Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

Presentasi serupa

Presentasi berjudul: "Pengantar Teknologi Informasi"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi
Materi 3 Perangkat Komputer: Memahami Bagian & KomponenKomputer Semester Gasal TA.2011/2012 Chapter 2 takes a look at the different parts of a computer. 2

2 Sub Pokok Bahasan Fungsi komputer Data versus informasi Bits dan bytes
Perangkat Input Perangkat Output Satuan Sistem Ergonomik Chapter topics include: Functions of a computer The difference between data and information The definition of bits and bytes Input devices Output devices System unit Ergonomics 3

3 Perangkat pengolahan data
4 fungsi utama komputer : Mengumpulkan data (pengguna menginput data) Memproses data mejadi informasi Menghasilkan data atau informasi Menyimpan data dan informasi Strictly defined, a computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions: 1. It gathers data (or allows users to input data). 2. It processes that data into information. 3. It outputs data or information. 4. It stores data and information. 4

4 Data vs. Informasi Data: Merepresentasi fakta atau idea
Informasi: terorgasir, data ygn bermakna Data is a representation of a fact or idea. Data can be a number, a word, a picture, or even a recording of sound. For example, the number and the names Derek and Washington are pieces of data. Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion. When your computer provides you with a contact listing that indicates Derek Washington can be reached by phone at (612) , the data mentioned earlier suddenly becomes useful— that is, it is information. 5

5 Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers
Binary digit 0 or 1 Byte Delapan bits Masing huruf, bilangan, dan karakter = a string of eight 0s and 1s In order to process data into information, computers need to work in a language they understand. This language, called binary language, consists of just two digits: 0 and 1. Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s. Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit, or bit for short. Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create 1 byte. In computers, each letter of the alphabet, each number, and each special character (such as sign) consists of a unique combination of 8 bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s. As it turns out, if 8 bits are put together there are 256 possible combinations that they can be in. That number of combinations allows for a code that can include all the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet, all 10 digits, punctuation marks, and many other much-used symbols. We call these 8 bits working together a byte. Bytes are the basic measurement for storage in a computer. 6

6 How Much Is a Byte? Not only are bits and bytes used as the language that tells the computer what to do, they are also what the computer uses to represent the data and information it inputs and outputs. Kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are therefore simply amounts of bytes. 7

7 Software Komputer Software: Program yang memungkin- kan perangkat keras untuk melakukan tugas yang berbeda Software aplikasi Software sistem Software is the set of computer programs that enables the hardware to perform different tasks. There are two broad categories of software: application software and system software. Application software is the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks. If you’ve ever typed a document, created a spreadsheet, or edited a digital photo, for example, you’ve used a form of application software. System software is the set of programs that enables your computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together. The most common type of system software is the operating system (OS). It manages the hardware of the computer system such as the monitor and the printer. The operating system also provides a means by which users can interact with the computer. 8

8 Hardware Komputer Hardware components consist of the system unit and peripheral devices, those devices such as monitors and printers that are connected to the computer. Other hardware devices, such as routers, help a computer communicate with other computers to facilitate sharing documents and other resources. Together the system unit and peripheral devices perform four main functions: they enable the computer to input data, process that data, and output and store the data and information. 11

9 Perangkat yang digunakan untuk memasukkan informasi atau instruksi
Perangkat Input Perangkat yang digunakan untuk memasukkan informasi atau instruksi  ke dalam komputer Keyboard / papan ketik Mouse/perangkat penunjuk Mikrofon Scanner/pemindai Kamera Digital Stylus / An input device enables you to enter data (text, images, and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into the computer. The most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. You use keyboards to enter typed data and commands, whereas you use the mouse to enter user responses and commands by clicking on an icon. There are other input devices as well: microphones input sounds, scanners and digital cameras input nondigital text and digital images. Styluses (devices that look like skinny pens but have no ink) and electronic pens are also becoming quite popular and are often used in conjunction with graphics tablets that can translate a user’s handwriting into digital input. 12

