 48%. Production may decrease under shade cover >50%. A total of 61 shade species were found, with an average density of 260 trees per hectare, the majority of them being indigenous species, used as food, construction materials and as firewood.

116 Exploring farmer knowledge of soil processes in organic coffee systems of Chiapas, Mexico J.M. Grossman. Geoderma. Volume 111, Issues 3–4, February 2003, Pages 267–287 Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 Farmers had an excellent understanding of the transformation from leaf material to soil and a good understanding of mineralization; however, the role of moisture influence, nutrient uptake, and soil organisms was not well understood. Lengas tanah Kompo s

117 A coffee agroecosystem model: I. Growth and development of the coffee plant Daniel Rodríguez, José Ricardo Cure, José Miguel Cotes, Andrew Paul Gutierrez, Fernando Cantor. Ecological Modelling Volume 222, Issue 19, 10 October 2011, Pages 3626–3639 Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 The main elements of the metabolic pool model



120 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM KEBUN SAWIT Neraca Kalium di Kebun Sawit

121 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM KEBUN KARET

122 Diunduh dari: ….. 9/12/2012 AGROEKOSISTEM KEBUN KARET Sustainable Rubber Cultivation in the Mekong Region: Development of an integrative land-use concept in Yunnan Province, China. Interactions within the socio- ecological system related to ecosystem functions and services of land use. Rubber monocultures reduce agro-biodiversity of traditional land use systems and affect pollinator services for relevant food crops. In addition, expansion of rubber cultivation results in losses of natural biodiversity at landscape and species level due to the reduction of tropical forest areas, which represent a biodiversity hotspot of global importance in the target region.

123 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Rhizosphere Processes and Management for Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity: Implications for China Fusuo Zhang, Jianbo Shen, Junling Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo, Long Li, Xinping Chen. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 107, 2010, Pages 1–32 The interactions in the rhizosphere exert an efficient utilization of nutrient and water through trade-off of facilitation and competition between plant species. (A)Plant growth affected by rhizosphere interactions in wheat/maize/faba-bean intercropping systems, showing an evident interspecific facilitation of nutrient uptake and crop growth between faba- bean and maize, but interspecific competition between wheat and maize; (B)Rhizosphere acidification in the rhizosphere of faba- bean which is imbedded in an agar medium containing bromocresol- purple as a pH indicator. Light or yellow color indicates acidification (pH 4.0); (C)Rhizosphere alkalinization in the rhizosphere of maize (pH 7.5).

124 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Rhizosphere Processes and Management for Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity: Implications for China Fusuo Zhang, Jianbo Shen, Junling Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo, Long Li, Xinping Chen. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 107, 2010, Pages 1–32 Strategies for rhizosphere management based on manipulation of main components and processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem including plant species/genotype, root system growth, rhizosphere environment, rhizosphere microbes, and rhizosphere interactions via intercropping and rotation. The above photos show performance of a P-efficient maize genotype with great root system (left) and a P-inefficient genotype with small root system (right).

125 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Rhizosphere Processes and Management for Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity: Implications for China Fusuo Zhang, Jianbo Shen, Junling Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo, Long Li, Xinping Chen. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 107, 2010, Pages 1–32 Pathway of rhizosphere management in cropping systems throughout the entire crop growth period. (A)Synchronizing rhizosphere nutrient supply with crop demands spatially and temporally at a critical level of nutrient supply in the rhizosphere, and thus maximizing the efficiency of root/rhizosphere in nutrient mobilization and acquisition; (B) Enhancing root growth at early stages and promoting mobilization of soil nutrients at later stages.

126 Diunduh dari: ….. 10/12/2012 Rhizosphere Processes and Management for Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity: Implications for China Fusuo Zhang, Jianbo Shen, Junling Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo, Long Li, Xinping Chen. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 107, 2010, Pages 1–32 Rhizosphere management based on mechanisms of nutrient mobilization and uptake from soil by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

127 Diunduh dari: 10/12/2012 Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping Hongchun Xiong, Hongyun Shen, Lixia Zhang, Yanxiang Zhang, Xiaotong Guo, Pengfei Wang, Penggen Duan, Chunqiao Ji, Lina Zhong, Fusuo Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo. Journal of Proteomics. Available online 24 October Intercropping significantly improves iron nutrition of peanut in calcareous soils. 2.The ecological significance of intercropping was uncovered by proteomics. 3.The photosynthesis-related proteins were higher accumulated in intercropped peanut. 4.Lower abundance of stress responsive proteins was observed in intercropping. 5.Intercropping improves the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress.

