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Exploring Various Approaches in Developing SPIS. Session Objectives  To understand various approaches in developing SPIS  To understand the use of various.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Exploring Various Approaches in Developing SPIS. Session Objectives  To understand various approaches in developing SPIS  To understand the use of various."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Exploring Various Approaches in Developing SPIS

2 Session Objectives  To understand various approaches in developing SPIS  To understand the use of various methods, techniques, processes, and procedures in those approaches  To understand various SPIS implementation in many areas

3 Session Agenda  The meaning of: Approach, Methodology, Method, and Technique in SPIS  Critiques to SPIS Methodologies  Various SPIS Methodologies  The Use of Methods, Techniques, Process, and Procedures in a Methodology

4 The meaning of: Approach, Methodology, Method, and Technique in SPIS  Approach: Ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation;  "his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons";  Methodology: A formalized approach of doing something, applied to a specific branch of knowledge.  Method: a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)  Technique: The systematic procedure by which a complex or scientific task is accomplished.  Techniques and methods are used in a methodology (part of methodology)

5 Critiques to SPIS Methodology  Inefficiency of IT investment has been recognized  the blame goes to lack of SPIS  IT manager alone can not established the SPIS, hence a more comprehensive IT plan is needed  The coverage of SPIS methodology  Inconsistency of SPIS methodology due to various natures of organization, etc.  Lack of agreed depthness of SPIS  Lack of agreed organization coverage for SPIS

6 Various business areas where SPIS is needed  Education Industry  Fast moving industry due to globalization  Competitors are going global  Various products and services  Complex internal business processes  Manufacturing Industry  Supply-chain management  Customer Management  Robust production, accounting, and marketing systems  Tourism Industry  Improve customer services  Improve images (security, coordination, etc)  Involve a lot of stakeholders (travel agent, restaurant, hotels, etc)  Much more….

7 Different Nature of Various Business Areas That Leads to Different SPIS Settings  Characteristics of each organization may be differ in nature  Size of the organizations are varies in term of number of employees, number of division, and length of hierarchy, etc.  Specificity core business of each organization  Corporate culture or value system of an organization may be unique  Environmental setting is different  Internal and external forces may differ among organizations  Etc.

8 Various SPIS Methodologies 1. Ward dan Peppard 2. James Martin 3. Be Vissta Planning 4. Tozer 5. Wetherbe 6. Josip Brumec

9 Characteristics of A Methodology  Different methodology may have different approach (different steps)  Each methodology may stressed one or more certain aspects whilst other stressed one or more different aspects  Each methodology may employ different method, technique, process, procedure, tools, etc  Certain methodology may be more suitable in one organization as compare to other organization. (Why?)  Certain organization may need a modified methodology of SPIS to be employed.

10 Ward & Peppard’s Methodology IS/IT Management Strategy IT Strategy Business IS Strategy IS/IT STRATEGY PROCESS External IS/IT Environment External Business Environment Internal Business Environment Internal IS/IT Environment Current Application Portfolio Future Application Portfolio

11 James Martin’s Methodology 1. Tinjauan Model Perusahaan 2. Analisis Strategi Bisnis 3. Analisis Sasaran dan Masalah 4. Analisis CSF 5. Analisis Dampak Teknologi 6. Pandangan Strategis Sistem 7. Evaluasi Sistem Saat ini TAHAP ANALISIS 1. Pembuatan Arsitektur Informasi 2. Pembuatan Matriks Fungsional 3. Pembuatan Jaringan Infrastruktur & aturan 4. Pembuatan ERD TAHAP PERANCANGAN

