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Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan. Liabilities and Equity Liabilities: probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan. Liabilities and Equity Liabilities: probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan

2 Liabilities and Equity Liabilities: probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events Equity: the residual interest in the assets that remains after deducting its liabilities

3 Current Liabilities, Provisions,Contingencies, and Events after the Reporting Period

4 Current Liabilities Entity obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require the use of existing resources properly classified as current assets or the creation of other current liabilities Obligations that are due on demand or will be due on demand within one year or operating cycle, if longer

5 Types of Liabilities Both of the payment and payee are known The payee is known but the amount may have to be estimated The payee is unknown and the amount may have to be estimated The liability has been incurred due to a loss contingency

6 Amount and Payee Known Accounts payable Notes payable Dividends payable Unearned revenues or advances Returnable deposits Accrued liabilities Agency liabilities Obligations that are due on demand or will become due on demand within one year Short-term obligations expected to be refinanced

7 Payee Known but the Amount may Need to be Estimated Provisions –Liabilities having uncertain timing or amount –A provision should be recognized only if: The entity has present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event It is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation A reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation

8 Payee Known but the Amount may Need to be Estimated Provisions –Unlawful environmental damage –Provision for restructuring costs –Onerous contract –Decommissioning costs –Taxes payable –Property taxes payable –Bonus payments –Compensated absences –Short sale obligations

9 Payee Unknown and the Amount May Have to be Estimated Premiums Product warranties Other customer incentives –Example: airline frequent flyer mileage programs

10 Contingent Liabilities An obligation that is either: –A possible obligation arising from past events, the outcome of which will be confirmed only on occurrence or nonoccurence of one or more uncertain future events which are not wholly within the control of the reporting entity; or –A present obligation arising from past events, which are not recognized either because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle an obligation or the amount of the obligation can not be measured with sufficient reliability

11 Contingent Liabilities Reporting entity is not to give formal recognition to a contingent liability –Disclose in the notes to the financial statements Example: litigation Contingent assets should not be recognized –Disclosed if the inflow of economic benefits is probable

12 Reporting Events Occurring after the Reporting Period Adjusting and nonadjusting events –Adjusting events: those post-balance-sheet events that provide evidence of conditions that actually existed at the balance sheet date, albeit they were not known at the time Financial statements should be adjusted –Nonadjusting events: those post-balance-sheet events that are indicative of conditions that arose after the date of the statement of financial position Financial statements should not be adjusted

13 Adjusting Events Example: –Resolution of a court case –Information indicating that an asset was impaired –The determination of the cost of assets purchase, or the proceeds from assets disposed of –The determination of the amount of profit sharing or bonus payments –The discovery of fraud or errors

14 Kewajiban Diestimasi, Kewajiban Kontinjensi, dan Aset Kontinjensi Kewajiban diestimasi: kewajiban yang waktu dan jumlahnya belum pasti –Diakui sebagai kewajiban Kewajiban kontinjensi tidak diakui sebagai kewajiban Perusahaan tidak diperkenankan mengakui adanya aset kontinjensi

15 Financial Instruments – Long-Term Debt

16 Long-term Debt Future sacrifices of economic benefits to be repaid over a period of more than one year or, if longer, over more than one operating cycle

17 Notes and Bonds Nominal vs. effective rates: –Market rate > stated rate: discount –Stated rate > market rate: premium Effective interest method is the prescribed method of accounting for a discount or premium –Straight-line may be used if the results are not materially different

18 Extinguishment of Debt Removing a financial liability (or part of financial liability) is warranted only when the obligation is extinguished –Deemed to have occurred when the obligation is discharged or canceled or expires

19 Extinguishment of Debt Substantial modification of the terms of existing debt –Represents an extinguishment of the old debt and results in derecognition of that debt and recognition of new debt instrument Discounted present values of cash flows under the terms of the new debt differs at least 10% from the discounted present value of the remaining cash flows of the original debt instrument

20 Computing the Gain or Loss on Debt Extinguishments The difference between the net carrying value and the acquisition price is to be recorded as a gain or loss –Recognized in the period in which the retirement takes place –Reported as “other” income or expense

21 Convertible Debt Compound instruments  component parts of which must be classified accordingly to their separate characteristics –Measured at fair value first, with the residual amount assigned to the equity component

22 Induced Conversion of Debt The issuance of ‘sweeteners’ should be accounted for as a reduction in the proceeds of the share offering, thereby reducing contributed capital from the transaction

23 Shareholders’ Equity

24 Equity Residual interest in the assets of an enterprise after deducting all its liabilities 3 broad subdivisions: –Issued share capital –Retained earnings –Other components of equity (reserves)