10 Keyboard Tata letak QWERTY standar pada PC umum
Fitur keyboard ditingkatkan termasuk  jumlah, fungsi, dan tombol navigasi. The QWERTY layout gets its name from the first six letters in the top-left row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard. The QWERTY layout was originally designed for typewriters, not computers, and was meant to slow typists to prevent typewriter keys from jamming. The QWERTY layout is therefore considered inefficient because it slows typing speeds. Enhanced keyboard features include number, function, and navigation keys. 13

11 Dvorak Keyboards Menempatkan kunci yang paling sering digunakan pada “home key“ Mengurangi jarak rentang jari With a Dvorak keyboard, you can type most of the more commonly used words in the English language with the letters found around the “home keys,” the keys in the middle row of the keyboard. 14

12 Specialty Keyboards Notebook keyboard Stilus PDA Tablet PCs
Wireless keyboard Notebook computers are portable computers that are powered by batteries and have keyboards, monitors, and other devices integrated into a single compact case. To save space and weight, notebook keyboards are more compact than standard keyboards and therefore have fewer keys. Still, a lot of the notebook keys have alternate functions so that you can get the same capabilities from the limited keys as you do from the special keys on standard keyboards. Generally, you enter data and commands into a PDA using a stylus, a pen-shaped device that you use by tapping or writing on the PDA’s touch-sensitive screen. Tablet PCs are similar to notebook PCs but also feature a touch-sensitive screen and handwriting recognition software. Tablet PCs also allow user input via a stylus. Although most desktop PCs ship with wired keyboards, wireless keyboards are available. These keyboards are powered by batteries and send data to the computer using a form of wireless technology. 14

13 Mice / Tetikus Optical mouse Trackball Tak butuh tatakan mouse
Tak perlu dibersihkan Lebih mahal Trackball Lebih mudah pd pergelangan Tetap stasioner di meja Wireless / tanpa kabel Menggunakan gelombang radio atau cahaya The optical mouse uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse’s movement. Optical mice have no moving parts on the bottom so there is no way for dirt to interfere with the mechanisms and less chance of parts breaking down. A trackball mouse remains stationary and doesn’t demand much wrist motion, so it’s considered healthier on the wrists. Wireless mice send data to the computer by radio or light waves. 17

14 Gambaran Mouse Baru Instant viewer Magnifier/pembesar
Tombol yg dpt dikustomisasi Web search Instant Viewer. Shrinks all windows currently open to thumbnail-size images so that you can see everything open on your desktop at a glance. Magnifier. Pulls up a magnification box that you can drag around the screen to enhance viewing of hard-to-read images. Customizable buttons. Provides extra buttons on the mouse that can be programmed to perform the functions that you use most often to help you speed through tasks. Web Search. Allows you to quickly highlight a word or phrase and then press the search button (on the mouse) to start a Web search. 17

15 Perangkat Input Lainnya
Scanner Teks Images / Citra Kamera Digital Images / citra Video Flatbed scanner Handheld scanner Other input devices include scanners and cameras. Scanners copy images from existing sources, digitize them, and make them available for editing or processing in the computer as well as viewing on the screen. Digital cameras make a digital file of an image for editing, printing, or distribution on the Web. Digital movies can be created with a digital video camera and edited and distributed electronically. Digital camera Camcorder 17

16 EPOS Digital Pen Web Cam Live video
The EPOS Digital Pen works in conjunction with a flash drive. You can write with the pen on any conventional paper, and your writing is captured and then wirelessly transmitted and stored in the flash drive. When the flash drive is connected to a computer, you can use software to translate your writing into digital text. Webcams are small cameras that usually sit on top of your computer monitor or are built into your notebook computer. Although some webcams are able to capture still images, they are used mostly for transferring live video directly to your computer. 17

