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Dihimpun dan diabstraksikan oleh: Azwar Ali, A. Catharina, Prayitno, Soemarno. PPSUB 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Dihimpun dan diabstraksikan oleh: Azwar Ali, A. Catharina, Prayitno, Soemarno. PPSUB 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dihimpun dan diabstraksikan oleh: Azwar Ali, A. Catharina, Prayitno, Soemarno. PPSUB 2012

2 PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/.. Polusi atau pencemaran lingkungan adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya makhluk hidup, zat energi, dan atau komponen lain ke dalam lingkungan, atau berubahnya tatanan lingkungan oleh kegiatan manusia atau oleh proses alam sehingga kualitas lingkungan turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan lingkungan menjadi kurang atau tidak dapat berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya (Undang-undang Pokok Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup No. 4 Tahun 1982). Suatu zat dapat disebut polutan apabila: 1. jumlahnya melebihi jumlah normal 2. berada pada waktu yang tidak tepat 3. berada pada tempat yang tidak tepat Sifat polutan adalah: 1. merusak untuk sementara, tetapi bila telah bereaksi dengan zat lingkungan tidak merusak lagi 2. merusak dalam jangka waktu lama. Contohnya Pb tidak merusak bila konsentrasinya rendah. Akan tetapi dalam jangka waktu yang lama, Pb dapat terakumulasi dalam tubuh sampai tingkat yang merusak.

3 PENCEMARAN UDARA Pencemar udara dapat berupa gas dan partikel. 1.Gas HzS. Gas ini bersifat racun, terdapat di kawasan gunung berapi, bisa juga dihasilkan dari pembakaran minyak bumi dan batu bara. 2.Gas CO dan COz. Karbon monoksida (CO) tidak berwarna dan tidak berbau, bersifat racun, merupakan hash pembakaran yang tidak sempurna dari bahan buangan mobil dan mesin letup. Gas COZ dalam udara murni berjumlah 0,03%. Bila melebihi toleransi dapat meng- ganggu pernapasan. Selain itu, gas C02 yang terlalu berlebihan di bumi dapat mengikat panas matahari sehingga suhu bumi panas. Pemanasan global di bumi akibat C02 disebut juga sebagai efek rumah kaca. 3.Partikel SOZ dan NO2. Kedua partikel ini bersama dengan partikel cair membentuk embun, membentuk awan dekat tanah yang dapat mengganggu pernapasan. Partikel padat, misalnya bakteri, jamur, virus, bulu, dan tepung sari juga dapat mengganggu kesehatan. 4.Batu bara yang mengandung sulfur melalui pembakaran akan meng- hasilkan sulfur dioksida. Sulfur dioksida ber$ama dengan udara serta oksigen dan sinar matahari dapat menghasilkan asam sulfur. Asam ini membentuk kabut dan suatu saat akan jatuh sebagai hujan yang disebut hujan asam. Hujan asam dapat menyebabkan gangguan pada manusia, hewan, maupun tumbuhan. Misalnya gangguan pernapasan, perubahan morfologi pada daun, batang, dan benih. Sumber polusi udara lain dapat berasal dari radiasi bahan radioaktif, misalnya, nuklir. Setelah peledakan nuklir, materi radioaktif masuk ke dalam atmosfer dan jatuh di bumi. materi radioaktif ini akan terakumulusi di tanah, air, hewan, tumbuhan, dan juga pada manusia. Efek pencemaran nuklir terhadap makhluk hidup, dalam taraf tertentu, dapat menyebabkan mutasi, berbagai penyakit akibat kelainan gen, dan bahkan kematian. Pencemaran udara dinyatakan dengan ppm (part per million) yang artinya jumlah cm3 polutan per m3 udara. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/..

4 PENCEMARAN AIR Polusi air dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa jenis pencemar. 1.Pembuangan limbah industri, sisa insektisida, dan pembuangan sampah domestik, misalnya, sisa detergen mencemari air. Buangan industri seperti Pb, Hg, Zn, dan CO, dapat terakumulasi dan bersifat racun. 2.Sampah organik yang dibusukkan oleh bakteri menyebabkan 02 di air berkurang sehingga mengganggu aktivitas kehidupan organisme air. 3.Fosfat hasil pembusukan bersama h03 dan pupuk pertanian terakumulasi dan menyebabkan eutrofikasi, yaitu penimbunan mineral yang menyebabkan pertumbuhan yang cepat pada alga (Blooming alga). Akibatnya, tanaman di dalam air tidak dapat berfotosintesis karena sinar matahari terhalang. Salah satu bahan pencemar di laut ada lah tumpahan minyak bumi, akibat kecelakaan kapal tanker minyak yang sering terjadi. Banyak organisme akuatik yang mati atau keracunan karenanya. Untuk membersihkan kawasan tercemar diperlukan koordinasi dari berbagai pihak dan dibutuhkan biaya yang mahal. Bila terlambat penanggulangan-nya, kerugian manusia semakin banyak. Secara ekologis, dapat mengganggu ekosistem laut. Bila terjadi pencemaran di air, maka terjadi akumulasi zat pencemar pada tubuh organisme air. Akumulasi pencemar ini semakin meningkat pada organisme pemangsa yang lebih besar. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/..

5 PENCEMARAN TANAH Pencemaran tanah disebabkan oleh beberapa jenis pencemaran berikut ini : a. sampah-sampah pla.stik yang sukar hancur, botol, karet sintesis, pecahan kaca, dan kaleng b. detergen yang bersifat non bio degradable (secara alami sulit diuraikan) c. zat kimia dari buangan pertanian, misalnya insektisida. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/... The pressure of diffuse pollution on soils: polluted soils will eventually loose their important function as filter and buffer in the water cycle. Soils are the key element in the water cycle determining the quality of groundwater, surface water, and finally drinking water =91

6 POLUSI SUARA : BISING Polusi suara disebabkan oleh suara bising kendaraan bermotor, kapal terbang, deru mesin pabrik, radio/tape recorder yang berbunyi keras sehingga mengganggu pendengaran. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/.. Noise Pollution: Definition: Human being can listen the noise up to a level if noise exceed that particular level of noise which is harmful for human health and environment which is called Noise Pollution. Causes: There are so many causes of Noise Pollution some of them describing following Noise which comes from factories, vehicles, airplanes etc. Noise comes from loudspeakers mostly people use loudspeaker in marriages, occasions and festivals. On occasion fire works also cause of noise pollution. Prevention of Noise Pollution: We should not use horn unnecessary We should plant more trees because they absorb noise. Diunduh dari:

7 PARAMETER PENCEMARAN Dengan mengetahui beberapa parameter yang ads pads daerah/kawasan penelitian akan dapat diketahui tingkat pencemaran atau apakah lingkungan itu sudah terkena pencemaran atau belum. Paramaterparameter yang merupakan indikator terjadinya pencemaran adalah sebagai berikut : 1.Parameter kimia Parameter kimia meliputi C02, pH, alkalinitas, fosfor, dan logam-logam berat. 2.Parameter biokimia Parameter biokimia meliputi BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), yaitu jumlah oksigen dalam air. Cars pengukurannya adalah dengan menyimpan sampel air yang telah diketahui kandungan oksigennya selama 5 hari. Kemudian kadar oksigennya diukur lagi. BOD digunakan untuk mengukur banyaknya pencemar organik. Menurut menteri kesehatan, kandungan oksigen dalam air minum atau BOD tidak boleh kurang dari 3 ppm. 3. Parameter fisik Parameter fisik meliputi temperatur, warna, rasa, bau, kekeruhan, dan radioaktivitas. 4.Parameter biologi Parameter biologi meliputi ada atau tidaknya mikroorganisme, misalnya, bakteri coli, virus, bentos, dan plankton. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/.. Health impacts of water pollution It is a well-known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth, yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. shaheed.blogspot.com/2010/03/water- pollution-impact-on-health.html 0

8 TINGKAT PENCEMARAN Menurut WHO, tingkat pencemaran didasarkan pada kadar zat pencemar dan waktu (lamanya) kontak. Tingkat pencemaran dibedakan menjadi 3, yaitu sebagai berikut : 1.Pencemaran yang mulai mengakibatkan iritasi (gangguan) ringan pada panca indra dan tubuh serta telah menimbulkan kerusakan pada ekosistem lain. Misalnya gas buangan kendaraan bermotor yang menyebabkan mata pedih. 2.Pencemaran yang sudah mengakibatkan reaksi pada faal tubuh dan menyebabkan sakit yang kronis. Misalnya pencemaran Hg (air raksa) di Minamata Jepang yang menyebabkan kanker dan lahirnya bayi cacat. 3.Pencemaran yang kadar zat-zat pencemarnya demikian besarnya, sehingga menimbulkan gangguan dan sakit atau kematian dalam lingkungan. Misalnya pencemaran nuklir. DIUNDUH DARI: lingkungan/..