128 Diunduh dari: 9/12/2012 ALLEY CROPPING = PERTANAMAN SISTEM- LORONG Alley cropping systems are created by planting single or multiple tree rows at a wide spacing. This creates alleys where agricultural or horticultural crops are planted. High-value hardwoods such as oak, walnut, and ash are typically grown in alley cropping systems. Short rotation biomass species can also be incorporated into the design. The cost of waiting for financial return on the long-term investment in trees is offset by annual income provided from the row crops in the alleys and fruits (nuts) from the trees. This system has been widely researched and is most applicable to agricultural systems in sub-humid regions.


130 ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM ( AEA ). Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012. ANALISIS agroecosystem merupakan analisis tentang lingkungan pertanian yang meliputi aspek-aspek ecology, sociology, economics, dan politik. An agroecosystem analysis approach might be used to determine the sustainability of an agricultural system. It has become apparent, however, that the "sustainability" of the system depends heavily on the definition of sustainability chosen by the observer. The Agroecosystem analysis is used to bring the richness of the true complexity of agricultural systems to an analysis to identify reconfigurations of the system (or holon) that will best suit individual situations.

131 ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM.. Agro-ecosystem analysis (AEA) is a methodology for zoning and analysing agricultural systems in order to plan and prioritise research and development activities in the fields of agriculture and natural resource management. It uses a holistic or systems approach to gather bio-physical and socio-economic information and, within the ecosystem, to identify key issues or problems that will be useful for rural development, extension and research programmes. The main reasons for conducting AEA are to: 1.Describe upland land-use systems of selected study areas. 2.Identify, demarcate and map agro-ecological zones of selected study areas. 3.Describe the physical and socio-economic characteristics and conditions of agroecological or forestry zones identified. 4.Identify agricultural, forestry and socio-economic issues and problems existing in the zones so that they can be addressed by extension or research programmes. 5.Provide district authorities with information that can be used to plan development activities to address poverty. 6.Strengthen district skills and capacities in agro-ecological zoning and rural development planning. 7.Match available agricultural and forestry technology options with identified agricultural sub-systems or recommendation domains. 8.Promote co-operation and linkages between research and development. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

132 PROSEDUR AEA AEA is based on the concepts of systems, hierarchies, agro-ecosystem zones, and the system properties of productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. THE AEA follows a step-by-step procedure to decide on the purpose of the analysis, to define precisely the system(s) of study, identify its boundaries, its position in the hierarchy of other systems and its major components and their key interactions. As an understanding of the system is developed, a limited number of key issues begin to emerge which are then used to guide later analysis and to plan further follow-up studies in the field. As these issues are clarified and understood, key questions and hypotheses are proposed, elaborated and used to identify research and extension priorities. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

133 .OUTPUT AEA The most important and useful outputs that AEA provides are: 1.The delineation and description (biophysical and socio-economic) of distinct agro- ecological zones at the agro-ecosystem level chosen, i.e. District or Development Area. 2.An improved, holistic understanding of the major farming and livelihood systems of each zone. 3.A prioritised list of important problems and opportunities for each zone. 4.A prioritised set of research, extension and development proposals to solve the problems. 5.Enhanced interdisciplinary cooperation and improved research and extension linkages. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

134 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA AEA uses a variety of tools to assist with the analysis of space, time, flow and decision- making. Many are similar to PRA tools and all emphasise simplicity, participation and objectivity. Transect diagrams (space analysis tool) Transect diagrams are used to describe and compare each agro- ecological zone according to a number of key agro-ecological and socio-economic parameters. Transects help to ensure that all relevant information is collected and clearly organised for each agro- ecological zone; they also assist in the analysis by facilitating comparisons and identifying important relationships among the zones. Historical profiles (time analysis tool): Historical profiles or 'timelines' are used to identify key events and analyse changes and trends over the longer term. They review major occurrences over a number of decades and usually rely heavily on local knowledge. Their purpose is twofold: firstly, to try to identify longer-term trends, for example changes in forest cover, trends in rice yields, changes in livelihood systems, etc. Secondly, they are used to assess the robustness of the agro-ecosystem to major perturbations such as flood/drought, pest outbreaks, market-price fluctuations, etc. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

135 TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: l--11-en about utfZz-8- 00&a=d&cl=CL3.33&d=HASH012b7a70e5e4e0a26a903e7e.6.6 ….. 8/12/2012

136 TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: …….. 10/12/2012 Landscape position of riparian wetlanda in the piedmont and coastal plain of North Carolina. The landscape position of a riparian-type wetland is shown schematically in figure. Drainage water leaving either rural or urban uplands must pass through the riparian area before reaching the stream. During that journey, chemical, physical, and biological processes in the riparian area have the opportunity to alter the quality of the water reaching the stream.