17 Peng-Input Sound/Suara
Mikropon digunakan untuk: Podcasts Video-conferencing Panggilan Internet phone Pengenalan kata A microphone allows you to capture sound waves and transfer them to digital format on your computer. Microphones come with most computers, but if you didn’t get a microphone with your computer, you may want to buy a desktop microphone if you plan to record your own audio files. Microphones come in two basic types: Unidirectional microphones pick up sound from only one direction. Omnidirectional microphones pick up sounds from all directions at once. A headset microphone is best for videoconferencing and speech-recognition uses. Videoconferencing technology allows a person sitting at a computer equipped with a personal video camera and a microphone to transmit video and audio across the Internet (or other communications medium). In speech-recognition systems, you operate your computer through a microphone, telling it to perform specific commands or to translate your spoken words into data input. 17

18 Perangkat Inputan utk Keterbatasan Fisik
Gangguan visual/pandangan Voice recognition/pengenalan suara Keyboard dgn ukuran kunci besar Keyboard On-screen Masalah kendali motorik Trackball khusus Head-mounted devices Visually impaired users can input data from voice recognition or by large keyboards, including touch-screen keyboards. Users with severe motor control problems use special trackballs designed for one finger use and can be mounted anywhere. When arm motion is severely restrained, head-mounted pointing devices can be used. 22

19 Perangkat Output Kirim data diproses keluar dari komputer
Monitors Printers Perangkat Output membuat : Soft copies (video, sounds, control signals) Hard copies (print) Output devices enable you to send processed data out of your computer. This can take the form of text, pictures (graphics), sounds (audio), and video. One common output device is a monitor, which displays text, graphics, and video as soft copies (copies you can see only on-screen). Another common output device is the printer, which creates tangible or hard copies of text and graphics. Speakers are the output devices for sound. 23

20 Tipe Monitor CRT Cathode Ray Tub LCD Liquid Crystal Display
There are two basic types of monitors: CRTs and LCDs. If your monitor looks like a traditional TV set, it has a picture tube device called a cathode-ray tube (CRT). If your monitor is flat, such as those found in laptops, it’s using liquid crystal display (LCD) technology. CRT monitors are fast becoming legacy technology: computing devices that use techniques, parts, and methods that are no longer popular. Rollback Monitor 24

21 Video Output Lainnya Touch-screen monitor (Monitor Layar sentuh)
Perangkat yg berfungsi input dan output Data projector Memproyeksi citra/gambar komputer ke layar besar utk berbagi dgn kelompok audien besar Touch-screen monitors act as input and output devices in one. They are not common on home computers. People with limited motor control are often greatly assisted by touch-screen monitors. Data projectors project a computer image to a large screen for sharing with large groups. Most often used in education and business, they are becoming less expensive and more portable. 28

22 Printer / Alat Cetak Impact printer/ Nonimpact printer Printer khusus
Dot-matrix Nonimpact printer Inkjet / tinta Laser / toner Printer khusus Multifunction/multifungsi Plotters Thermal printers / printer panas There are two primary categories of printers: impact and nonimpact. Impact printers have tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, thus making a mark on the paper. The most common impact printer is the dot-matrix printer. Dot-matrix printers are a legacy technology. In contrast, non-impact printers spray ink or use laser beams to transfer marks on the paper. The most common nonimpact printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. There are also a number of specialty printers on the market, including multifunction printers, plotters, and thermal printers. 29

23 Nonimpact Printers Inkjet Perangkat lebih mahal
Biaya cetak gambar berkualitas tinggi relatif paling murah Laser Perangkat lebih mahal Mencetak lebih cepat Lebih murah per halaman hita putuh Laser warna menjadi kurang mahal Inkjet printers work by spraying tiny drops of ink onto paper. When using the right paper, higher-end inkjet printers print images that look like professional-quality photos. Because of their high quality and low price, inkjet printers are the most popular printer for color printing. Laser printers are often preferred for their quick and quiet production and high-quality printouts. Although more expensive to buy than inkjet printers, over the long run, for high-volume printing, laser printers are more economical than inkjets (they cost less per printed black-and-white page) when you include the price of ink and special paper in the overall cost. Recently, the prices of color laser printers have fallen, making them price competitive with high-end inkjet printers. 30