12 Be Vissta Planning Methodology DETERMINE BUSINESS and INFORMATIONS NEEDS Pre renstra, Identifikasi informasi organisasi, Analisis internal/eksternal bisnis organisasi, Analisis internal/eksternal S/TI organisasi DEFINE IS TARGETS Identifikasi: Masalah & solusi bisnis internal, Peluang bisnis dari eksternal organisasi, Pemanfaatan S/TI dari lingkungan eksternal organisasi, Analisis GAP Kebutuhan Informasi, Membuat: Landasan kebijakan S/TI, Strategi S/TI, Prinsip dasar / landasan bagi operasional strategi S/TI, Strategi manjemen S/TI DEFINE and SELECT IS STRATEGY Menggali value bisnis, Prioritas dan pemilihan strategi S/TI, Pendetilan strategi S/TI DEVELOP IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Membuat Rencana Pendukung Strategi S/TI, Pembuatan Jadwal Waktu Kerja, Pembuatan Rencana Pelaksanaan

13 Tozer’s Methodology FASE-1 : Menentukan Informasi Bisnis & Kebutuhan Pendukung Persiapan Pengumpulan Informasi, Menentukan informasi Bisnis & Pendukungnya FASE-2: Mengevaluasi Kesesuaian Sistem dengan Kebutuhan Bisnis Saat ini & Mengidentifikasi Pilihan Solusi Mengevaluasi Aplikasi dan Kondisi Teknis saat ini, Membangun Arsitektur Informasi, Membuat Pilihan Awal Untuk Solusi Strategis, Membangun Kasus Bisnis untuk Memenuhi Kebutuhan Bisnis FASE-3: Menentukan Solusi Strategis Identifikasi dan Memulai Kegiatan yang Mendesak, Menentukan solusi aplikasi dan database, Evaluasi kondisi TI, Pengembangan Kasus Bisnis FASE-4: Menyiapkan dan Melakukan Rencana Implementasi Menyiapkan Rencana Teknis Proyek Aplikasi dan Database,Mempersiapkan Rencana Pengembangan SDM dan Organisasi, Menyusun dan Menyeimbangkan Kasus-kasus Bisnis dengan semua Pengembangan, Menampilkan Rencana dan Mengatur Implementasinya FASE-0 : Menentukan Konteks dan Ruang Lingkup

14 Wetherbe’s Methodology Perencanaan Proyek Analisis Kebutuhan Informasi Alokasi Sumber Daya S/TI 1. Business System Planning 2. Strategic of IT Growth 3. End/Mean Analysis 4. Critical Sucsess Factor Perencanaan Strategis IT

15 Josip Brumec: Meta Model

16 Meta-Model: The Result of SPIS Should Be A Documented Project That Includes:  Business process models for an existing and reengineered organisation,  Business data models,  Models of programs and procedures,  Technical resources models,  A development activity plan for new IS

17 Top Executive Managerial (Berbagai Bidang) Operational Bisnis Proses Dalam Hirarki Organisasi Menerapkan Arahan Strategis: Cost Leadership Product Leadership Market Leadership Memonitor proses yang efektif & efisien dalam setiap pelayanan. Melaksanakan system anggaran yang fleksibel. Mengusulkan program kegiatan tepat guna Melaksanakan layanan yang prima Melakukan perekaman data yang akurat

18 Kerangka PSSI: RSMM Target Area Aplikasi Target Aplikasi Target Prioritas Apl. Bisnis Proses Analisis Kesenjangan Dukungan Data Visi, Misi RSMM Indikator Sukses Peran SI Kerangka Teknologi Kerangka Organisasi Program Pengembangan TI Rencana Strategis Kegiatan-2 Strategi SI Kerangka pengelolaan TI Program pengembangan Implementasi Strategis

19 Grand Design Sistem Informasi Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU)  Structure Document  Sejarah Singkat Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU)  Organisasi KPU  Metodologi  Perencanaan Strategis SI KPU Visi Misi Values Tujuan Sasaran Gambaran Umum Kondisi TI Saat Ini Strategi Program Strategis Road Map Implementasi  Analisis SI/TI KPU  Target Protofolio aplikasi  SDM  Security  Budget

