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Kuliah STELA – Smno fpub mei 2013. KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Penilaian kesesuaian lahan berikut nini dilakukan untuk spesies-spesies yg telah.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Kuliah STELA – Smno fpub mei 2013. KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Penilaian kesesuaian lahan berikut nini dilakukan untuk spesies-spesies yg telah."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Kuliah STELA – Smno fpub mei 2013

2 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Penilaian kesesuaian lahan berikut nini dilakukan untuk spesies-spesies yg telah ada di lokasi penelitian : Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata, Pinus halepensis, and Eucaliptus camaldulensis. Metode yg digunakan berdasarkan pada pedoman evaluasi lahan F.A.O "Land evaluation for forestry" (1984). The land suitability, whose target is to find better and more suitable places for the implementation of forestry species, analyses soil conditions and climatic factors. Sumber:

3 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Data-data yg diperlukan untuk evaluasi lahan bagi hutan tanaman adalah: Karakteristik lahan, data sosial-ekonomi, analisis B/C ratio. Lokasi penelitian mempunyai peran sosial-ekonomi yang snagat penting. Hutan “Ben Slimane” yang lokasinya dekat dnegan kota-kota Moroccan, Rabat dan Casablanca, dianggap sangat sesuai untuk obyek wisata; juga ada lokasi yang dimanfatakan sebagai lokasi animal grazing dan “cork harvesting” bagi penduduk sekitar. For these reasons the species considered for land suitability are those, among the natural and artificial forest species, that allow a sustainable economy for tourism, pasture, and the production of fuel and paper wood. Sumber:

4 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Methodologi Tahapan metodologi F.A.O adalah sbb: 1.Pemilihan spesies; 2.Determination of ecological parameters that enable to understand the species behaviour regarding edaphic and environmental conditions; 3.Penentuan kelas untuk setiap parameter ekologis; 4.Pengumpulan data geomorfologi (slope) dan data tanah (drainage, pH, depth, texture, organic carbon, calcium carbonate, and coarse fragment); 5.Pengolahan Data. Sumber:

5 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Climatic data such as elevation range, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall were not considered because of the homogeneity of the study area from this point of view. Each class of every ecological parameter was classified with a determined value for each species. The value ranges from zero (worst conditions) to one (optimum conditions). This was done to show the behaviour of the species regarding the chosen parameters as shown in the Table 42 - Table 48. Sumber:

6 HUTAN TANAMAN JABON Hutan tanaman jati-jabon-saradan-madiun-febr2013

7 HUTAN TANAMAN MAHONI (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq) Mahoni termasuk pohon besar dengan tinggi pohon mencapai m dan diameter mencapai 125 cm. Batang lurus berbentuk silindris dan tidak berbanir. Kulit luar berwarna cokelat kehitaman, beralur dangkal seperti sisik, sedangkan kulit batang berwarna abu-abu dan halus ketika masih muda, berubah menjadi cokelat tua, beralur dan mengelupas setelah tua. Mahoni baru berbunga setelah berumur 7 tahun, mahkota bunganya silindris, kuning kecoklatan, benang sari melekat pada mahkota, kepala sari putih, kuning kecoklatan. Buahnya buah kotak, bulat telur, berlekuk lima, warnanya cokelat. Biji pipih, warnanya hitam atau cokelat. Sumber:

8 HUTAN TANAMAN Pohon mahoni BERKEMAMPUAN mengurangi polusi udara sekitar 47% - 69% sehingga disebut sebagai pohon pelindung sekaligus filter udara dan daerah tangkapan air (Khosim dan Lubis, 2006). Daun-daunnya dapat menyerap polutan-polutan di sekitarnya. Sebaliknya, dedaunan itu akan melepaskan oksigen (O2) yang membuat udara di sekitarnya menjadi segar. Ketika hujan turun, tanah dan akar-akar pepohonan itu akan mengikat air yang jatuh, sehingga menjadi cadangan air. Khosim, A. dan K. M. Lubis Geografi untuk SMA kelas XI.Jakarta: Grasindo. Sumber:

9 HUTAN TANAMAN Mahoni dapat tumbuh dengan subur di pasir payau dekat dengan pantai dan menyukai tempat yang cukup sinar matahari langsung. Tanaman ini termasuk jenis tanaman yang mampu bertahan hidup di tanah gersang sekalipun. Walaupun tidak disirami selama berbulan-bulan, mahoni masih mampu untuk bertahan hidup. Syarat lokasi untuk budi daya mahoni diantaranya adalah ketinggian lahan maksimum meter dpl, curah hujan mm/tahun, dan suhu udara C. Sumber:

10 HUTAN TANAMAN Syarat Tumbuh Mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) Tanaman mahoni ini merupakan tanaman tropis dan banyak ditemukan tumbuh liar di hutan jati dan tempat-tempat lain yang dekat dengan pantai. Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh dengan subur di pasir payau dekat dengan pantai. Tanaman ini menyukai tempat yang cukup sinar matahari langsung (tidak ternaungi). Tanaman ini termasuk jenis tanaman yang tahan hidup di tanah gersang. Walaupun tidak disirami selama berbulan-bulan, mahoni masih mampu untuk bertahan hidup. Perbanyakan tanaman dapat dilakukan dengan biji, bisa juga dengan cangkok atau okulasi. Untuk tanaman mahoni yang akan digunakan sebagai tanaman obat, maka tidak boleh diberi pupuk kimia (anorganik) maupun pestisida (Nair, 2000). Sumber: …

11 HUTAN TANAMAN The Swietenia macrophylla King, according to Lamb (1966) and Barros et al (1992), given the large area of occurrence of mahogany, and only in the Brazilian Amazon covers about 1.5 million km². It occurs in various soil conditions, from deep soil, poorly drained, acidic clay soils to well-drained alkaline soils that come from limestone plateau. Sumber: … ECOLOGY AND SILVICULTURE OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla KING) IN THE WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON. Paulo Luiz Contente de Barros, dkk

12 HUTAN TANAMAN Sombroek & Sampaio (1962): the predominant soil of occurrence of mahogany, is yellow podzolic soil with high base saturation and predominantly with imperfect drainage and rich in exchangeable bases. Similar to the soil, the climate in general terms given the extent of the species occurrence, some average data can be assumed: i) Average annual rainfall is approximately 2,000 mm; ii) average temperature varies from 23°C to 26°C, but depending on the region temperature may be lower, given the cold phenomenon, which occurs in the region between the states of Acre and Rondonia for 3 to 80 days a year. 1.SOMBROEK, W. G. & J. B. SAMPAI° Reconnaissance soil survey of the Araguaia mahogany area. FAO, Comissão de Solos, Belém, Pará, Brasil. Relatório, 61 pp. Sumber: … ECOLOGY AND SILVICULTURE OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla KING) IN THE WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON. Paulo Luiz Contente de Barros, dkk

13 HUTAN TANAMAN Lamb (1966): Swietenia macrophylla, King presents a high phenotypic plasticity, given its capacity to adapt to survive in different ecotypes, even under prolonged drought conditions, with less than 100 mm of rainfall per month in shallow, well-drained soils. Mahogany does not grow well in shaded forests and competition at the root system level. Thus, the species behaves as heliophile growing in an open forest. Since the early 1960s, Lamb (1966), noted that natural regeneration of Swietenia macrophylla King takes place in places within the forest where sunlight reaches the ground, and where the litter layer is not thick, allowing the radicle to reach the mineral soil easily. LAMB, F.B. (1966). Mahogany in tropical America: Its ecology and management. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor. 220 p. Sumber: … ECOLOGY AND SILVICULTURE OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla KING) IN THE WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON. Paulo Luiz Contente de Barros, dkk

14 HUTAN TANAMAN MAHONI TOLERAN NAUNGAN Barros, et al (1992) and Lamb (1966) cited that the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King in the shade presents low development, given the limited availability of energy for photosynthesis under conditions of understory of dense tropical forests. Mahogany seedlings need light to germinate and develop; therefore, they are classified as heliophila, so that when it occurs in forest openings have excellent growth. 1.BARROS, P.C. de, QUEIROZ, W.T. de, SILVA, J.N.M., ASSIS, F.A. de, COSTA FILHO, P.P., TEREZO, E.F. & BARROS, A.V. de (1992). Natural and artificail reserves of Swietenia macropylha King in the Brazilian Amazon? Perspectives for conservation. Belém, Brazil. 35 pp. unpublished document. 2.LAMB, F.B. (1966). Mahogany in tropical America: Its ecology and management. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor. 220 p. Sumber: … ECOLOGY AND SILVICULTURE OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla KING) IN THE WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON. Paulo Luiz Contente de Barros, dkk

15 HUTAN TANAMAN EKOLOGI MAHONI In its original habitat, the climate is warm and equable, with temperatures ranging from 16 to 32 deg. C; rainfall varies from 1250 to 2500 mm, coming mostly in summer but spreading almost through the whole year. Best developments have been observed in areas receiving lower rainfall of mm, in localities not far from the sea, and at elevations near sea level. BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS Altitude: m, Mean annual temperature: deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: mm Soil type: It thrives best on deep, rich soil and avoids stiff, heavy soils; well-drained sandy soils are best. It is a complete failure in dry localities and poor soils. Sumber: …

16 HUTAN TANAMAN Sumber: … HABITAT MAHONI Natural distribution from 20°N to 18°S in tropical America. Widely distributed species occurring from the Atlantic regions of south-east Mexico, through Central America (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama), northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru) and across the southern Amazon Basin, in Bolivia and Brazil. Area natural habitat Introduced countries : widely grown across the tropics both on a research scale and as extensive plantations. Plant communities natural area: Semi evergreen and evergreen rain forests, dry forests, moist forests, rain forests, riparian forest, secondary forests. Soil type: water adapted to fine and medium textured soils, not coarse soils, low moisture. Found growing on alluvial soils of considerable fertility, and soils derived from limestone, granite, andesite and other sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic rock formation.