9 Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere The entire part of earth's land, soil, water & atmosphere in which living organism are found is called biosphere Or The combined area lithosphere, hydrosphere of & atmosphere is known as biosphere. BIOSPHERE MODEL Diunduh dari :.

10 Solar Radiation Climate Geology Soil Vegetation Animals Biotic Compon ent Abiotic Compone nt Sun provides energy for plant photosynthesis Amount of solar radiation varies with latitude & hence effects climate. solar radiation also power weather systems Soil [provides habitat including water & air for many invertebrates addition many animals have evolved specialist cope with different soils for example the feet of camel. Volcanic activity,mountain, ranges etc. can also affect climate Climate interacts with geology in soil formation provides water for solar climate. Plants provides food for animals Dead plants & animals decomposes & return nutrients to the soil. Nutrients are also returned to the soil through animal excrement. Vegetation gives off water vapour who helps to stabilize the climate of the earth. Climate restricts the type of plants & animals that can survive in a particular ecosystem. Water & temperature are two main climate controls. Animals alter vegetation by browsing & grazing. Human have significantly altered vegetation patterns through modification for agriculture. Soil provides water & nutrients for plants together with a physical base in which plants can root themselves. Diunduh dari :. MODEL EKOSISTEM

11 Our current atmosphere is a mixture of many different gases & suspended particles. It is almost same every where up to an altitude of 80 Kms.The atmosphere is divided in to 4 layers- Name of sphere or layer Height in Kms. Temperatur e Important Chemical Species (Gas) Tropos-phere0-815 to 45N 2,O 2,CO 2, H 2 Stratos-phere to 05O 3,O 2 Mesos-phere to -90N 2 +O 2 Ionos-phere80-400O 2,O+,NO+ Exos-phere H 2,He Diunduh dari :. ATMOSFIR

12 ConstituentSymbolAverage concentration SourceVolume NitrogenN2N Biotic7.809× 10 1 OxygenO2O Biotic2-094× 10 1 ArgonAr9300Radioactive9.3× Carbon dioxideCO Biotic & industrial 3.18× NeonNe18Internal heliumHe5.2Radioactive5.2× MethaneCH 4 1.3Biotic1.3× KryptonKr1.0Internal1.0× HydrogenH2H2 0.5Biotic & photochemical 5.0× WaterH2OH2O0.25Physical2.5× Carbon monoxide CO0.1Photochemical & industrial 1.0× OzoneO3O3 0.02Photochemical2.0× AmmoniaNH Photochemical1.0× Nitrogen dioxide NO Biotic & industrial 1.0× Sulpher dioxide SO Photochemical2.0× Diunduh dari :. KOMPOSISI ATMOSFIR

13 PENCEMARAN UDARA ATMOSFIR

14 PENCEMARAN UDARA DIUNDUH DARI: ….... 9/11/2012 PP No.41 ayat 1 Pasal 1 Bab I Ketentuan Umum ”Pencemaran udara adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya zat, energi, dan/atau komponen lain ke dalam udara ambien oleh kegiatan manusia, sehingga mutu udara ambien turun sampai tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan udara ambien tidak dapat memenuhi fungsinya.” PROSES TERJADINYA PENCEMARAN UDARA

15 PENCEMARAN UDARA: Sumber buatan manusia atau sumber anthropogenic DIUNDUH DARI: 9/11/2012 Kegiatan manusia yang menghasilkan bahan-bahan pencemar Udara a.l. : 1.Pembakaran, seperti pembakaran sampah, pembakaran pada kegiatan rumah tangga, industri, kendaraan bermotor, dan lain-lain. Bahan-bahan pencemar yang dihasilkan antara lain asap, debu, grit (pasir halus), dan gas (CO dan NO). 2.Proses peleburan, seperti proses peleburan baja, pembuatan soda,semen, keramik, aspal. Sedangkan bahan pencemar yang dihasilkannya antara lain adalah debu, uap dan gas-gas. 3.Pertambangan dan penggalian, seperti tambang mineral and logam. Bahan pencemar yang dihasilkan terutama adalah debu. 4.Proses pengolahan dan pemanasan seperti pada proses pengolahan makanan, daging, ikan, dan penyamakan. Bahan pencemar yang dihasilkan terutama asap, debu, dan bau. 5.Pembuangan limbah, baik limbah industri maupun limbah rumah tangga. Pencemarannya terutama adalah dari instalasi pengolahan air buangannya. Sedangkan bahan pencemarnya yang teruatam adalah gas H 2 S yang menimbulkan bau busuk. 6.Proses kimia, seperti pada proses fertilisasi, proses pemurnian minyak bumi, proses pengolahan mineral. Pembuatan keris, dan lain-lain. Bahan- bahan pencemar yang dihasilkan antara lain adalah debu, uap dan gas-gas 7.Proses pembangunan seperti pembangunan gedung-gedung, jalan dan kegiatan yang semacamnya. Bahan pencemarnya yang terutama adalah asap dan debu. 8.Proses percobaan atom atau nuklir. Bahan pencemarnya yang terutama adalah gas-gas dan debu radioaktif

16 PENCEMARAN UDARA SUMBERNYA  Combustion of fuel (natural gas, petroleum, coal and wood)  Industrial process  Natural process (Volcanic) Diunduh dari : Nitrogen oxides alone do not cause ozone and other oxidants to reach damaging levels; reactions with them are cyclic.

17 Pencemar Udara dan dampaknya thd kesehatan manusia Particulate Matter Dust and smoke particles cause irritation of the respiratory tract and produce bronchitis, asthma and lung diseases. Dust and smoke function as nuclei for condensation of water vapors and produce smog which attract chemicals like SO 2, H 2 S, NO 2,etc. Smog not only reduce visibility but is also harmful due to its contained chemicals. Diunduh dari : …...9/11/2012http://ultrawomen.wordpress.com/ Partikel debu dalam emisi gas buang terdiri dari bermacam-macam komponen, dapat berbentuk padatan dan berbentuk cairan yang mengendap dalam partikel debu. Pada proses pembakaran debu terbentuk dari pemecahan unsur hidrokarbon dan proses oksidasinya. Dalam debu tersebut terkandung debu sendiri dan beberapa kandungan oksida-logam. Dalam proses paparan selanjutnya di atmosfir, kandungan metal dan debu tersebut membentuk partikulat. Beberapa unsur kandungan partikulat adalah karbon, SOF (Soluble Organic Fraction), debu, SO4, dan H2O. Sebagian partikulat keluar dari cerobong pabrik sebagai asap hitam tebal, tetapi yang paling berbahaya adalah butiran-butiran halus sehingga dapat menembus bagian terdalam paru-paru. Berdasarkan ukuran diameter partikulat dikenal dengan :

18 SMOG Smog is the combination of smoke and fog. It is a man made air pollutant in urban areas. The term smog was coined by H.A.Des Voeux Diunduh dari : raising-debate-over-effects-on.html. There is always a lot of controversy anytime longstanding federal regulations are changed. This time, the uproar came because the Environmental Protection Agency announced plans to increase the stringency of national air quality standards regarding nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. NO2 forms quickly from the emissions of cars, trucks, buses, power plants, and off- road equipment. In addition, the compound also contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone (also known as smog), and fine particle pollution, which is linked with a number of adverse effects on the human respiratory system.