20 Example of SPIS in Education Industry  The University of Colorado at Boulder  2002 Information Technology Strategic Planning Report  Document structure Acknowledgments Executive Summary IT Strategic Planning Process 2002 IT Strategic Vision Current Situation (Trends) Chapter 1: Educational Technology Chapter 2: Web-based Services Chapter 3: Network and Middleware Chapter 4: Central Services Chapter 5: Leadership, Coordination, and Governance of IT Evaluation Matrix Financials – Top Recommendations Appendices

21 Common Characteristics of SPIS Methodology (modified from Josip Brumec)  The starting point of SPIS methodology is an analysis of the present business system and a definition of its future and goals;  Examines the function areas where new IT could make the best contribution to the efficiency of business processes;  Present an evaluation of the effects of the new IS on future business processes. This evaluation should be performed on a simulation model before starting the long-term and complex project of maintaining the IS.  Controls and confirms the effects of investment in the new IS/IT.

22 SPIS Methodology and its Connection Methods and Techniques (1) Problem/step in SPIS/IS design Methods and techniques (§-strategic, #-structured, ¤-object oriented) Inputs and deliverables Inputs/Output Usability Very powerful, Powerful, Useful 1. Description of business system (BS) InterviewingMission and goals of current BS/Business strategy; Business processes (BP) 2. Evaluation of the impact of new IT on Business system § Balanced Scorecard § BCG-matrix § 5F-model § Value-chain model BP/Performances of existing BS Business strategy/IS development priorities Business strategy/Information for top-management BP/Primary and Supporting business process (BBP) V P U V 3. Redefinition of business process # BSP-decomposition # Life cycle analysis for the resources BBP/ New organisational units (OU) Basic system resources/Business process portfolio PPPP 4. Business system reengineering § BPR § SWOT Business Processes portfolio/New business process (NBP) Business Process Portfolio/SWOT analysis for NBP P VP V 5. Estimation of critical information § CFS analysis (Rockart) # Ends-means analysis NBP/critical information for NBP NBP/Information for efficiency and effectivity improvement PUPU

23 6. Optimisation of new IS architecture # Matrix process-entities # Affinity analysis, Genetic algorithms NBP/Business process relationships Business process relationships/Clusters; Subsystems of new IS V PV P 7. Modeling of new “Business Technology” (BT) # Work flow diagram (WFD) # Organisational flow diagram (OFD) Activity flow diagram (AFD) NBP/Responsibility for NBP New OU/Flow between new OU NBP/Activities for NBP VPUVPU 8. Modeling of new business processes, supported by IT # Data flow diagram (DFD) #Action diagram (AD) NBP/ NBP supported by IT (IS processes); Data flows; Business Data IS Process/ Internal logic of IS processes VPVP 9. Evaluation of IS effects # Simulation modellingIS processes/ Guidelines for BP improvements U 10. Business data modeling # ERA- model ¤ Object-model Business Data/ERA model Business Data/ Object model VPVP

24 11. Software design# HIPO-diagram ¤ Transition diagram IS Processes/ Logical design of programs (SW) Data flow/ Events and transactions VPVP 12. Detail design of program and procedures # Action diagram ¤ Object scenario Logical design of program procedures (SW)/ Model of program logic Object model; Events/ Object behavior PPPP 13. Data model development # Relational model; Normalisation ERA model/Relational modelV 14. Software development # CASE tools and 4GL ¤ OO-CASE tools Model of program logic; Relational model/programs and procedures Object behaviour /OO-procedures PPPP 15. implementation of IS Case-study: Business games Programs and procedures/Performance of new IS P 16. Evaluation of new BS performances # Balanced SecorecardPerformance of existing BS; Performances of new IS/ Measures for success V

25 Q/A  How do methodologies to develop SPIS differ from one to another?  How do methods, techniques, processes, and procedures are used in a SPSI methodology?  Names several methods, techniques that you are familiar with, and explain how to use them.

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