24 Memilih Printer Speed/kecepatan (ppm) Resolusi (dpi; dot per inci)
Color output / keluaran warna Memori Kegunaan dan biaya Biaya yang terjangkau konsumen Speed: A printer’s speed determines how many pages it can print per minute (called pages per minute, or ppm). Resolution: A printer’s resolution (or printed image clarity) is measured in dots per inch (dpi). The higher the dpi, the greater the level of detail and quality of the image. Color output: Some printers come with a single ink cartridge for all colors; others have two ink cartridges, one for black and one for color. The best setup is to have individual ink cartridges for each color so you can replace only the specific color cartridge that is empty. Memory: Printers need memory in order to print. Inkjet printers run slowly if they don’t have enough memory. If you plan to print small text-only documents on an inkjet printer, 1 to 2 megabytes (MB) of memory should be enough. Use and cost: If you will be printing mostly black-and-white text-based documents or will be sharing your printer with others, a black-and-white laser printer is best because of its printing speed and overall economies for volume printing. If you’re planning to print color photos and graphics, an inkjet printer or color laser printer is a must, even though the cost per page will be higher. Cost of consumables: You should carefully investigate the cost of consumables (printer cartridges and paper) for any printer you are considering purchasing. 31

25 Outputting Sound Speakers and headphones
Most computers include inexpensive speakers as an output device for sound. These speakers are sufficient to play the standard audio clips you find on the Web and usually enable you to participate in teleconferencing. If you plan to digitally edit audio files or are particular about how your music sounds, you may want to upgrade to a more sophisticated speaker system, such as one that includes subwoofers and surround-sound. Headphones are recommended for notebooks when used in proximity to others. 32

26 Unit Sistem Kotak yg berisi komponen elektronik utama komputer:
CPU/RAM/motherboard Kartu2 Ekpansi Power supply/catu daya Perangkat penyimpanan data The system unit is the box that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computer’s processor, its memory, and circuit boards. You’ll also find the power source and all the storage devices (CD/DVD drive and hard drive) in the system unit. 33

27 Panel Depan Power control Drive bays/slot2 Pembaca kartu memory
Port productivitas The front panel of your computer provides you with access to power controls as well as to the storage devices on your computer. Drive bays are special shelves reserved for storage devices. Some drive bays are internal (can not be seen from outside the system unit) and others are external, such as CD drives. Some PCs include memory card readers and productivity ports on the front, including USB and FireWire, used for peripherals and image downloading. 34

28 Power Controls Power-tombol: Ternyata pada sistem, tidak boleh digunakan untuk mematikan Pilihan lain: Sleep mode/modus tidur Hibernasi Warm boot Your system has a power-on button on the front panel. Although you use this button to turn on your system, you don’t want to use it to turn off your system. You turn off the power by clicking on a shutdown icon on the desktop. When your computer enters Sleep mode, all the documents, applications, and data you were using are in RAM where they are quickly accessible upon starting to use your computer again. Hibernation is another power-saving mode that stores your data in memory and saves it to your computer's hard disk. If you’re using Windows Vista, you can restart the computer when you click the right arrow button next to the lock button on the Start menu. This is called a warm boot. You might need to perform a warm boot if the operating system or other software application stops responding or if you have installed new programs. 35

29 Drive Bays/Slot Drive Slot drive internal: Tidak bisa akses dari luar sistem Dicadangkan untuk internal hard drive Slot drive eksternal: Dapat diakses dari luar sistem CD atau DVD drive Floppy dan Zip drive Drive bays are special shelves reserved for storage devices. Internal drive bays cannot be seen or accessed from outside the system unit. They are reserved for internal hard drives. External drive bays can be seen and accessed from outside the system unit. External drive bays house CD and DVD drives, for example. Empty external drive bays are covered by a faceplate. Some computers still have floppy or disc drives. 36

30 Hard Disk Drive Penyimpan permanen (tanpa bakar)
Versi internal atau eksternal The hard disk drive is your computer’s primary device for permanent storage of software and documents. The hard disk drive is a nonvolatile storage device, meaning it holds the data and instructions your computer needs permanently, even after the computer is turned off. Originally, all hard disk drives were installed inside the system unit. Today, external hard drives are readily available. 36