19 Types of Smog Photochemical Smog Photochemical smog is a type of air pollution caused by nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons and sunlight. Nitrogen oxide is commonly produced from the internal combustion of engines. Photochemical smog is often prevalent in some of the sunnier U.S. cities, such as Los Angeles. This smog can have ill effects on the body and cause coughing, heart palpitations, pneumonia and even lung cancer. Read more: The Different Types of Smog | eHow.com types-smog.html#ixzz21laFkEG3The Different Types of Smog | eHow.com types-smog.html#ixzz21laFkEG3 Industrial Smog Sulfurous Smog Sulfurous smog results from a high concentration of sulfur oxides being released into the air, because of burning fossil fuels. This type of smog is prevalent in London and is sometimes referred to as "London smog." While the burning of coal is the major reason why sulfur oxides are released into the air, the other causes stem from the production of crude oil and metallic ore. Sulfurous smog had been known to cause respiratory problems and can be a particular concern for those who have asthma. Read more: The Different Types of Smog | eHow.com t-types-smog.html#ixzz21lalMndFThe Different Types of Smog | eHow.com t-types-smog.html#ixzz21lalMndF Diunduh dari :

20 SourcePollution Transportati on 42% Fuel21% Industries14% Solid waste disposal 05% Other18% 21 % Transporta tion Fuel Is an unwanted change in the quality of earth's earths atmosphere caused by emission of gases caused by emission of gases due to burning of fossil fuel,transportation,industrial institution etc. Indust ries wast e Othe r 21% 14 % 05 % 18 % Diunduh dari :. PENCEMARAN ATMOSFIR

21 1.Gaseous waste: Oxides of nitrogen,SO 2,CO 2,CO.Cl,Br,I,O 3 & smog. 2.Complex organic chemicals: Benzene, ether. 3.Acid prop lets: H 2 SO 4, HNO 3 4.Agrochemicals: fertilizers, pesticides,herbicixles,fungicides, rematicides,weedicides,bectrecides etc. 5.Fluorides 6.Metals: Mercury,lead,Cd,Zn,Fe,Ni etc. 7.Solid wasre:Garbage,plastic etc. 8.Radioactive waste: Nuclear reacters,uranium,nuclear explosion. 9.Noise waste Diunduh dari : Delhi/Environmental%20Air%20Pollution/air%20pollution%20%28Civil%29/Module-1/3.htm. BERAGAM PENCEMAR Primary Air Pollutants Five major materials released directly into the atmosphere in unmodified forms. - Carbon monoxide - Sulfur dioxide - Nitrogen oxides - Hydrocarbons - Particulate matter Secondary Air Pollutants Ozone PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate) Photochemical smog Aerosols and mists (H2SO4)

22 Secondary pollutants :These result from chemical reactions between two or more air components. Formation of secondary pollutants 2SO 2 +O 2 2SO 3 2SO 3 +H 2 O H 2 SO 4 (Secondary pollutant) Natural Pollutants: The pollution which comes out from natural sources such as forest fires volcanic eruption decomposition of organic matter & natural radioactivity. Primary Pollutants: Harmful chemical that directly enters the air as a result of human activity. These are deforestisation burning of fossil fuel industrialization warfare etc. Diunduh dari : damage-to-ecosystems/. PENCEMAR UDARA Air pollution causes widespread damage to ecosystems Posted: July 22, 2008 in environmentenvironment There is a lot of focus on CO 2 when it comes to public awareness about climate change. Apart from CO 2 though not being the only factor contributing to it, there is also very little awareness of the effects of air pollution on terrestrial environments, such as lakes, rivers, fauna and flora. The Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies and The Nature Conservancy in the US has produced the first major research analysing large-scale effects that four air pollutants are having across a broad range of habitat types. The four pollutants assessed were sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and ground-level ozone, largely originating from smokestacks, tailpipes, and (of course!) agricultural operations. While initially airborne, these pollutants eventually return to the earth surface, where they contaminate the soil and water. They often travel long distances before reaching the ground

23 Green house effect: Increasing global temperature. Scientists predicting that earth's temperature will increase by C by year 2030 if the pollution continues to increase at the same pace. Ozone depletion: As ozone layer in the upper atmosphere absorbs incoming harmful ultraviolet radiation but it is now getting thinner & more UVs are reaching in to earth creating different disease like cancer& eye problems. Photochemical smog: In 1952 London was covered by smog for 10 days.This smog was caused by fog, smoke, ash,& SO 2 plus NO 2. Sunlight played a great role in the formation of this smog.Though deaths occurring at that time were not directly attributed to the smog later statistics confirmed that 6,000 more people. Acid rain: is caused by oxides of nitrogen & sulphur.It increases acidity of soil & effects the growth of trees & plants. The majestic monument Taj Mahal in India is also affecting by this. Diunduh dari : damage-to-ecosystems/. TANTANGAN LINGKUNGAN Air pollution is a complex problem. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases from smokestacks and vehicles react in the atmosphere to form sulfate (SO4) and nitrate (NO3) particles as well as sulfuric and nitric acids in clouds and rain. Mercury (Hg) is also emitted to the atmosphere from coal burning and incinerators. Agricultural activities contribute to the nitrogen pollution problem by releasing ammonia (NH3). All of these gases, particles and dissolved chemicals can be deposited to natural ecosystems downwind of the sources. Nitrogen can accumulate in ecosystems and cause nutrient imbalances, while acid precipitation can strip important nutrients such as calcium (Ca) from the soil and mobilize toxic metals such as aluminum (Al). Acid and aluminum harm trees in the forest and fish and other aquatic animals in streams and lakes.

24 Acid Rain SO 2 & NO X + water SEA Sea Lake Factories, Transportation Solar Radiation H 2 SO 4 (Sulphuric Acid) HNO 3 (Nitric Acid) HUJAN ASAM

25 A Methane Carbon Dioxide Nitrous oxide Ozone Eart h Carbon Dioxide 50% Methane 18% Chlorofluoro carbons 14% Ozone 12% Nitrous oxide 06% Green house gases in natural condition insulates the earth against extreme of temperature by limiting both incoming solar radiation & escape of reradiated heat in to space. This natural balance may be distorted by Green House Effect as gases such as carbon dioxide have built up in the atmosphere trapping more heat sun Infra- red radiatio n Atmosp here Surface Temperature normal Some reradiated heat reflected back to earth Atmosp here sun Surface Temperature increases More reradiated heat reflected back to earth Less reradiated heat escapes in to space Some reradiated heat escapes in to space sun Contribution of different gases to cause green house effect EFEK RUMAH KACA

26 Ultraviolet rays from Sun The Ozone layer in stratosph ere blocks these harmful UV rays Chlorofluorocar bons are entering in to atmosphere releasing chlorine. The chlorine than break down the ozone The chlorine released from CFCs break down the ozone molecule. chlorine ozone More ultraviolet radiations are reaching in to earths surface as there is a whole in ozone layer. Oxygen Whole in Ozone layer Diunduh dari :.

27 Polusi Udara Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with the hydroxyl radicals and water vapor in the atmosphere to form their respective acids, which come back down either as dry acid deposition or, mixed with water, acid precipitation. Diunduh dari:

28 Definisi Air pollution may be defined as the presence in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or more contaminants or combinations thereof in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business. Diunduh dari : Air Pollution Control Measures The main air pollutants discharged from a thermal plant are sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and soot and dust. We are making efforts to control emissions through fuel measures including the use of high-quality fuel and the facility improvement measures including the installation of denitrification facilities, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization facilities, as well as through the complete combustion management while seeking prevention of air pollution by implementing the operation measures such as monitoring of emission sources.

29 Pencemar (Polutan) Udara Pencemaran udara diartikan sebagai adanya bahan-bahan atau zat-zat asing di dalam udara yang menyebabkan perubahan susunan (komposisi) udara dari keadaan normalnya. Kehadiran bahan atau zat asing di dalam udara dalam jumlah tertentu serta berada di udara dalam waktu yang cukup lama, akan dapat mengganggu kehidupan manusia. Apabila keadaan seperti itu terjadi maka udara dikatakan telah tercemar. “Polutan” is a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air, which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people. A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular), liquid or gas. It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source (or both). It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have changed the composition of global air by less than 0.01%. However, it is widely accepted that even a small change can have a significant adverse effect on the climate, ecosystem and species on the planet. Examples of these are acid rain, ozone in the lower atmosphere, and photochemical smog. Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012.

30 Pencemar Hidrokarbon Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012 KARAKTERISTIK HIDROKARBON Struktur Hidrokarban (HC) terdiri dari elemen hidrogen dan karbon dan sifat fisik HC dipengaruhi oleh jumlah atom karbon yang menyusun molekul HC. HC merupakan pencemar udara yang dapat berbentuk gas, cairan dan padatan. Semakin banyak jumlah atom karbon, senyawa HC ini cenderung berbentuk padatan. Hidrokarbon dengan kandungan unsur C antara 1-4 atom karbon akan berbentuk gas pada suhu kamar, sedangkan kandungan karbon lebih dari 5 akan berbentuk cairan dan padatan. HC yang berupa gas akan tercampur dengan gas-gas hasil buangan lainnya. Sedangkan bila berupa cair maka HC akan membentuk semacam kabut minyak, bila berbentuk padatan akan membentuk asap yang pekat dan akhirnya menggumpal menjadi debu. Berdasarkan struktur molekulnya, hidrokarbon dapat dibedakan dalam 3 kelompok yaitu hidrokarban alifalik, hidrokarbon aromatik dan hidrokarbon alisiklis. Molekul hidrokarbon alifalik tidak mengandung cincin atom karbon dan semua atom karbon tersusun dalam bentuk rantai lurus atau bercabang. Hidrokarbon dan oksidan fotokimia merupakan komponen polutan udara yang berbeda tetapi mempunyai hubungan satu dengan yang lain. Hidrokarbon merupakan polutan primer karena dilepaskan ke udara secara langsung, sedangkan oksidan fotokimia berasal dari reaksi-reaksi yang melibatkan hidrokarbon baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Masalah yang dihadapi karena adanya polusi hidrokarbon harus mempertimbangkan juga adanya polusi oksidan fotokimia.