17 HUTAN TANAMAN Sumber: … HABITAT pH-KCl maximum 7.0 and minimum 4.0 Soil fertility : It tolerates soils ranging from deep, poorly drained, acid clays of the wooded swamps, to well drained alkaline soils of the limestone uplands. Maximum development is attained on deep, fertile, moist, well-drained, neutral to mildly alkaline soils. Light : shade intolerant, strongly light-demanding “Optimum natural development” ; Under tropical dry forest conditions: annual precipitation of mm, mean annual temperature of 24°C and potential evapo-transpiration ratio of 1-2.

18 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Sengon dijumpai secara alami di hutan luruh daun campuran di wilayah lembab dan ugahari, dengan curah hujan antara 1.000–5.000 mm pertahun. Pohon ini ditemukan juga di hutan-hutan sekunder, di sepanjang tepian sungai, dan di sabana, hingga ketinggian m dpl. Sengon beradaptasi dengan baik pada tanah- tanah miskin, ber-pH tinggi, atau yang mengandung garam; juga tumbuh baik di tanah aluvial lateritik dan tanah berpasir bekas tambang. Di Indonesia, sengon menyebar di Jawa, Bali, dan Nusa Tenggara; dibawa dan dibudidayakan di Sumatra dan Kalimantan. Sumber: ICRAF Agroforestry Tree Database: Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merril…Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merril

19 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen PENYEBARAN DAN HABITAT SENGON Sebaran alami di Maluku, Papua Nugini, kep. Solomon dan Bismark. Banyak ditanam di daerah tropis. Species pionir, terutama terdapat di hutan hujan dataran rendah sekunder atau hutan pegunungan rendah. Tumbuh mulai pantai sampai 1600 mdpl, optimum mdpl. Dapat beradaptasi dengan iklim monsoon dan lembab dengan curah hujan mm/th dengan bulan kering sampai 4 bulan. Dapat ditanam pada tapak yang tidak subur tanpa dipupuk. Tidak tumbuh subur pada lahan berdrainase jelek; sengon species yang memerlukan cahaya, species yg cepat pertumbuhannya, mampu tumbuh 8 m/tahun dalam tahun pertama penanaman. Sumber:

20 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Falcataria occurs naturally in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands from 10 o S to 30 o N. In its natural habitat it grows from sea level to 1200 m above sea level with an annual rainfall from mm, a dry season of less than 2 months, and a temperature range of 22 o to 34 o C. Although it is likely to perform better on alkaline soils (NAS 1983), there are many examples of it growing well on acid soils. Correlation and multiple regression analysis show that topsoil depth is the most important indicator of site quality for falcataria (Dalmacio 1987). The most productive sites had at least cm of well drained topsoil with at least 3-8% organic matter and an exchangeable potassium of 0.36 meq/100 g of soil. Sumber:

21 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Akar sengon tumbuh-berkembang di lapisan TANAH atas, lebih dari 50 % total akar utama tumbuh secara horisontal. Tingginya konsentrasi Al-dd di lapisan tanah-bawah bukan merupakan faktor pembatas utama pertumbuhan akar sengon. Faktor tanah yang membatasi pertumbuhan akar sengon adalah rendahnya ketersediaan P dan tingginya BI tanah di lapisan bawah (40-70 cm dan cm). Aluminium berpengaruh tidak langsung terhadap pertumbuhan akar, yaitu melalui pengikatan terhadap P tersedia di lapisan bawah sehingga ketersediaan P menjadi rendah. Analisis pedotransfer dengan mempertimbangkan tekstur tanah, dapat dipakai sebagi alat bantu untuk mempertajam diagnosa pembatas pertumbuhan akar tanaman. Sumber: DIAGNOSIS FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN AKAR SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) PADA ULTISOL DI LAMPUNG UTARA. Kurniatun Hairiah, Cipto Sugiarto, Sri Rahayu Utami, Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi dan James M Roshetko.

22 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman sengon di daerah Kabupaten Boyolali digolongkan dalam 3 kelas dan dibedakan dalan 4 Sub-kelas. Kelas lahan cukup sesuai (S2) seluas ha (12.2 persen), dengan faktor penghambat media perakaran (r) dan retensi unsur hara (f). Lahan sesuai marginal (S3) seluas ha (70.6 persen), faktor penghambat berupa media perakaran (r), retensi unsur hara (f) dan keadaan lapang (s). Sumber: Pemberitaan Penelitian Tanah dan Pupuk (1992). Land evaluation for sengon in upland of Jratunseluna watershed, regency Boyolali (Central Java, Indonesia). Kosasih, S.E.; Harijogjo; Marsoedi, D.S.…