137 TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: …….. 10/12/2012 Trapping Sediment and Phosphorus It is found that riparian wetlands remove large amounts of sediment and phosphorus from surface runoff. The figure shows the dense vegetative growth usually present at the field-forest edge of riparian areas. This growth slows the flow of the surface water, depositing much of the coarser sediment, as shown schematically in figure. As the water moves further through the wetland into the higher-order streams and finally into the floodplain swamp, the texture of the deposited sediments becomes finer and finer. By the time it reaches the floodplain swamp, the sediment layer is extremely thin and consists mostly of clay-sized particles.

138 TIME-ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. The figure shows a timeline for a 12- week FFS that is synchronized with a planting season to start a week after transplanting. Diunduh dari: docrep/005/ac834e/ac834 e05.htm ….. 8/12/2012 A simplified diagram of the population dynamics of the species studied. Sumber: bstra1.htm

139 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Venn diagrams (decision analysis tool): Venn diagrams are used to analyse relationships among agro-ecosystem communities, and projects and agencies providing support to them. They are useful in identifying potential development partners or detecting where inter-agency cooperation could be improved. In Venn diagrams, overlapping circles represent good cooperation, touching circles represent some cooperation and non- touching circles represent poor or no cooperation. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012 Venn diagram showing the proportion of men who disclosed perpetration of different types of rape

140 ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Diagram Venn yang menun jukkan jumlah dan persentase sampel rumahtangga petani (n = 177) yang menggunakan benih jagung lokal, modern- hibrida dan daur-ulang. Diunduh dari: 10/12/2012

141 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Kalender Musiman (time analysis tool): Seasonal calendars are also used to analyse time related changes for each agro-ecosystem, but over the shorter term (within- year). Climate, cropping patterns, major agricultural operations, labour use, price movements, social activities, etc. are pre- sented by month so that com- parisons can be made and key periods identified. Diagram Alir (flow analysis tool): Flow diagrams are used to analyse the flow of materials, money, information, labour, etc. both from outside and within the system. Flows occur both up and down the hierarchy, i.e. from village to district to province, and from one agro- ecosystem zone to another, e.g. grazing cattle migration from zone to zone in different seasons. Various schematic means of representing these flows exist and can be selected according to participants' needs and capacities. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

142 KALENDER MUSIMAN - AGROEKOSISTEM. The seasonal calendar is a tool and not simply a product. Once it is completed it should be used as the basis for discussion about the variables included within it. Seasonal calendars are easy to record. Notes on the discussions of the calendars should also be made. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

143 BAGAN ALIR ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012 The relationships between agronomic and environmental factors affecting soil, plant, crop and animal health. (WUE = water use efficiency)

144 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Problem-cause diagrams (decision analysis tool): Problem-cause diagrams or 'problem-solution trees' are used to analyse the causes of problems, identify the linkages between them, understand the way farmers cope with the problem, and identify appropriate solutions. Problem diagrams begin with a broad statement of the overall problem, which is then broken down into component problems, and eventually the root causes; these are then examined to identify farmer responses to the problem, and finally, alternative solutions are proposed. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

145 The Cause and Effect Diagram The Cause and Effect Diagram is also referred as Fishbone Diagram is a graphical technique that can be employed in teams to distinguish and arrange the reasons of an event or outcome or problem. It graphically illustrates the stratified relationship among the causes as per their level of significance or item and a given outcome. It is also known as Ishikawa Diagram. Diunduh dari: aspx ….. 10/12/2012.

146 KOMPONEN ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Perkebunan pisang sebagai suatu Agroekosistem. (Source: C. E. Hernandez and S. G. Witter, 'Evaluating and managing the environmental impact of banana production in Costa Rica', Ambio, 25 (1996), p173. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

147 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Tabel Ciri-ciri Sistem (system properties analysis tool): Empat ciri-ciri agroekosistem adalah: productivity, stability, sustainability dan equitability, dianalisis dengan menggunakan alat bantu Tabel - Ciri-ciri - Sistem. Analysis proceeds by listing those attributes of the agro-ecosystem, which have positive and negative effects on the four system properties, and explaining the way this occurs. This identification of the important elements in each system encourages a more balanced analysis than the traditional focus on productivity would provide. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