31 FAKTOR EMISI Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012 Faktor Emisi adalah adalah nilai representatif yang menghubungkan kuantitas suatu polutan yang dilepaskan ke atmosfer dari suatu kegiatan yang terkait dengan sumber polutan. Faktor-faktor ini biasanya dinyatakan sebagai berat polutan dibagi dengan satuan berat, volume, jarak, atau lamanya aktivitas yang mengemisikan polutan (misalnya, partikel yang diemisikan kilogram per megagram batubara yang dibakar). Pada beberapa kasus, faktor-faktor ini hanyalah rata-rata dari semua data yang tersedia dengan kualitas yang dapat diterima. Persamaan umum untuk estimasi emisi adalah: E = A x EF x (1-ER/100) Keterangan : E = emisi; A = laju aktifitas; EF = faktor emisi; ER = efisiensi pengurangan emisi keseluruhan, %. Emisi dapat dikategorikan menjadi: 1.Emisi langsung, adalah emisi yang keluar langsung dari aktifitas atau sumber dalam ruang batas yang ditetapkan. Contoh: emisi CO 2 dari kendaraan bermotor. 2.Emisi tidak langsung, merupakan hasil dari aktifitas di dalam ruang batas yang ditetapkan. Contoh: konsumsi energi listrik di rumah tangga.

32 Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012 Contoh-contoh faktor-faktor emisi gas:

33 DIUNDUH DARI:.. CONTOH: BAKU MUTU KUALITAS UDARA NASIONAL

34 DIUNDUH DARI:.. CONTOH: BAKU MUTU KUALITAS UDARA NASIONAL

35 DIUNDUH DARI:.. CONTOH: BAKU MUTU KUALITAS UDARA NASIONAL

36 DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENCEMARAN CO

37 DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENCEMARAN CO

38 GANGGUAN KESEHATAN AKIBAT NOx Short-term exposure at concentrations greater than 3 parts per million (ppm) can measurably decrease lung function. Concentrations less than 3 ppm can irritate lungs. Concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm cause lung irritation and measurable decreases in lung function in asthmatics. Long-term lower level exposures can destroy lung tissue, leading to emphysema. Children may also be especially sensitive to the effects of nitrogen oxides. DIUNDUH DARI: Noxious Air Pollutants Air pollution is putting many things in the air that we’re not supposed to breathe. Among the most noxious air pollutants are nitrogen oxides, highly reactive gases containing nitrogen and oxygen, collectively known as NOx.

39 Where are nitrogen oxides involved in atmospheric processes? DIUNDUH DARI: We find NO x (= NO + NO 2 ) and other nitrogen oxides nearly everywhere in atmospheric chemistry. During the night, nitrate radicals NO 3 are formed and are the most active oxidants. Radicals are chemical species, which are very instable and usually react extremely fast. If N 2 O 5 is formed in polluted areas, it can react on droplets or wet surfaces with water and nitric acid HNO 3 is formed. HNO 3 contributes to the acid character of the rain. Nitric acid, which can also be formed during the day by oxidation of NO 2, is the main way how nitrogen oxides are removed again from the atmosphere, either by dry or by wet deposition (wash out by rain). Nitric acid is also part of polar stratospheric clouds. Nitric acid tryhydrate forms the particles on which the ozone hole developed

40 EFEK LAINNYA DIUNDUH DARI: HUJAN ASAM Acid rain is a popular term for the atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as acidified fog and cloud water. The increased acidity of these depositions, primarily from the strong acids, sulfuric and nitric, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur or nitrogen, especially electrical utilities (power plants.)combustionnitrogen electrical utilities (power plants Several processes can result in the formation of acid deposition. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) released into the atmosphere from a variety of sources call fall to the Earth’s surface simply as dry deposition. This dry deposition can then be converted into acids when these deposited chemicals interact with water. Most wet acid deposition occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are converted to nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) through oxidation and dissolution in the atmosphere. Wet deposition can also form when ammonia gas (NH3) from natural and agricultural sources is converted into ammonium (NH4). Oxides of nitrogen, in the presence of sunlight, can also react with hydrocarbons, forming photochemical oxidants or smog. Also, NOx is a precursor to acidic precipitation, which may affect both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

41 EFEK LAINNYA DIUNDUH DARI: Vozdeiystvie_oksidov_azota_na_organizm_cheloveka_i_rasteniya.html.. Seriously injure vegetation at certain concentrations. Effects include: –Bleaching or killing plant tissue. –Causing leaves to fall. –Reducing growth rate. Deteriorate fabrics and fade dyes. Corrode metals (due to nitrate salts formed from nitrogen oxides). Reduce visibility. Oxides nitrogen NOx may affect plants in three ways: direct contact with plants; through formed in the air, acid rain; indirectly - By the photochemical formation of oxidants such as ozone and PAN. Direct NOx impact on plants is determined visually by yellowing or browning leaves and needles, what is happening as a result of oxidation of chlorophyll. Oxidation fatty acids in plants, occurring simultaneously with the oxidation of chlorophyll, in addition, leads to the destruction of membranes and necrosis. Formed in this in cells nitrous acid has a mutagenic effect. Negative biological effects of NOx on the plants shown in the bleaching of leaves, wilting of flowers, fruiting and cessation of growth. This action is explained formation of acids when dissolved nitrogen oxides in the intercellular and intracellular fluid. Botany believe that the initial symptoms of damage to plants nitrogen oxides manifest themselves in a chaotic distribution of bleaching stains gray-green shade. These spots gradually coarse, dry out and become white. Oxides nitrogen are toxic at a concentration of 3 million-1. For comparison: sulfur dioxide is affected plants at higher concentrations (5 M-1). Violations growth of plants under the influence of NO2 are observed at concentrations of 0.35 mg/m3 and above. This value is the maximum concentration. The risk of damage vegetation nitrogen dioxide exists only in large cities and industrial areas, where the average concentration of NO2 is 0,2 - 0,3 mg/m3. Plants more stable (compared to humans) to the effect of pure dioxide nitrogen. This is due to the peculiarities of assimilation NO2, which is restored chloroplasts and a NH2-group is included in the amino acids. At concentrations 0,17 - 0,18 mg/m3 oxides of nitrogen used by plants as fertilizer. This ability to metabolizirovaniyu NOx man not inherent.

42 Sulfur Dioxide Ninety-five percent of pollution related sulfur oxide emissions are in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), a heavy, colorless gas with an odor like a struck match. This gas combines easily with water vapor, forming aerosols of sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), a colorless, mildly corrosive liquid. This liquid may then combine with oxygen in the air, forming the even more irritating and corrosive sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). DIUNDUH DARI: sources.. Anthropogenic SO 2 is almost exclusively formed during the combustion of fossil fuels with relevant sulphur content and most important is coal because the sulfur content of liquid and gaseous fossil fuels can be easily removed before combustion. SO 2 atmospheric reaction and historical emissions. ( Popescu, 2009 ) Popescu, 2009

43 Other sulfur-containing compounds Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) gas - rotten eggs. Mercaptans - skunk spray or decayed garbage. (Added in trace amounts to natural gas, providing a leak-detecting warning odor.) Note: The amount of SO 2 released from coal fired power plants depends on the sulfur content of coal, normally 0.7% to 2% by weight. High sulfur coal sometimes contains as much as 6% sulfur by weight. In India, sulfur content is quite low. DIUNDUH DARI: Illustration of the important reaction pathways connecting SO, SO 2, SO 3 and H 2 SO 4.

44 EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT SOx Sulfur dioxide not only has a bad odor, it can irritate the respiratory system. Exposure to high concentrations for short periods of time can constrict the bronchi and increase mucous flow, making breathing difficult. Children, the elderly, those with chronic lung disease, and asthmatics are especially susceptible to these effects. DIUNDUH DARI:..