25 Classification between Liabilities and Equity Compound instruments: –Classify the component parts of the financial instrument separately as equity or liability –The full fair value of the liability component(s) must be reported as liabilities, and only the residual value, at issuance, can be included as equity

26 Preferred Shares Preferred shareholders are owners who have certain rights superior to those of common stockholders

27 Accounting for the Issuance of Shares Depends on whether the share capital has a par or stated value

28 Share Capital Issued for Services Should be reflected at the fair value of the property or services received If this information is not readily available, the transaction should be recorded at the fair value of the shares that were issued

29 Issuance of Share Units Where both of the classes of shares are publicly traded: allocated in proportion to the relative market values of the securities If only one of the securities is publicly traded: the proceeds should be allocated to the one that is publicly traded based on its known market value and any excess is allocated to the other

30 Share Subscriptions The amount of share subscriptions receivable sometimes treated as an asset However, most are shown as a reduction of shareholders’ equity

31 Piutang kepada Pemegang Saham Disajikan dalam kelompok aset lancar Bila batas waktu penyetoran modal atau pelunasan piutang pesanan saham dipesan terlampaui, maka piutang pemegang saham dikompensasi ke ekuitas

32 Donated Capital US GAAP: revenue IFRS does not address contributions or donations

33 Tanah Sumbangan Dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar lokasi setempat dan diakui sebagai Modal Berasal dari Sumbangan

34 Retained Earnings Accumulated amount of earnings of the corporation from the date of inception (or from the date of reorganization) less the cumulative amount of distributions made to shareholders and other charges to retained earnings

35 Dividends and Distributions Cash Dividends –The declaration date governs the incurrence of a legal liability by the corporation Share dividend –Represent neither an actual distribution of the asses of the corporation nor a promise to distribute those assets –Not considered a legal liability when declared –Small and large stock dividend

36 Liquidating Dividends Recorded by charging additional contributed capital rather than retained earnings

37 Dividen Saham Pembagian dividen saham dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar saham –Harga pasar pada penutupan sesi terakhir

38 Accounting for Treasury Share Transactions Cost method Par value method Constructive retirement method

39 Penebusan/Penarikan Kembali Modal Saham Cost method Par value method

40 Kesalahan Mendasar Dalam mengoreksi suatu kesalahan mendasar, jumlah koreksi yang berhubungan dengan periode sebelumnya harus dilaporkan dengan menyesuaikan saldo laba awal periode

41 Accounting for Share-Based Payments When share capital is issued immediately, measurement is not generally difficult –The expense is immediately recorded When employers are granted options to later acquire shares –Estimate fair value of a share option (use option pricing model) –Expense the value of share options granted over the period during which the employee is earnings the option (until the option vests)

42 Akuntansi Waran Waran adalah efek yang diterbitkan oleh suatu perusahaan yang memberi hak kepada pemegangnya untuk memesan saham dari suatu perusahaan tersebut pada harga dan jangka waktu tertentu

43 Waran Pisah Dana perolehan dari penerbitan efek yang bersifat utang yang disertai dengan penerbitan saham pisah dialokasikan kepada kedua efek berdasarkan nilai wajar masing-masing efek –Jumlah yang dialokasikan ke waran dilaporkan sebagai Modal Disetor Lainnya

44 Waran Lekat Dana perolehan dari penerbitan efek utang yang disertai waran lekat dilaporkan sebagai kewajiban

45 Waran bebas Dengan suatu pembayaran: dicatat dalam Modal Disetor Lainnya Dengan cuma-cuma: tidak perlu dicatat

46 Akuntansi Kuasi-Reorganisasi Kuasi-reorganisasi merupakan prosedur akuntansi yang mengatur perusahaan merestrukturissasi ekuitasnya dengan menghilangkan defisit dan menilai kembali seluruh aset dan kewajibannya

47 Penilaian Kembali Aset dan Kewajiban Aset dan kewajiban harus dinilai kembali dengan nilai wajar Selisih antara nilai wajar aset dan kewajiban dengan nilai bukunya diakui pada akun selisih penilaian aset dan kewajiban Selisih penilaian aset dan kewajiban digabung dengan selisih revaluasi aset tetap (jika ada) sebelum digunakan untuk mengeliminasi atau menambah defisit

48 Urutan Pengeliminasian Saldo Laba Negatif Urutan prioritas: –Cadangan umum –Cadangan khusus –Selisih penilaian aset dan kewajiban (termasuk selisih revaluasi aset tetap) dan selisih penilaian sejenisnya –Tambahan modal disetor dan sejenisnya –Modal saham

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