148 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Ranking Berpasangan (Alat untuk menyusun prioritas): Ranking berpasangan ini dapat digunakan untuk menyusun ranking secara obyektif isu-isu, problematik dan solusi-solusi. Objectivity is improved if multidisciplinary groups conduct the ranking, as it then incorporates a variety of different per- spectives and points of view. Pairwise ranking proceeds by listing the problems to be compared, and then comparing each problem with every other problem, in turn. When all comparisons have been completed, the scores are totalled to provide a ranking of the relative importance of each. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

149 ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Pendugaan Dampak Once proposed solutions to the key problems have been generated by AEA, a simple assessment technique can be used to assess the impact of each proposed solution on important cross- cutting issues such as gender, poverty and the environment. Hasil pendugaan dampak ini digunakan untuk memodifikasi setiap alternatif solusi (proyek) guna memaksimumkan dampak positif dan meminimumkan dampak negatifnya. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

150 KOMPONEN ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Pada tingkat ekosistem dapat digunakan Metode Pemodelan dan GIS untuk menganalisis struktur damn manajemen sistem. Population models must be built up from the individual physiological and behavioural level and be driven by soil factors and weather. Policy issues must include social science components impinging on the agroecosystem structure and function. Diunduh dari: ….. 8/12/2012

151 ASPEK-ASPEK PENTING DALAM ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduh dari: 8/12/ Faktor-faktor apa saja yang menentukan konfigurasi agroecosystem ? 2.How does one quantify the sustainability of the farm holon (economic, social, political, ecological and/or other)? 3.How does the farmer or farm family perceive an agroecosystem? 4.What is the farmer doing now, and how do those practices or actions affect the viability of the agroecosystem? 5.Can the farmer maintain his livelihood continuing with current practices? 6.What does the farmer value and where do those values come from? 7.Apakah petani mempertimbangkan konfigurasi usahatani alternatif?

152 .. NERACA HARA PADA AGRO- ECOSYSTEM Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012 Plant Nutrient Balances in the Asian and Pacific Region - the Consequences for Agricultural Production. Ernst W. Mutert. FOOD AND FERTILIZER TECHNOLOGY CENTER Kehilangan N: Pencucian Gas N2 Erosi tanah Seresah panen Hasil Tanaman Tanah Tanaman Ternak

153 KAJIAN KESEHATAN AGROEKOSISTEM Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1998 Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012 Mencari solusi: Negosiasi & Pengambilan -keputusan Rekonstruksi Sistem: Sintesis Sistem Dekonstruksi Sistem: Analisis sistem Model subsistem Analisis stakeholder dan kelembagaan: Kekuasaan, Pengambilan keputusan, Perspektif Analisis Issu Proses Penelitian

154 THE AMOEBA READING The basic idea of the amoeba reading is to provide a graphic representation of system performance as assessed over a certain number of aspects/qualities that cannot be expressed as a function of the others. Amoeba reading applied to a subsistence farming household. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1998 Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012

155 THE AMOEBA READING The basic idea of the amoeba reading is to provide a graphic representation of system performance as assessed over a certain number of aspects/qualities that cannot be expressed as a function of the others. Amoeba reading applied to a farming household in a developed country. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1998 Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012

156 Model AGRO-ECOSYSTEM Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1998 Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012 Output agro- ekosistem Amenitas ekologis Nilai Produk Subsidi

157 .MODEL AGROEKOSISTEM Output agroekosistem berupa jasa-jasa amenitas, produk dan limbah. Lingkungan eksternal dan aktyivitas manusia mempengaruhi tipe, kualitas dan kuantitas output melalui “subsidi” kepada sistem. The external environment and the human activity system influence the type, quality and quantity of output through subsidy to the system. The more detailed models can be used to study system behaviour in terms of various ecosystem health attributes (and hence indicators). Karakteristik sistem, seperti integritas, adaptabilitas, effisiensi, effectivitas, resiliensi, produktivitas, stabilitas dan equitas pada berbagai kondisi biasanya beragam sesuai dengan perilaku sistem. Values taken by attributes under these conditions will be taken as reflecting system thresholds, targets and ranges. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1998 Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012

158 H IERARKHI AGRO - EKOSISTEM Diunduh dari: 3%29.pdf ….. 10/12/2012 Dimensi ekologis Dimensi Sosial

159 PENUTUP Mengelola diversitas pada lanskap pertanian  menguntungkan semua organisma termasuk manusia baik jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang! Kerjasama antara konservasionist (biologi) dengan ahli pertanian  topik pertanian berkelanjutan

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