45 Immediately irritate the lung and throat at concentrations greater than 6 parts per million (ppm) in many people. Impair the respiratory system's defenses against foreign particles and bacteria, when exposed to concentrations less than 6 ppm for longer time periods. Apparently enhance the harmful effects of ozone. (Combinations of the two gases at concentrations occasionally found in the ambient air appear to increase airway resistance to breathing.) DIUNDUH DARI:.. EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT SOx

46 Sulfur dioxide tends to have more toxic effects when acidic pollutants, liquid or solid aerosols, and particulates are also present. (In the past, thousands of excess deaths occurred in areas where SO 2 concentrations exceeded 1 ppm for a few days and other pollutants were also high.) Effects are more pronounced among mouth breathers, e.g., people who are exercising or who have head colds. These effects include: Health problems, such as episodes of bronchitis requiring hospitalization associated with lower-level acid concentrations. Self-reported respiratory conditions, such as chronic cough and difficult breathing, associated with acid aerosol concentrations. (Asthmatic individuals are especially susceptible to these effects. The elderly and those with chronic respiratory conditions may also be affected at lower concentrations than the general population.) Increased respiratory tract infections, associated with longer term, lower-level exposures to SO 2 and acid aerosols. Subjective symptoms, such as headaches and nausea, in the absence of pathological abnormalities, due to long-term exposure. DIUNDUH DARI:.. EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT SOx

47 Efek SOx pada Tumbuhan Sulfur dioxide easily injures many plant species and varieties, both native and cultivated. Some of the most sensitive plants include various commercially valuable pines, legumes, red and black oaks, white ash, alfalfa and blackberry. The effects include: Visible injury to the most sensitive plants at exposures as low as 0.12 ppm for 8 hours. Visible injury to many other plant types of intermediate sensitivity at exposures of 0.30 ppm for 8 hours. Manfaat positif pada konsentrasi rendah, dirasakan oleh beberapa jenis tumbuhan pada tanah-tanah yang defisien belerang. Diunduh dari :.

48 EFEK LAINNYA Increases in sulfur dioxide concentrations accelerate the corrosion of metals, probably through the formation of acids. (SO 2 is a major precursor to acidic deposition.) Sulfur oxides may also damage stone and masonry, paint, various fibers, paper, leather, and electrical components. Peningkatan konsentrasi SO 2 juga dapat mengganggu penglihatan (visibility). Partikulat sulfat, yang berasal dari emisi SO2, merupakan komponen utama dari campuran kompleks partikulat yang tersuspensi. Diunduh dari :.

49 EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT OZON Ozone acts as a powerful respiratory irritant at the levels frequently found in most of the nation's urban areas during summer months. Paparan ozon dapat mengakibatkan: –Sesak nafas / nafas pendek. –Sakit dada bila menghirup nafas panjang. –Batuk-batuk. Paparan ozon jangka panjang dengan konsnetrasi tinggi dapat mengakibatkan gangguan fungsi paru, inflammation selaput paru, dan gangguan pernafasan.

50 Diunduh dari :. PENCEMAR UTAMA DI UDARA

51 Diunduh dari :. PENCEMAR UTAMA DI UDARA

52 Diunduh dari :. SENYAWA KARBON DI ATMOSFER

53 Diunduh dari :. SENYAWA NITROGEN DI ATMOSFER

54 Diunduh dari :. SENYAWA BELERANG DI TROPOSFER

55 Diunduh dari :. BENCANA POLUSI UDARA

56 Air Pollution, ISBN: Ozone Pollution and its Bioindication By Vanda Villanyi, Boris Turk, Franc Batic and Zsolt Csintalan DIUNDUH DARI: bioindication Triplet oxigen is a highly reactive molecule. Naturally it arises in the stratosphere, but it can as well develop through the chain reactions of photochemical smog in the troposphere. Photochemical smog occurs in highly polluted urban and industrial areas in the presence of high solar radiation. Ozone develops in the reaction of oxygen molecules with the singlet oxigen splitting off from nitrogen-oxides in the presence of UV-radiation. Formation of ozone The short wave radiation of solar spectrum is entirely absorbed by stratospheric ozone and molecular oxygen. The infrared part of the spectrum is mostly absorbed by water vapour and carbon dioxide and some other greenhouse gases. Photochemistry in the troposphere is therefore driven by radiation with wavelengths between 300 and 600 nm (Seinfeld and Pandis,1998).Seinfeld and Pandis,1998 Photooxidants are compounds formed by the oxidation processes of tropospheric gas phase chemistry. They include ozone and other compounds such as HNO 3, PAN and aldehydes. Overview of photochemistry in the polluted planetary boundary layer (from Staehelin et al., 2000).Staehelin et al., 2000

57 ASAP - SMOKE Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012. Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves, candles, oil lamps, and fireplaces), but may also be used for pest control (cf. fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defensive and offensive capabilities in the military (smoke-screen), cooking (smoked salmon), or smoking (tobacco, cannabis, etc.).stoves Smoke is used in rituals, when incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual purposes. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavoring agent, and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust. Smoke particles are an aerosol (or mist) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. Smoke particulates have three modes of particle size distribution: 1.nuclei mode, with geometric mean radius between 2.5– 20 nm, likely forming by condensation of carbon moieties. 2.accumulation mode, ranging between 75–250 nm and formed by coagulation of nuclei mode particles 3.coarse mode, with particles in micrometer range

58 Kabut Diunduh dari : ………….. 9/11/2012. Kabut atau halimun adalah uap air yang berada dekat permukaan tanah berkondensasi dan menjadi mirip awan. Hal ini biasanya terbentuk karena hawa dingin membuat uap air berkondensasi dan kadar kelembaban mendekati 100%. Ada beberapa macam kabut: 1.kabut adveksi 2.kabut angin 3.kabut basah 4.kabut es 5.kabut lembah 6.kabut radiasi 7.kabut uap 8.kabut udara tropis KABUT ASAP (SMOG) Istilah "asbut" adalah singkatan dari "asap" dan "kabut", pada perkembangan selanjutnya asbut tidak harus memiliki salah satu komponen kabut atau asap. Asbut juga sering dikaitkan dengan pencemaran udara.asapkabut Istilah "smog" pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Dr. Henry Antoine Des Voeux 1950 dalam karya ilmiahnya "Fog and Smoke", di Public Health Congress. Ada dua jenis asbut. Asbut fotokimia, seperti kasus di Los Angeles, dan asbut Industri seperti di London. Kabut Asap atau lebih dikenal smog (smoke and fog), adalah sejenis kasus pencemaran udara berat yangbisa terjadi berhari-hari hingga hitungan bulan. Asbut sendiri merupakan koloid jenis aerosol padat dan aerosol cair.

59 KABUT FOTOKIMIA Diunduh dari : Delhi/Environmental%20Air%20Pollution/air%20pollution%20%28Civil%29/Module- 1/3.htm………….. 9/11/2012. Kabut fotokimia adalah campuran polutan termasuk ozon, aldehida, dan peroksi-asetil nitrat (PAN) yang dihasilkan dari interaksi nitrogen dioksida dan senyawa-senyawa organik mudah menguap dengan sinar matahari dalam suatu lingkungan hangat. Dua komponen paling merusak dari kabut fotokimia adalah ozon dan peroksiasetil nitrat. Ozon adalah molekul sangat reaktif yang mengganggu jaringan pernafasan dan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan paru-paru yang permanen. Ozon dapat merusak klorofil tumbuh-tumbuhan. Peroksiasetil nitrat dapat menyebabkan iritasi mata. Photochemical smog Photochemical smog is a mixture of pollutants which includes particulates, nitrogen oxides, ozone, aldehydes, peroxyethanoyl nitrate (PAN), unreacted hydrocarbons, etc. The smog often has a brown haze due to the presence of nitrogen dioxide. It causes painful eyes.

60 Kabut Los Angeles  Photochemically- produced  Associated with motor vehicle emissions  Brown in color Diunduh dari : Photochemical smog In bright sunlight nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and oxygen Interact chemically to produce powerful oxidants like ozone (O 3 ) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). These secondary pollutants are damaging to plant life and lead to the formation of photochemical smog. PAN is primarily responsible for the eye irritation so characteristic of this type of smog. The figure outlines representative reactions leading to the formation of photochemical smog. Radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. They are very reactive chemically. The catalytic converter in automobile exhaust systems reduces air pollution by oxidizing hydrocarbons to CO 2 and H 2 O and, to a lesser extent, converting nitrogen oxides to N 2 and O 2.

61 Kabut “Los Angeles” Los Angeles Smog: driven by the photochemistry of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated nitrogen species (NOx) contained in exhaust from combustion engines. Photochemical smog is air saturated with ozone, VOCs and aerosol particles. Diunduh dari : When VOCs are present, reactions lead to accumulation of damaging compounds; ozone is the most injurious.