31 Flash Drives/Flash Memory
Alternatif penyimpan lebih baru Tancapkan pada USB ports Kartu flash memory Sisipkan ke dlm slot di sistem Flash drives, sometimes referred to as jump drives, USB drives, or thumb drives, are the new alternative to storing portable data. They plug into USB ports. Several manufacturers now also include slots on the front of the system unit in which you can insert portable flash memory cards. Many notebooks also include slots for flash memory cards. Flash memory cards let you transfer digital data between your computer and devices such as digital cameras, PDAs, smartphones, video cameras, and printers. 38

32 Kemampuan Media Penyimpan
Here you see the storage capacities of the various portable storage media used in your computer’s drive bays. As you learned, storage capacity is measured in bytes. 39

33 Bagian belakang Komputer Desktop
Port utk periferal Tipe2 port: Serial dan parallel Audio dan video USB FireWire Konnectivitas Ethernet Modem Ports are the place on the system unit where peripheral devices attach to the computer so that data can be exchanged between them and the operating system. Some ports are on the front of the system unit. The ports on the back of the computer are mostly designed for long-term connections. 38

34 Bagian dalam unit sistem
Komponen elektronik pentin g  yg digunakan utk memproses data Jenis komponen: Power supply Hard disk drive Motherboard CPU Kartu2 Ekspansi The system unit contains the essential components of a computer. Inside is the power supply, motherboard, RAM, storage drives, expansion cards, and the central processing unit. Today’s personal computer follows the same design concept of IBM’s first PC in All the components have evolved, but the foundation and concepts are the same. 41

35 Motherboard / papan induk
CPU RAM Kartu2 ekspansi dan slot Komponen2 menyatu The motherboard is the key circuit board holding the essential processing parts. Attached directly to the motherboard are the CPU, RAM, expansion cards, and, in many new computers, networking, modem, video, and audio components. 42

36 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Disebut sebagai "otak" dari komputer Mengontrol semua fungsi komputer Memproses semua perintah dan instruksi Dapat melakukan  milyaran tugas per detik The central processing unit (CPU, or processor) is the largest and most important chip in the computer. It is sometimes referred to as the “brains” of the computer because it controls all the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions. Modern CPUs can perform three billion tasks a second without error, making them extremely powerful components. 43

37 Mudol Memory Random access memory (RAM) Menyimpan instruksi2 dan data
Penyimpan temporari (volatile) Beroperasi dalam nanodetik (sepersejuta detik) Random access memory (RAM) is a series of small cards plugged into slots on the motherboard. The CPU can request any data in RAM. It is then located, opened, and delivered to the CPU for processing in a few billionths of a second. Because all the contents of RAM are erased when you turn off the computer, RAM is the temporary or volatile storage location for the computer. To save data more permanently, you need to save it to the hard drive or to another permanent storage device such as a floppy disk, CD, or flash drive. 44

38 Kartu2 Ekspansi Menambah fungsi2
Menyediakan koneksi baru untuk perangkat periferal Jenis2 umum: Sound Modem Video (VGA) Network/jaringan (NIC) The various circuit boards connected to the motherboard have specific functions that augment the computer’s basic functions. Some provide connections to other devices, so these are usually referred to as expansion cards. Typical expansion cards found in the system unit are the sound card and video card. Other expansion cards provide a means for network and Internet connections such as the network interface card (NIC), which enables your computer to connect with other computers. 44

39 Materi 3. Pertanyaan2 rangkuman
Apa sebenarnya komputer, dan empat fungsi utamanya? Apa perbedaan antara data dan informasi ? Apa yang bit dan byte, dan bagaimana mereka mengukur ? Apa perangkat yang Anda gunakan untuk mendapatkan data ke komputer ? Apa perangkat yang Anda gunakan untuk mendapatkan informasi dari komputer ? Apa yang ada di bagian depan unit sistem Anda ? Apa yang ada di bagian belakang unit sistem Anda ? Apa yang ada didalam unit sistem Anda ? What exactly is a computer, and what are its four main functions? 47

Download ppt "Pengantar Teknologi Informasi"

Presentasi serupa

Iklan oleh Google