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RESPIRASI KUNCORO PUGUH S. RESPIRASI VENTILASI PARU : Proses keluar / masuknya udara dari atm ke alveolus DIFUSI GAS : Difusi O2 &CO2 alv darah TRANSPOR.

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Presentasi berjudul: "RESPIRASI KUNCORO PUGUH S. RESPIRASI VENTILASI PARU : Proses keluar / masuknya udara dari atm ke alveolus DIFUSI GAS : Difusi O2 &CO2 alv darah TRANSPOR."— Transcript presentasi:

1 RESPIRASI KUNCORO PUGUH S

2 RESPIRASI VENTILASI PARU : Proses keluar / masuknya udara dari atm ke alveolus DIFUSI GAS : Difusi O2 &CO2 alv darah TRANSPOR GAS : Transpor O2 & CO2 alv darah PENGATURAN VENTILASI :

3 FUNGSI RESPIRASI UTAMA : Membawa O2 sampai ke jaringan & mengambil CO2 dari jaringan SEKUNDER : 1. Regulasi keasaman cairan ekstrasel 2. Pengendalian suhu 3. Eliminasi air 4. Fonasi

4 The Respiratory System The respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to exchange gases between the air and blood (external respiration) and between blood and tissue fluids (internal respiration). Inspiration and expiration move air in and out of the lungs during breathing. Cellular respiration is the final destination where ATP is produced in cells.

5 Respiration Physiological process by which oxygen moves into an animal’s internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out Oxygen is needed for aerobic respiration Carbon dioxide is produced by same

6 Pressure Gradients Concentration gradients for gases Gases diffuse down their pressure gradients Gases enter and leave the body by diffusing down pressure gradients across respiratory membranes

7 Atmospheric Pressure Pressure exerted by the weight of the air on objects on Earth’s surface At sea level = 760 mm Hg Oxygen is 21% of air; its partial pressure is about 160 mm Hg

8 Surface-to-Volume Ratio As animal size increases, surface-to-volume ratio decreases Small, flat animals can use the body surface as their respiratory surface Larger animals have special structures to increase respiratory surface, such as gills or lungs

9 Ventilasi Paru Anatomi & Fisiologi  Hidung  Pharing  Laring  Trachea  Bronchus  Bronchiolus  Bronchiolus terminalis  Bronchiolus Respiratorius  Duktus alveolaris  Saccus alveolaris Keterangan :  Zona konduksi  Zona transisional & Respirasi

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11 HIDUNG Bulu rambut : Fungsi sbg filter ( µm) Sinus : Membentuk ruang berkelok-kelok & pembuluh darah >> Fungsi untuk menjaga kelembaban dan suhu agar sesuai dengan tubuh

12 Sinusitis Pada Kuda yang menderita penyakit gigi terutama pada rahang bagian atas Pada Sapi yang mengalami dehorning (pemotongan tanduk)

13 Nostril = Cuping Hidung Pada Kuda berfungsi untuk membedakan makanan Digunakan sebagai indikator hewan bila mengalami penyakit yang kronis, nostril bersisik dan kering

14 Pharing Pada Primata dan mamalia terdapat tiga saluran yaitu Saluran pernafasan, saluran makanan, saluran pendengaran

15 Nasal Cavity and Pharynx

16 Laring Tempat pembentukan suara

17 Speech Production Vocal cords stretch across laryngeal opening; opening between them is glottis Position of cords is varied to create different sounds

18 Vocal Folds

19 TRACHEA - BRONCHUS Tulang rawan berbentuk U dan Otot polos Mucociliary escalator bergetar X/min sbg filter < 10 µm Bronchodilator :  Adrenalin ( reseptor  2 )  P O2  P CO2 Bronchokonstriksi :  Acethilcholine  Histamine  P CO2

20 Trachea Windpipe Divides to form Primary bronchi Carina: Cough reflex Insert Fig 23.5 all but b

21 ALVEOLUS Mempunyai makrophag Mudah mengembang dan mengempis : Jaringan elatik >> Surfaktan : fungsi untuk menurunkan tegangan permukaan paru, diproduksi sel alveolar tipe II

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23 Bronchioles and Alveoli

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25 red blood cell air space inside alveolus pore for airflow between alveoli Cutaway View of Alveolus (see next slide)

26 Fish Gills Most commonly internal Water is drawn in through mouth and passed over gills water flows in through mouth FISH GILL water flows over gills, then out

27 Countercurrent Flow Blood flow runs in the opposite direction of water flow over the filaments This enhances movement of oxygen from water to blood direction of water flow respiratory surface direction of blood flow oxygen-poor blood from deep in body oxygenated blood back toward body