23 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen The preferred site characteristics for Sengon include : (i) elevation of m, (ii) rainfall of mm per year, (iii) air temperature of 20-34oC, (iv) soil pH from acid to neutral, (v) good drainage and humidity (Ginting, et al., 1996). The tree tolerates a range of soil textures, from light to heavy, but it is intolerant of shade (requires high light input). Sengon flowers throughout the year and produces fruit in June- December; it can be propagated by seed or stump (Pratiwi, 2000). The rotation cycle is generally less than 15 years in order to prevent rotten root. 1.Ginting, A. Ng, Ch. A. Siregar, Masano, Hendromono, M.Y. Mile, dan Hidayat AS Pedoman Pemilihan Jenis Pohon Untuk Hutan Tanaman dan Kesesuaian Lahan. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan. Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta. 2.Pratiwi Jenis-jenis Pohon andalan Setempat Di Pulau Jawa dan Sumatera Bagian Selatan: Sebaran dan Beberapa Data Dasar. Info Hutan. Nomor: 123/2000. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Hutan, Bogor. Sumber: …http://www.une.edu.au/carbon/CC08.PDF

24 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Kesesuaian lahan aktual untuk tanaman sengon di Kecamatan Sumbang adalah : 1.Tidak sesuai (N2) seluas 629,51 ha (59,94%) yang terdiri dari 585,24 ha (56,19%) dengan faktor penghambat curah hujan dan 44,27 ha (3,75%) dengan faktor penghambat curah hujan dan mekanisasi lereng. 2.Sesuai marginal (S3) seluas 93,25 ha (7,91%) dengan faktor penghambat lereng dan 285,66 ha (24,22%) dengan faktor penghambat retensi hara. 3.Cukup sesuai (S2) seluas 93,58 ha (7,93%) dengan faktor penghambat reterensi hara dan 285,66 ha (24,22%) dengan faktor penghambat temperatur, curah hujan, media perakaran, lereng, retensi hara, dan bahaya erosi. Sumber: EVALUASI KESESUAIAN LAHAN. UNTUK TANAMAN SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria L.Nielson) DI KECAMATAN SUMBANG KABUPATEN BANYUMAS Adiwibowo M, Sisno, Susilo BS. Budidaya Pertanian (Ilmu Tanah). Universitas Jenderal Soedirman.

25 SENGON : Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Tanaman Sengon dapat tumbuh baik pada tanah regosol, aluvial, dan latosol yang bertekstur lempung berpasir atau lempung berdebu dengan kemasaman tanah sekitar pH 6-7. Ketinggian tempat yang optimal untuk tanaman sengon antara 0 – 800 m dpl. Walapun demikian tanaman sengon ini masih dapat tumbuh sampai ketinggian 1500 m di atas permukaan laut. Sengon termasuk jenis tanaman tropis, sehingga untuk tumbuhnya memerlukan suhu sekitar 18 ° – 27 °C. Curah hujan mempunyai beberapa fungsi untuk tanaman, diantaranya sebagai pelarut zat nutrisi, pembentuk gula dan pati, sarana transpor hara dalam tanaman, pertumbuhan sel dan pembentukan enzim, dan menjaga stabilitas suhu. Tanaman sengon membutuhkan batas curah hujan minimum yang sesuai, yaitu 15 hari hujan dalam 4 bulan terkering, namun juga tidak terlalu basah, dan memiliki curah hujan tahunan yang berkisar antara 2000 – 4000 mm. Kelembaban juga mempengaruhi setiap tanaman. Reaksi setiap tanaman terhadap kelembaban tergantung pada jenis tanaman itu sendiri. Tanaman sengon membutuhkan kelembaban sekitar 50%-75%. Sumber: …

26 JATI : Tectona grandis Jati dapat tumbuh di daerah dengan curah hujan 1500 – 2000 mm/tahun dan suhu 27 – 36°C, baik di dataran rendah maupun dataran tinggi. [1] [1] Tempat yang paling baik untuk pertumbuhan jati adalah tanah dengan pH 4.5 – 7 dan tidak digenangi air. [2] [2] Jati memiliki daun berbentuk elips yang lebar dan dapat mencapai 30 – 60 cm saat dewasa. [1]. [1] 1.Akram M, Aftab F In vitro micropropagation and rhizogenesis of teak (Tectona grandis L.). Pak J Biochem Mol Biol 40(3): BIOTROP Services laboratory – SEAMEO BIOTROP. [terhubung berkala]. [5 Feb 2010].http://sl.biotrop.org Sumber: …

27 JATI : Tectona grandis Iklim yang cocok adalah iklim dengan musim kering yang nyata, namun tidak terlalu panjang, dengan curah hujan antara mm pertahun dan dengan intensitas cahaya yang cukup tinggi sepanjang tahun. Ketinggian tempat yang optimal adalah antara 0 – 700 m dpl; namun demikian jati masih dapat tumbuh hingga 1300 m dpl. Tanah yang sesuai adalah yang agak basa, dengan pH antara 6-8, sarang (memiliki aerasi yang baik), mengandung cukup banyak kapur (Ca, calcium) dan fosfor (P). Jati tidak tahan kondisi tanah yang tergenang air. Sumber: …