62 Kabut Industri The gray air in industrial cities in cold winter areas, caused from burning fossil fuel. Industrial smog is in the forms of dust, smoke, soot, ashes, asbestos, oil, lead, heavy metals, and sulfur oxides. In 1952, industrial smog held in place by a thermal inversion caused the 4,000 deaths in London. Diunduh dari : Industrial smog, or gray smog, occurs where coal is burned and the atmosphere is humid. Fig. 22.4A

63 Industrial Smog –“London” Smog “London” smog: fog soot particles sulfur dioxide tar This forms a highly acidic mist. Some incidents of deaths associated with sulfurous smog: 1930 Meuse Valley, Belgium Donora, Pennsylvania London (5 days) London 700 These deaths lead to a reduction in coal consumption and an increase in alternative fuels, such as gasoline... Diunduh dari : This is a simplified model of atmospheric cleansing by the hydroxyl radical. The first step is the photochemical destruction of ozone. The second step produces hydroxyl that reacts rapidly with many pollutants.

64 Debu (Pneumoconiosis) Inorganic Dust Coal Dust - Anthracosis Silica - Silicosis Asbestos - Asbestosis Iron - Siderosis Organic Dusts Cane Fiber - Bagassosis (Bronchi gets affected) Cotton dust - Byssinosis (In Textile industries) Tobacco - Tobaccosis, Lung Cancer Grain Dust - Farmer’s Lungs Diunduh dari : Dust consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil dust lifted by wind (an Aeolian process), volcanic eruptions, and pollution. Dust in homes, offices, and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen, human and animal hairs, textile fibers, paper fibers, minerals from outdoor soil, human skin cells, burnt meteorite particles and many other materials which may be found in the local environment. Dust may worsen hay fever. Circulating outdoor air through a house by keeping doors and windows open, or at least slightly ajar, may reduce the risk of hay fever- causing dust. In colder climates, occupants seal even the smallest air gaps, and eliminate outside fresh air circulating inside the house. So it is essential to manage dust and airflow. House dust mites are ubiquitous everywhere humans live indoors. Positive tests for dust mite allergies are extremely common among people with asthma. Dust mites are microscopic arachnids whose primary food is dead human skin cells. They do not actually live on people, though. It is probably not possible to entirely eradicate them. They and their feces and other allergens they produce are major constituents of house dust, but because they are so heavy they are not long suspended in the air. Dust in the atmosphere is produced by saltation and sandblasting of sand-sized grains, and it is transported through the troposphere. This airborne dust is considered an aerosol and once in the atmosphere, it can produce strong local radiative forcing.

65 Asbestos - Asbestosis Iron- Siderosis The iris has the " rusty " appearance that results from siderosis. Diunduh dari :.

66 Pneumoconiosis A disease of the lungs characterized by fibrosis and caused by the chronic inhalation of mineral dusts, especially silica and asbestos. When Insoluble Inorganic Material (like silica and asbestos) enters the lungs, they stay in the lungs and cause inflammation and disease Diunduh dari :.

67 Ozone - Broncho constriction Diunduh dari :.

68 Sulphur dioxide – COPD, Asthma COPD - diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowedairways Diunduh dari :.

69 CO  It is formed by incomplete combustion of carbon fuels in various industries, motor vehicles, hearths,etc.  It causes impairment of judgment and vision, headache and dizziness. SO2  It is produced in large quantity during smelting of metallic ores.  It causes trachial irritation, cough, bronchial spasms. Diunduh dari :.

70 Diunduh dari : Delhi/Environmental%20Air%20Pollution/air%20pollution%20%28Civil%29/Module- 1/3.htm……. 9/11/2012 PAN Smog is caused by the interaction of some hydrocarbons and oxidants under the influence of sunlight giving rise to dangerous peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN). Nitrogen Oxides: 1.Produced from burning of fossil fuels 2.Contributes to acid rain, smog 3.Automobile engine main source 4.New engine technology has helped reduce, but many more cars. Hydrocarbons 1.Hydrocarbons - organic compounds with hydrogen, carbon 2.From incomplete burning or evaporated from fuel supplies 3.Major source is automobiles, but some from industry 4.Contribute to smog 5.Improvements in engine design have helped reduce

71 Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012 SMOG PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN THE TROPOSPHERE Photochemical smog is an atmospheric condition that produces severe eye irritation and poor visibility, to name just two of the effects. Three ingredients -- energy from a light source (ultraviolet), hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides -- are needed for photochemical smog to be formed. Two of those components are produced through the burning of fossil fuels, most notably automobiles. Photochemical smog is also sometimes known as "oxidizing smog", in that it has a high concentration of oxidizing agents. Ozone is a common oxidizing agent found in photochemical smog. Another type of smog, "reducing smog", has high concentrations of sulfur dioxide, which is a reducing agent.

72 Diunduh dari : 9/11/2012 …KABUT FOTOKIMIA Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health. Ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. It can inflame breathing passages, decrease the lungs' working capacity, cause shortness of breath, pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the protective membranes of the nose and throat and interferes with the body's ability to fight infection, increasing susceptibility to illness. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high.

73 Diunduh dari : ……. 9/11/2012 What are temperature inversions? On most days, the temperature of air in the atmosphere is cooler the higher up in altitude you go. This is because most of the suns energy is converted to sensible heat at the ground, which in turn warms the air at the surface. The warm air rises in the atmosphere, where it expands and cools. Sometimes, however, the temperature of air actually increases with height. The situation of having warm air on top of cooler air is referred to as a temperature inversion, because the temperature profile of the atmosphere is "inverted" from its usual state. There are two types of temperature inversions: surface inversions that occur near the Earth's surface, and aloft inversions that occur above the ground. Surface inversions are the most important in the study of air quality.

74 PENCEMARAN BISING

75 NOISE POLLUTION The term noise is applied to the sound that cause irritation on hearing of healthy human being. Sources Transport noise--- Originates from road traffic (vehicular), air craft and rail traffic. Industrial noise--- It produced by presses; punch and stamp machine, pneumatic drills, milling machines, cutter and routers, dust extractors. etc. Domestic noise--- It is generated from domestic appliance like washing machines, spin dryers, food mixer, sink waste grinder and vacuum cleaner. DIUNDUH DARI:..

76 BISING Sound is what we hear while Noise is unwanted sound. In simple words noise is defined as any sound that is undesired by the recipient. A particular sound may be musical to one but noise to another, pleasant when soft, but noise when loud. The word noise is derived from the Latin word “nausea”, meaning a feeling of sickness at the stomach with an urge to vomit. For humans, hearing is normally limited to frequencies between about 12 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz). Noise pollution can be defined as “unwanted or offensive sound that unreasonably intrudes into our daily activities (EPA 1986)”. DIUNDUH DARI:. _green.html. Some Typical sound levels in dB of various noise sources are given below No.SourcesNoise levels (dB) 1Rusting of leaves due to gentle wind20 2Normal Conversation Average Office noise55 4Small Shop60 5Printing Press80 6Heavy traffic80 7Large Factory90 8Train whistle90 9Boiler Factory110 10Firecrackers110 11Aeroplane noise (at a distance of 3 meters)130

77 Effects Of Noise Pollution Hearing damage from noise exposure Pathological and Physiological disorders The impact of noise may cause permanent hearing loss due to the exposure to noise levels exceeding 90 dB DIUNDUH DARI: _green.html.. Auditory Effects - The most acute and immediate effect of noise pollution is impairing of hearing which may cause auditory fatigue and may even finally lead to deafness. Auditory fatigue occurs when exposed to noise levels of 90 dB or above. In metro cities, most of the shopkeepers, cobblers, fruit sellers complain tinnitus in ear. Deafness occurs when exposed to loud noise. The workers working in the noisy workplace environment may suffer from Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Hearing loss may be temporary or permanent. Prolonged exposure to high noise levels leads to permanent deafness.

78 Noise pollution This era has rightly been called as the era of noise.because heavy industrialization we are exposed to a high level of noise all around us. Noise has become a very important stress factor in modern life.it leads many health hazards.Some of the sources of noise pollution are aircraft,automobiles,factories,loudspeakers& pop& Rock-n-Roll music in clubs. Noise produces following health problems- 1)Auditory fatigue 2)Deafness or impaired vision 3)Rise in blood pressure, pulse rate 4)Headache 5)Nausea 6)Disturbed sleep 7)Emotional disturbances Diunduh dari :.