28 Vertebrate Lungs Originated in some fishes as outpouching from gut wall Allow gas exchange in oxygen-poor aquatic habitats and on land salamander reptile

29 Avian Respiration Lungs are inelastic and connect to a series of air sacs Air is drawn continually though each lung air sacs air sacs lungs air sacs

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32 Sistem sirkulasi Darah dari seluruh tubuh hewan akan melalui sistem sirkulasi kecil yaitu Atrium kanan -> Ventrikel kanan -> a. pulmonalis -> kapiler pulmonalis -> v. pulmonalis -> atrium kiri -> ventrikel kiri -> seluruh tubuh

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34 OTOT RESPIRASI INSPIRASI ( HISAP ) Diaphragma M. Intercostalis eksterna M. Sternocleidomastoideus EKSPIRASI (HEMBUS )  M. Intercostalis interna  Musculus abdominal

35 There Inspiration and Expiration is a continuous column of air from the pharynx to the alveoli, and the lungs lie within the sealed-off thoracic cavity. The thoracic cavity is bounded by the rib cage and diaphragm. Pleural membranes line the thoracic cavity and lungs and the intrapleural pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure, keeping the lobules of the lungs from collapsing.

36 Tracheobronchial Tree

37 Inspiration When we inhale (inspiration) impulses from the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata cause the rib cage to rise and the diaphragm to lower, causing the thoracic cavity to expand. The negative pressure or partial vacuum in the alveoli causes the air to come in. Changing amounts of blood of CO 2 and H + increase breathing rate.

38 Inhalation Diaphragm flattens External intercostal muscles contract Volume of thoracic cavity increases Lungs expand Air flows down pressure gradient into lungs

39 Expiration When we exhale (expiration), lack of impulses from the respiratory center allow the rib cage to lower and diaphragm to resume dome shape. Expiration is passive, while inspiration is active. The elastic recoil of the lungs causes expiration. A deep breath causes alveoli to stretch; stretch receptors then inhibit the respiratory center.

40 Normal (Passive) Exhalation Muscles of inhalation relax Thoracic cavity recoils Lung volume decreases Air flows down pressure gradient and out of lungs

41 Active Exhalation Muscles in the abdomen and the internal intercostal muscles contract Contraction decreases thoracic cavity volume more than passive exhalation A greater volume of air must flow out to equalize intrapulmonary pressure with atmospheric pressure

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44 Alveolar Pressure Changes

45 VOLUME & KAPASITAS PARU VOLUME PARU Jumlah udara yang menempati petak-petak saluran pernafasan Contoh :  Tidal Volume  Inspiratory Reserve Volume  Expiratory Reserve Volume  Residual Volume

46 Kapasitas paru Penjumlahan dua atau lebih dari volume paru Contoh :  Inspiratory Capacity  Vital Capacity  Functional Residual Capacity  Total Lung Capacity Alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur SPIROMETER

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48 Average Tidal Volume For Several Domestic Animal Species AnimalBW ( Kg )ConditionRespiratory frequency ( breaths/min) Tidal Volume (ml/kg) Cattle Holstein cows Jersey cows Clinical index Horse Thoroughbred Clinical Index Dog Clinical index Cat Clinical index Standing Anesthetized Resting Anesthetized Pentobarbital anesthesia Anesthetized Pentobarbital anesthesia Anesthetized – – – – – –

49 Respiratory frequency for several animal species under different conditions AnimalConditionCycles/minute RangeMean Horse Dairy cow Dairy Calf Swine Dog Cat Sheep Standing ( at rest ) Sternal recumbency Standing ( 52 Kg BW, 3 weeks age ) Lying down ( 52 Kg BW, 3 weeks age ) Lying down ( Kg BW) Sleeping ( at rest ) Standing ( at rest ) Sleeping Lying down, awake Standing, ruminating 10 – – – – – – – – – –

50 COMPLINCE ( DAYA KEMBANG) PADA SISTEM PERNAFASAN TERDPAT TIGA MACAM COMPLIANCE : 1. COMPLIANCE PARU SAJA, YANG MERUPAKAN COMPLIANCE PARU BILA PARU DILEPAS DARI TORAKBESARNYA = 0,22 LITER / CM AIR 2. COMPLIANCE TORAK SAJA, YANG MERUPAKAN COMPLIANCE TORAK SAJA TANPA PARU 3. COMPLIANCE PARU-TORAK YANG MERUPAKAN COMPLIANCE SISTEM PERNAFASAN BESARNYA = 0,13 LITER /CM AIR