28 JATI : Tectona grandis Syarat Tumbuh Budidaya Pohon Jati di Indonesia adalah ditempat yang beriklim tropis, kalau di Indonesia seperti seluruh pulau jawa, sebagian pulau sumatra, sulawesi selatan, sulawesi tenggara, NTB dan maluku. Syarat Tumbuh Budidaya Pohon Jati sebagai berikut: 1. Curah hujan mm/tahun. 2. Bulan kering 2-4 bulan. 3. Tinggi lokasi penanaman m dari permukaan laut. 4. Intensitas cahaya %. 5. pH tanah Jenis tanah lempung berpasir, hindari tanah becek/rawa dan cadas. Sumber: …

29 JATI : Tectona grandis Syarat lokasi untuk budi daya jati di antaranya ketinggian lahan maksimum 700 meter dpl, suhu udara ° C, pH tanah 6, dan kelembapan lingkungan %, Tanah yang cocok untuk pertumbuhan jati adalah tanah lempung, lempung berpasir, dan liat berpasir. Unsur hara yang banyak diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan jati yakni kalsium, fosfor, kalium, dan nitrogen. Sementara itu, curah hujan optimum yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan jati sekitar mm/tahun. Curah hujan berpengaruh terhadap sifat gugurnya daun dan kualitas fisik kayu. Secara alamiah, jati akan menggugurkan daunnya saat musim kemarau, lalu tumbuh kembali pada musim hujan. Di daerah yang memiliki kemarau yang panjang, jati akan menggugurkan daunnya dan menghasilkan lingkaran tahun yang artistik. Karena itu, kayu jati yang berasal dari daerah ini memiliki struktur kayu yang lebih kuat dan dikelompokkan ke dalam jenis kayu mewah (fancy wood) atau kayu kelas I. Di daerah yang curah hujannya tinggi, tanaman jati tidak menggugurkan daun dan lingkaran tahunnya kurang menarik, sehingga kualitas kayunya lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan daerah yang memiliki kemarau panjang. Sumber: …

30 JATI : Tectona grandis Site effects - growth of plantations The main objective of teak plantation establishment is to produce high quality timber in trees with good or acceptable growth rates. Teak plantations have been established throughout the tropics, within and outside its natural distribution range. This covers a wide range of climatic conditions, i.e. from the equatorial type to the sub-tropical type with a range of rainfall and temperature of 500-3,500 mm and 2°-48°C (minimum and maximum range) respectively (Kaosa-ard, 1981). Soil conditions also vary from infertile acidic to fertile alluvial. A large variation in growth and other tree characters such as stem form, mode of branching, flowering habit and wood quality of the plantation commonly results. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of teak plantations over a wide range of plantation conditions varies from 2 m 3 /ha/year to >15 m 3 /ha/year at the half rotation age of years (FAO, 1956; White, 1991; Keogh, 1994). Keogh (1994) recommended that the MAI of teak plantation should be not less than 8m 3 /ha/year in commercial planting operations.. Sumber: …

31 JATI : Tectona grandis Rainfall and moisture Teak grows naturally over a wide range of climatic condition, from the very dry (500 mm/year) to the very moist (up to 5,000 mm/year) (Seth and Khan, 1958; Kaosa-ard, 1981). Under very dry conditions, the tree is usually stunted and shrubby. Under very moist conditions, the tree is large and fluted and usually behaves like a semi-evergreen species; the wood quality is poor in terms of colour, texture and density. For the production of high quality wood with optimum growth, moisture conditions (as expressed by annual rainfall) should be between 1,200 and 2,500 mm with a marked dry season of 3-5 months (Kaosa-ard, 1981; Keogh, 1987). The dry season refers to a period in which the cumulative rainfall is less than 50 mm per month (Keogh, 1987). 1.Keogh, R. M Teak volume growth and thinning practice in the Caribbean, Central America, Venezuela and Colombia. In Proc. IUFRO Working Group S Symp. on wood production in the neotropics. Inst. Trop. For. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rica. Sumber: …

32 JATI : Tectona grandis KUALITAS TANAH Teak grows best on deep, well-drained alluvial soils derived from limestone, schist, gneiss, shale (and some volcanic rocks, such as basalt. Conversely, the species performs very poorly, in terms of growth and stem form, on dry sandy soil, shallow soil (hard pan soil or lower water table soil), acidic soil (pH < 6.0) derived from laterite or peatbog, and on compacted or waterlogged soil (Kiatpraneet, 1974; Kaosa-ard, 1981; Bunyavejchewin, 1987; Srisuksai, 1991). Sumber: …