79 Space vehicle launch Loudspeaker Jet take off Very High above than 100db Loud Conversation Heavy Traffic High Approximate 80db Quit Conversation Ticking Clock Pleasant below than 80dB Quit Raining Sports car Diunduh dari :. INTENSITAS BUNYI

80 Noise SourceNoise Scale Noise SourceNoise Scale Breathing10dbTraffic noise60-90db Winds in trees20dbSports car80-90db Quit conversation20-30dbHeavy truck90-100db Ticking clock10dbMotor cycle105db House in quiet street 35dbThunder storm110db Radio music50-60dbBeat music (Electrically amplified) 120db Loud conversation60dbAir craft noise90-120db Office noise60dbJet take off120db Children play60-80dbJet engine140db Lawn mower60-80dbSpace vehicle launch (From a short distance) db Vacuum cleaner80db SUMBER BISING DAN INTENSITASNYA

81 BISING Read more: Noise Pollution - effects, environmental, United States, impact, EPA, industrial, world, human, life, health Pollution.html#ixzz21lOSovKkNoise Pollution - effects, environmental, United States, impact, EPA, industrial, world, human, life, healthhttp://www.pollutionissues.com/Na-Ph/Noise- Pollution.html#ixzz21lOSovKk DIUNDUH DARI:.. Noise pollution is the intrusion of unwanted, uncontrollable, and unpredictable sounds, not necessarily loud, into the lives of individuals of reasonable sensitivities. To understand noise, one must know something about sound and how loudness is measured. Sound that travels through the air in waves has two major properties: the frequency or speed at which the waves vibrate and the intensity of each vibration. It is the intensity, or how many molecules are packed together with each vibration, that for the most part produces the sense of loudness, although frequency also contributes to the determination of loudness, with higher-pitched sounds sounding louder. Loudness is measured by a decibel scale (expressed as dB), but to reflect human hearing more accurately a modified version of this scale, known as the A scale, has been developed. On the A scale, loudness is measured in dBAs. The scale increases logarithmically so that an increase of 10 dB indicates a doubling of loudness, and an increase of 20 dB represents a sound that is four times louder. Whispers measure 20 dBA, normal conversation 50 to 60 dBA, shouting 85 dBA, and loud music over 120 dBA. Continuous exposure to sounds over 85 dBA may cause permanent hearing loss. Safe Sound Level vs. Times Allowed per Day Over 85 dBA, over time, can cause permanent damage

82 GELOMBANG DIUNDUH DARI: ……... 8/11/2012 Gelombang adalah energi yang merambat. Bentuk-bentuk gelombang ada dua yaitu : (1) Transversal Gelombang transversal adalah yang arah rambatnya relatif tegak lurus terhadap arah osilasinya. Bentuk gelombang ini sesuai dengan kurva sinus, sehingga gelombang ini sering disebut sinusoidal. satu panjang gelombang dikatakan sebagai jarak antara 1 bukit dan 1 lembah atau jarak antara dua lembah atau jarak antara dua bukit. sedangkan satu periode adalah waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk menmpuh satu gelombang. Fenomena- fenomena alam yang sesuai dengan bentuk gelombang ini adalah gelombang elektromagnetik, gelombang cahaya, dan gelombang laut pada ombak.

83 DIUNDUH DARI: ……... 8/11/2012 (2) Gelombang Longitudinal Gelombang longitudinal adalah gelombang yang arah rambatnya relatif sejajar dengan arah osilasinya. Satu panjang gelombang didefimisikan sebagai jarak antara 1 rapatan dan 1 regangan, jarak antara 2 regangan atau jarak antara 2 rapatan. Contoh fenomena fisika yang sesuai dengan prinsip gelombang longitudinal adalah gelombang bunyi di udara, gelombang air ketika ada suatu benda yang jatuh ke air yang tenang. berikut ini animasi gelombang longitudinal GELOMBANG BUNYI

84 DIUNDUH DARI: us-x-none_3323.html ……... 8/11/2012 Gelombang Bunyi Bunyi merupakan bentuk dari gelombang tranversal (arah rambatan sejajar dengan arah getarannya). kuat lemah bunyi dipengaruhi Amplitudo dan tinggi rendah bunyi dipengaruhi oleh frekuensi. Resonansi adalah peristiwa ikut bergetarnya benda lain yang berfrekuensi sama dengan sebuah benda yang bergetar. contoh pantulan bunyi dalam kotak udara gitar mempunyai frekuensi yang sama....maka terjadi resonansi dan bunyi gitar menjadi lebih nyaring dari bunyi aslinya (petikan senar saja). Pengelompokan bunyi berdasarkan frekuensinya : 1.Bunyi Infrasonik adalah bunyi yang frekuensinya < 20 Hz. bunyi ini tidak dapat didengarkan oleh manusia namun dapat didengarkan oleh laba-laba, jangkrik dan lumba-lumba. 2.Bunyi audiosonik adalah bunyi yang frekuensinya diantara 20 Hz Hz. bunyi jenis inilah yang dapat didengarkan oleh manusia. 3.Bunyi ultrasonik adalah bunyi yang frekuensinya > Hz. bunyi jenis ini juga tidak dapat di dengarkan manusia. hewan yang mampu mengarkan bunyi jenis ini adalan lumba2, jangkrik, anjing....dll.

85 BUNYI DIUNDUH DARI: ……... 8/11/2012 Intensitas bunyi, kenyaringan dan tingkat intensitas bunyi Ketika gelombang merambat, gelombang tersebut memindahkan energi dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain. Gelombang tiga dimensi adalah gelombang yang merambat ke segala arah, misalnya gelombang bunyi… Jika seseorang berbicara maka orang yang berada di depan, belakang, samping kiri, samping kanan, di atas atau di bawah bisa mendengar pembicaraanmu. Hal ini dikarenakan gelombang bunyi merambat ke segala arah. Pada saat merambat, gelombang bunyi juga membawa sejumlah energi, karena arah perambatan gelombang bunyi ke segala arah maka hal yang penting adalah “intensitas”. “Intensitas” merupakan energi yang dibawa oleh gelombang per satuan waktu, melalui satu satuan luas yang tegak lurus dengan arah perambatan gelombang. Energi per satuan waktu adalah “daya”, sehingga “intensitas” merupakan daya yang dibawa oleh gelombang, melalui satu satuan luas yang tegak lurus dengan arah rambatan gelombang.

86 FENOMENA BISING DIUNDUH DARI: ……... 8/11/2012 Gelombang bunyi (akustik) dapat ditemui dalam bentuknya yang alami maupun berasal dari aktivitas buatan manusia. Di antara gelombang akustik tersebut, ada yang disebut sebagai noise atau bising. Bising atau noise dalam konteks akustik memiliki beberapa arti: bunyi atau suara yang keras, tidak disenangi, tidak terprediksi, tidak diinginkan gangguan, dalam bentuk acak dan terus menerus, yang membuat sinyal menjadi tidak jelas atau tereduksi Pada dasarnya, bising berbentuk gelombang suara itu sendiri yang dapat berasal dari mana saja, dan bentuk apa saja. Hanya saja, status bising akan ditentukan oleh konteks situasi gelombang yang diinginkan dan tidak diinginkan. Di studio musik, percakapan orang-orang akan menjadi status bising karena pada saat itu sedang dilakukan perekaman. Sebaliknya, di ruang pertemuan, musik akan menjadi bising karena saat itu gelombang akustik yang diinginkan adalah suara percakapan, selainnya akan mengganggu pertemuan. Fenomena bising itu sendiri mencakup skala yang luas. Salah satunya adalah bising berbentuk suara keras yang mengganggu kenyamanan dan keamanan akustik lingkungan bagi kehidupan manusia. Sebagian mesin pabrik yang menghasilkan suara yang sangat keras, bisa merusak indra pendengaran karyawan di sekitarnya, dan bahkan bisa mengganggu ketenangan masyarakat sekitar.