51 DEAD SPACE DEAD SPACE ANATOMIS Ruang yang secara anatomis tidak ada pertukaran gas DEAD SPACE FISIOLOGIS Ruang yang secara anatomis tidak ada pertukaran gas ditambah alveoli yang tidak berfungsi karena difusi – atau pembululuh kapiler -

52 MINUTE VOLUME Volume udara yang terdapat dalam saluran pernafasan permenit pada pernafasan biasa (TV) TV X Frekuensi pernafasan ex : 500 ml X 12 /min = 6000ml/min

53 ALVEOLAR VENTILATION (TV - DEAD SPACE ) X FREKUENSI PERNAFASAN / MIN Ex : ( 500 ml ml ) X 12 / min = 4200 ml/min

54 DIFUSI GAS Dipengaruhi oleh : 1. Tebal membran : semakin tebal akan semakin sulit 2. Luas permukaan membran : semakin luas semakin cepat 3. Koefisien difusi : kecepatan difusi melalui daerah tertentu pd jarak & perbedaan tertentu ex. O2=1,0 ;CO2=20,3 ;CO=0,81 ;N2=0,53 ;He=0,95 4. Gradien tekanan :bergerak dari tek. tinggi ke tek. rendah

55 Respiratory Membrane Area between an alveolus and a pulmonary capillary Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across easily alveolar epithelium capillary endothelium fused basement membranes of both epithelial tissues

56 Changes in Partial Pressures

57 Skema difusi gas

58 TRANSPOR GAS Transpor O2  97% Oxyhemoglobin ( HbO2 )  3% Plasma Transpor CO2  67% Bicarbonate  24% Carbaminohemoglobin  9% Plasma

59 Oxygen Transport Most oxygen is carried bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells Hemoglobin has a great affinity for oxygen when it is at high partial pressure (in pulmonary capillaries) Lower affinity for oxygen in tissues, where partial pressure is low

60 Hemoglobin

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62 Bicarbonate Formation CO 2 + H 2 OH 2 CO 3 carbonic acid HCO 3 – bicarbonate + H + Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate Some binds to hemoglobin Small amount dissolves in blood

63 TRANSPORT O2 DAN CO2 DARI JARINGAN KE SEL DRH

64 Carbon Dioxide Transport and Chloride Movement

65 KURVA DISSOSIASI OXYHEMOGLOBINE Hubungan antara PO2 plasma dengan % Saturasi Hb O2 bound to Hb % Saturasi Hb = X 100% O2 Capacity of Hb

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67 KURVA DISOSIASI OKSIGEN. Kurva ini dipengaruhi oleh suhu, PCO2, pH dan enzim DPG. Pengaruh mereka dapat dilihat pada kurva berikut : bergeser ke kanan bila : 1. PCO2 meningkat 2. pH turun 3. Suhu naik 4. DPG naik bergeser ke kiri 1. PCO2 turun 2. pH naik 3. Suhu turun 4. DPG turun P aO2 KIRI NORMAL KANAN

68 REGULASI PERNAFASAN Pusat pernafasan Diatur oleh sekelompok neuron yang terletak dalam substasia retikularis dari medulla oblongata dan pons

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70 Respiratory Structures in Brainstem

71 CHEMORESEPTOR ARTERIAL : Pada Arcus Aorta & A. Carotis CO2 meningkat H2 menurun O2 menurun Central : di otak Karena CO2 dpt melewati sawar otak (Blood Brain Barrier System)

72 Control of Breathing Nervous system controls rhythm and magnitude of breathing Breathing is adjusted as a result of changes in Carbon dioxide levels Oxygen levels H + levels Apnea = interrupted breathing

73 Modifying Respiration

74 Beberapa Istilah Cyanosis : kebiruan pd kulit yg disebabkan oleh jumlah Hb yg terdeoksigenasi meningkat di dlm p. drh kulit ( terutama kapiler) Eupnea : pernapasan normal Tachipnea : pernapasan cepat Bradypnea : pernapasan lambat Hipoksia : kekurangan oksigen di jaringan Hipoksemia : kekurangan oksigen di dalam darah

75 Regulation of Blood pH and Gases

76 Bronchitis Irritation of the ciliated epithelium that lines the bronchiole walls Air pollutants, smoking, or allergies can be the cause Excess mucus causes coughing, can harbor bacteria Chronic bronchitis scars and constricts airways

77 Emphysema An irreversible breakdown in alveolar walls Lungs become inelastic May be caused by a genetic defect Most often caused by smoking

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79 Fig


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