33 JATI : Tectona grandis KUALITAS TANAH Teak soil is relatively fertile with high calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) contents (Bhatia, 1954; Seth and Yadav, 1958; Samapuddhi, 1963; Kiatpraneet, 1974; Sahunalu, 1970; Kaosa-ard, 1981; Bunyavejchewin, 1987; Srisuksai, 1991). Several studies indicate that teak requires relatively large amounts of calcium for its growth and development, and teak has been named as a calcareous species (Seth and Yadav, 1958; Kaosa-ard, 1981; Tewari, 1992). The amount of calcium content in the soil is also used as an indicator of teak site quality. That is, the greater the proportion of teak to other associate species, the higher the calcium content in the forest soil (Bunyavejchewin, 1983, 1987). Soil pH is another factor limiting the distribution and stand development of the species. Although the range of soil pH in teak forests is wide ( ) (Kulkarni, 1951; Samapuddhi, 1963; Bunyavejchewin, 1983, 1987), the optimum pH range for better growth and quality is between (Seth and Yadav, 1959; Kaosa-ard, 1981; Tewari 1992). 1.Kaosa-ard, A. 1993: Teak in Thailand. In: Teak in Asia (edited by H. Wood). FORSPA publication 4, GCP/RAS/I34/ASB. Bangkok. Thailand. 2.Kaosa-ard, A. 1996: Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.). Domestication and Breeding. UNDP/FAO, Los Baños, Phillipines. RAS/91/004 3.Tewari, D.N A monograph on teak (Tectona grandis) Linn.f. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, India. Sumber: …

34 JATI : Tectona grandis CAHAYA - Light Teak has been classified as a pioneer species. Hence, it requires a high light intensity for its growth and development (Kadambi, 1972; Kitinanda, 1969; Kwoboshi, 1974). A study conducted by Kwoboshi (1974) clearly demonstrated the effect of light intensity on the growth and development of teak seedlings; dry matter production of teak seedlings decreases sharply with a decrease in light intensity. In his study, the dry matter production of seedlings grown under low light intensity of 25% (for 8 months) was 0.6 gm as compared with 14.6 gm of seedlings grown under high light intensity of 75% of full daylight. The optimum light intensity for seedling growth and development is between 75-90% (Kwoboshi, 1974). Sumber: …

35 JATI : Tectona grandis Temperature and elevation Temperature and elevation also play important roles in limiting the distribution and growth pattern of the species. It is known that teak grows well under warm and humid conditions. A series of studies in controlled environments indicated that the optimum temperature for growth and development of the species is 27-36°C (Gyi, 1972; Kanchanaburangura, 1976; Kaosa-ard, 1977). This range of temperature is quite normal within teak tropical range. Teak poorly tolerates cold and frost conditions during the winter period. Under frost conditions, seedlings and saplings are severely damaged and die (Kaosa- ard, 1981), one reason why the species cannot grow at elevations over 700 metres. 1.Gyi, K. K An Investigation of Factors relevant to Development of Teak Plantation in South East Asia with Particular Reference to Burma. M.Sc. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra Australia. 2.Kaosa-ard, A Teak Its natural distribution and related factors. Nat. His. Bull. Siam. Soc. 29: Kanchanaburangura, C Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) Seedlings and Provenance Variation. M.Sc. Thesis, Australian National University, Australia. 216 p. Sumber: …

36 JATI : Tectona grandis Site quality has direct effect on the growth and development of the plantation. The rotation age can be greatly reduced through site selection. Teak grows well on moist sites. To produce high quality timber trees, the site should be subjected to a dry period of 3-5 months duration. Teak soil is deep, well- drained, and alluvial with high calcium, organic matter and other element content. The soil pH is Teak is a light-demanding species. As a result, intensive weeding in 1-5 year-old plantations is very important. Sumber: …

37 JATI : Tectona grandis Hutan jati-Saradan-Madiun-des 2012

38 JATI : Tectona grandis Hutan jati-Saradan-Madiun-sept2012

39 HUTAN TANAMAN SENGON Hutan Rakyat Sengon -Pirwoasri-Kediri-Sept2012

40 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 42 - Rating dan Pembobotan untuk Drainage Tanah Sumber: Drainage Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis Well drained1111 Rarely saturated Saturated for short periods on most years Saturated for long periods every year Always saturated0.1 Weight1113

41 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 43 - Rating untuk slope Sumber: Slope (%) Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis > Weight1221

42 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 44 - Rating dan Pembobotan untuk Kedalaman Tanah Sumber: Soil depth (cm) Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensi s > Weight3532

43 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 45 - Rating and weights for soil pH Sumber: pH Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulen sis Weight4454

44 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 46 - Rating and weights for soil CaCO 3 Sumber: CaCO 3 (%) Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis > Weight2453

45 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 47 - Rating and weights for soil organic carbon Sumber: Organic carbon (cmol+/kg) Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis Weight5553

46 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 48 - Rating and weights for soil texture (USDA classification) Sumber: Texture Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis Clay Loam Clay loam Silt10.81 Silty clay Silty clay loam0.8 1 Silty loam Sandy clay1111 Sandy clay loam1111 Sandy loam Loamy sand Sand Weight2253

47 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 49 - Rating and weights for coarse fragments Sumber: Coarse fragments (%) Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis > Weight5553

48 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Masing-masing nilai ini kemudian dikalikan dnegan suatu “bobot” (nilainya bulat 1-5), untuk mendapatkan suatu nilai yang mencerminkan kepentingan setiap parameter ekologis untuk setiap spesies. Misalnya “bobot” untuk faktor-faktor pembatas, seperti drainage untuk jenis tegakan Tetraclinis articulata, ditetapkan nilai 1 sedangkan parameter yang perannya sama bagi semua spesies diberi bobot t 5. To enhance the limiting factors, the values of each relevé, whose weight was different from one, have been summarised (å 1 n x) and divided by the sum of the their weights (å 1 n w), and then multiplied by the product of the values whose the weight was equal to 1 (Y). Sumber:

49 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN In this way we obtained a number from 0 to 1 for each relevé, that reflects the importance of the limiting factor, giving it more weight because it is multiplied to the final value. Angka ini dipakai untuk memberikan suatu INDEKS untuk setiap satuan lahan sesuai dengan “facet” yg paling representatif dalam “the relevé”. Indeks ini kemudian dikonversi menjadi Kelas Kesesuaian Lahan seperti pada Tabel 50. Sumber:

50 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Table 50 – Kelas-kelas Kesesuaian. Sumber: Indeks AkhirKelas Kesesuaian >0.8S S S3 <0.3N

51 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN HASIL PENILAIAN Figure 34 - Figure 37 Menunjukkan klasifikasi kesesuaian lahan untuk spesies yang dianalisis. Suitabilities for afforestation, production and naturalistic conservation were overlapped as layers, to show the potential use of the considered species for economic purposes (paper wood, fuel wood, cork, and grazing in forest) and for a naturalistic conservation of the forest, related to its historic importance and to recreational purposes. Sumber:

52 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN HASIL PENILAIAN Eucalyptus camaldulensis dianggap lebih penting secara ekonomis karena nilainya sebagai bahan bakar dan bahan baku industri kertas. Pinus halepensis is the next in importance, used for timber wood, and then Quercus suber, for grazing under forest and cork harvesting, and Tetraclinis articulata, whose timber is used for making tools. Prosedur ini tidak mempertimbangkan faktor ekonomis guna-lahan (Figure 38). Sumber:

53 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Dari sudut pandang naturalistik, dipertimbangkan empat spesies dalam urutan kepentingannya: Quercus suber and Tetraclinis articulata, because they are the original species of this area, and then Pinus halepensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are species introduced with plantations (Figure 39). Kesesuaian lahan untuk konservasi tanah ditetapkan untuk unit-unit yg menunjukkan risiko erosi yang besar (Kelas 3 - 5) dan dengan memperhatikan bahwa Tetraclinis articulata dan Pinus halepensis lebih sesuai untuk konservasi tanah, karena mereka lebih “rustic” daripada Eucalyptus camaldulensis dan Quercus suber (Figure 40). Hasilnya disajikan dalam Tabel 51. Sumber:

54 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 34 - Land suitability for Quercus suber Sumber:

55 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 35 - Land suitability for Tetraclinis articulata Sumber:

56 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 36 - Land suitability for Pinus halepensis Sumber:

57 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 37 - Land suitability for Eucalyptus camaldulensis Sumber:

58 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 38 - Land suitability for wood protection Sumber:

59 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 39 - Land suitability for naturalistic forestry Sumber:

60 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Figure 40 – Kesesuaian Lahan untuk Konservasi Tanah Sumber:

61 Table 51 - Land evaluation for Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata, Pinus halepensis, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Sumber: Land Unit Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulen sis Suitability for wood production Suitability for naturalistic forestry Suitability for soil conservation (*) 1S3 S2E. camaldulensis NR 2NNNS2E. camaldulensis NR 3NNNS2E. camaldulensis NR 4S3 S2 E. camaldulensisP. halepensis4 P. halepensis 5S2S3S2S1E. camaldulensisQ. suber3 P. halepensis 6S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber3 P. halepensis 7S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber4 P. halepensis 8S1S3S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 9S2S3S2S1E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 10S1S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR

62 Table 51 - Land evaluation for Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata, Pinus halepensis, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Sumber: Land Unit Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulen sis Suitability for wood production Suitability for naturalistic forestry Suitability for soil conservation (*) 11S2S3S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 12S1S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 13S2S3S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 14S2S3S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 15S3N S2 E. camaldulensis NR 16S2S3S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber3 P. halepensis 17S3S2S1S2 P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis 18S2S3S2S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 19NNNS2 E. camaldulensis 3 E. camaldulensis 20S3S2S1S3 P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis

63 Table 51 - Land evaluation for Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata, Pinus halepensis, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Sumber: Land Unit Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulen sis Suitability for wood production Suitability for naturalistic forestry Suitability for soil conservation (*) 21S3S1 S3P. halepensisT. articulata5 T. articulata 22NNNS2E. camaldulensis NR 23NNNS2E. camaldulensis NR 24S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber4 P. halepensis 25S3S2S1S2P. halepensisT. articulata5 P. halepensis 26S3S2S1S3P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis 27S3S1 S3P. halepensisT. articulata4 T. articulata 28S3S2S1S3P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis 29S3 S2E. camaldulensis 4 E. camaldulensis 30S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR

64 Table 51 - Land evaluation for Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata, Pinus halepensis, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Sumber: Land Unit Quercus suber Tetraclinis articulata Pinus halepensis Eucalyptus camaldulen sis Suitability for wood production Suitability for naturalistic forestry Suitability for soil conservation (*) 31S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber3 P. halepensis 32S3S2S1S2P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis 33S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber4 P. halepensis 34S2 S1 E. camaldulensisQ. suber3 P. halepensis 35S3S2S1S3P. halepensisT. articulata4 P. halepensis 36S2 E. camaldulensisQ. suberNR 37S3S1 S3P. halepensisT. articulata4 T. articulata UNR R Q (*) Erosion risk class is shown before the chosen species in suitability for soil conservation column

65 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Analysing the results for land suitability in the four land systems (plateau of Ben Slimane, western scarp of the plateau, eastern scarp of the plateau, and southern reliefs): Dapat disimpulkan bahwa spesies Pinus halepensis dan Eucaliptus camaldulensis (Figure 36 dan Figure 37), sangat sesuai dengan kondisi permukaan (lahan) di daerah survei. Hasil ini muncul dari perilaku ekologis spesies tegakan yang dianalisis, spesies-spesies ini mampu beradaptasi dnegan baik terhadap kondisi lingkungan dan tanah yang “tidak baik”. Sumber:

66 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN It is evident when analysing the results for each species in the four land systems, that in the plateau of Ben Slimane, Quercus suber is suitable from moderate to high undulating planation surface while it is marginally suitable in the flat areas where the soil drainage condition, one of the limiting factor in addition to slope steepness, is poor and the soil texture is clayey. Moreover in the undulating surface the few areas marginally suitable for oak are on calcareous substratum. Along the eastern scarp of the plateau, oak is found to be marginally or not suitable at all because of the high slope steepness. The same results for the western scarp of plateau were found but this is mainly due to poor soil drainage. In the southern reliefs, cork oak is moderately suitable where the soil is well drained and the slopes are not very steep (Figure 34). This potential distribution of Quercus suber is very similar to its actual distribution, except for the undulating surface covered by agricultural crops. Taking these results into account, it is possible to suppose that in the past, cork oak forests did not accupy a much greater area. Sumber:

67 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN. The Quercus suber, Tetraclinis articulata is marginally suitable in most of the Ben Slimane plateau, except in some areas where local soil conditions allow an increase of suitability values. This species presents high and moderate suitability in the eastern scarp of the plateau and in the southern reliefs where good soil drainage and the high steepness of the slopes are favourable factors for its diffusion. Along the western scarp of the plateau bad soil drainage is probably the main cause of the Tetraclinis absence; in this area only few hills with calcareous substratum result highly suitable (Figure 35). Sumber:

68 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN It can be noticed that also in this case the potential distribution of Tetraclinis articulata, according only to soil and climatic conditions, is very similar to the actual distribution even if some of these areas were afforested with Pinus halepensis. As previously stated, Pinus halepensis is from moderately to highly suitable in the western scarp of the plateau, in the southern reliefs, and in the Ben Slimane plateau, but it is not suitable in the flat areas and in the western scarp of the plateau mainly because of the poor soil drainage (Figure 36). Sumber:

69 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Eucaliptus camaldulensis results marginally suitable along the eastern and western scarp of the plateau and in the southern reliefs where the high steepness becomes a limiting factor for its diffusion (Figure 37). On the other hand the high adaptability of this species to grow on poor drained soils, permits it to be used for wood production in the dayas. In this report Eucalyptus gomphocephala, even if present as afforestation, was not be used taken into account as its behaviour is very similar to that of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Sumber:

70 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN According to the map suitability of the selected species, potential maps for wood production, natural forestry, and soil conservation were set up. As for wood production, Eucaliptus camaldulensis results highly is in the area of the southern reliefs and in the plateau of Ben Slimane while Pinus halepensis is highly suitable along the eastern scarp and in the areas of the plateau rich of calcareous soils. Sumber:

71 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN For the natural conservation target, Quercus suber and Tetraclinis articulata, being autochtonous in the study area, were chosen as principal species. Thus it arises that these two species are highly or moderately suitable in the southern reliefs, in the eastern scarp of plateau, and in the undulating area of the plateau of Ben Slimane. In this scenario, the Eucaliptus, where the oak and Tetraclinis are not suitable or marginally suitable, can occupy the flat area and the dayas, while the calcareous soils in the plateau are more suitable for Pinus halepensis. Sumber:

72 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN Untuk tujuan konservais tanah, di lokasi yang mempunyai kelas risiko erosi lebih dari 2, ternyata bahwa lokasi yang rawan erosi dapat diproteksi melalui penghutanan kembali dengan spesies Tetraclinis artculata dan Pinus halepensis (keduanya sangat sesuai dnegan lahan curam), sedangkan Eucaliptus camaldulensis dapat digunakan di lokasi yang kelas risiko erosinya lebih ringan dengan kemiringan lahan yang lebih datar. Sumber:

73 HUTAN TANAMAN PINUS Hutan tanaman Pinus-Pujon-febr2013

74 Kuliah STELA- smno fpun mei 2013 KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK HUTAN TANAMAN


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