87 PENGENDALIAN BISING Teknologi pengendalian bising (noise control technique) adalah teknik mengendalikan gelombang suara berupa noise (bising) untuk mereduksi bahkan menghilangkan bising. Sesuai arti terminologinya, bising berarti gelombang akustik yang tidak diinginkan, sehingga harus direduksi atau dihilangkan. Saat ini telah berkembang banyak teknik pengendalian bising dari skala sinyal maupun pada tingkat intensitas suara yang tinggi. Secara konsep, cara menghilangkan kebisingan adalah dengan terlebih dahulu mengetahui karakteristik propagasi gelombang akustik sendiri, yang terdiri atas refleksi, refraksi, absorpsi, dan transmisi. Refleksi adalah peristiwa pemantulan gelombang bunyi saat ia bertumbukan dengan sebuah permukaan. Misalkan kita tinjau sebuah titik permukaan yang ditumbuk gelombang akustik. Jika gelombang datang dengan sudut datang i maka akan dipantulkan dengan sudut r dengan i = r, sesuai hukum pemantulan. Selanjutnya kita tinjuan permukaan secara lebih besar. Kita akan melihat bahwa pemantulan yang terjadi akan dipengaruhi oleh tingkat kekasaran permukaan tersebut. Permukaan yang rata sempurna menghasilkan pemantulan yang teratur. Sebaliknya, permukaan yang kasar akan memamtulkan gelombang secara baur/difus. Refraksi atau pembiasan, adalah fenomena gelombang akustik saat ia melewati medium yang memiliki kerapatan yang berbeda. Akibatnya, terjadi pembelokan arah rambat gelombang berdasarkan persamaan Snellius. Absorpsi adalah peristiwa konversi energi akustik menjadi energi termal pada zat permukaan, sehingga akan terjadi pengurangan intensitas bunyi setelah ia melewati permukaan tersebut. Sementara transmisi berarti diteruskannya gelombang akustik saat ia melewati sebuah lapisan permukaan. Dari keempat pola propagasi di atas, yaitu refleksi, refraksi, absorpsi, dan transmisi, rekayasa pengendalian bising dapat disusun dengan salah satu atau beberapa dari pola tersebut. DIUNDUH DARI: ……... 8/11/2012

88 PENGENDALIAN BISING DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012 Penghalang Bising (Noise Barriers) Penghalang bising biasa diaplikasikan pada tempat – tempat umum dengan tujuan menghalangi transmisi bising akibat sumber bising. Derajat absorbsi dan keterhalangan bising dengan adanya penghalang bising (noise barriers) ini bergantung pada ketebalan, ketinggian, dan koefisien absorbsi dinding. Namun, faktor lain yang juga mempengaruhi transmisi bising ini adalah : 1.Pemantulan dan transmisi lewat tanah 2.Angin dan cuaca 3.Pembelokan arah rambat pada jarak jauh 4.Geometri wilayah Peredam (Silencer) Pembuluh peredam (duct silencer) bekerja berdasarkan prinsip pemantulan dan penyerapan. Semua gelombang bising diarahkan pada pembuluh ini, kemudian memantul dibarengi dengan pengurangan intensitas energinya karena penyerapan, terus menerus hingga teredam.

89 PENGENDALIAN BISING DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012 Sound is Blocked by a Noise Barrier Lead is known as one of the best noise barriers available due to its flexibility and denseness. Use of lead materials these days, however, is nearly extinct due to health and environmental concerns. Megasorber Absorber-Barrier Soundproofing Composites Enhance the Barrier Performance Through years of research and development, Megasorber has successfully developed a special range of soundproofing composite materials. Combined with the Megasorber sound absorption techniques and the specially designed decoupling layer, Megasorber soundproofing composites provide a sound transmission loss well above the mass-law prediction.

90 Noise Barrier Design Principles DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012 Fundamental Elements of Design Sound Absorption This method uses plants to entrap or absorb sound vibrations. It is the most commonly used, particularly for large scale applications. Sound is absorbed by all parts of the plant such as leaves, branches, twigs and wood. The rougher the bark the better it absorbs sound. Experts say the best species for this will have many branches and thick, fleshy leaves with thin petioles (leaf stem). These broadleaf species lose their effectiveness in the winter when deciduous. Fortunately they leaf out for maximum advantage during the months when windows are open and you're spending time outdoors. In warm climates many more broadleaf evergreens can be used for sound absorption benefits all year around. A sound attenuation barrier is most effective when located closest to the source of the sound. Large shrubby trees can also be effective at scattering sound waves. The deeper and more dense the barrier the greater its scattering potential. This illustrates the biggest problem: your designer needs space for an effective solution. (http://www.landscapingnetwork.com/landscape-design/noise-reduction.html)

91 Noise Barrier Design Principles DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012

92 Noise Barrier Design Principles DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012

93 Noise Barrier Design Principles DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012 Plant Categories

94 PENGENDALIAN BISING Plants can be strategically placed to frame views and objects. DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012

95 PENGENDALIAN BISING Sound Deflection and Reflection This method causes the noise to be bounced away from the recipient and sometimes back toward the source. The difference is based upon the density and rigidity of the barrier. Your designer can create attractive and effective partitions that may serve as a fence, but also double as sound barriers. partitions When sound waves strike a 5 or 6 foot masonry wall, it does not vibrate so the waves are reflected back toward the source. The sound waves that are higher up will go right over the wall. That's why the freeway is so loud when it runs between two masonry sound walls. It's also why sound absorption plants are used in conjunction with walls to catch the higher level sound. When sound waves strike a slightly flexible panel it will vibrate. This transforms sound waves into other forms of energy, and also deflects them off in different directions. The more flexible the material, the greater the deflection. Common materials for sound deflection barriers are fiberglass and corrugated metal. A benefit of using a designer familiar with sound issues is that they will be familiar with state-of-the-art specialty materials designed for outdoor use partitions just as egg crate foam is utilized as sound proofing in music studios. (http://www.landscapingnetwork.com/landscape-design/noise-reduction.html) DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012

96 PENGENDALIAN BISING Sound Refraction This little known effect occurs when noise is dissipated, diffused or dispersed by striking a rough surface on any plain. It's easier to understand using a room of your house as an example. If it is empty with a bare floor and walls, every sound bounces off the hard surfaces to magnify it or even cause a slight echo as it bounces around. Add carpeting and the echo vanishes. Outdoor surfaces coated in plants can have much the same effect. It's why freeway sound walls are often planted with clinging vines such as Boston Ivy or creeping fig. On the ground plain the most powerful tool is lawn, due to its large area and excellent refraction ability. Make sure your designer is on her toes to utilize these surface coverings whenever possible to keep urban din from bouncing around your courtyard. (http://www.landscapingnetwork.com/landscape-design/noise-reduction.html) DIUNDUH DARI: 8/11/2012

97 PENGENDALIAN BISING DIUNDUH DARI: BARIER VEGETASI Vegetation can be used to barrier the effects many problems including noise pollution. As with plantings for wind or visual barriers, the selection and arrangement of the plant material is key to a successful outcome. Noise reduction is achieved by either deflection or absorption of the noise or a combination of the two. Most hardscape barriers work by deflecting sound (example 1in pic.). To be effective they should be close to the source of the noise as safety allows. With these barriers vegetation serves to soften the visual effect of the barrier and reduce the reverberation of sound. Earthen berms are often used in combination with trees and shrubs to deflect and absorb sound when the available space is limited (example 2.). Vegetation alone can be used where adequate space is available. To be effective the planting must be multiple rows to about 40 ‑ 75' in depth. Care also must be taken to plant the first row at 50' from a roadway or any area ‑ that should not be subject to extra snow deposits. Conifers or evergreen broadleaf plants will naturally provide the best year around noise reduction. Deciduous trees and shrubs can be added to the planting for variety and added summer noise reduction (example 3).

98 PENCEMARAN AIR

99 Water Facts Only about 3% of surface water is fresh water One-fifth of the world population lack access to clean drinking water Over 2.6 billion people do not have adequate toilets, sewers or latrines Water-borne Diseases : o Affect four billion people every year o Kill five million people including 6000 children every year PENCEMARAN AIR Diunduh dari :.

100 Diunduh dari : EUTROFIKASI Eutrophication is a natural process that occurs in an aging lake or pond as that body of water gradually builds up its concentration of plant nutrients. Cultural or artificial eutrophication occurs when human activity introduces increased amounts of these nutrients, which speed up plant growth and eventually choke the lake of all of its animal life. In natural lakes a distinction is sometimes made between ‘natural’ and ‘cultural’ (anthropogenic) eutrophication processes. Natural eutrophication depends only on the local geology and natural features of the catchment. Cultural eutrophication is associated with human activities which accelerate the eutrophication process beyond the rate associated with the natural process (e.g. by increasing nutrient loads into aquatic ecosystems).

101 WATER POLLUTION Sources and impacts Domestic wastes and sewage -- Sewage of municipalities, boats, ships, etc. It causes depletion of oxygen It produce foul odour and makes the water oily and brownish. Increase the sludge which make the water unfit for recreational and industrial use, It induces the growth of algal blooms. Diunduh dari :.

102 SURFACE RUN-OFF – The pollutants present on the surface of land and fertilizers are washed down into water bodies.  The nitrites enter the blood and combine with hemoglobin to form methaemoglobin. The latter is unable to transport oxygen and gives rise to disease called as methaemoglobinaemia. Infants are the most affected, showing signs of blueness around the mouth, hands and feet, having trouble breathing as well as vomiting and diarrhoea. Diunduh dari : Urban runoff adalah limpasan permukaan air hujan dibuat oleh urbanisasi. Urban limpasan ini didefinisikan sebagai aliran sungai atau jumlah limpasan permukaan dan aliran bawah permukaan limpasan permukaan. Limpasan ini terjadi ketika simpanan permukaan dan simpanan tanah telah penuh, infiltrasi curah hujan berhenti dan selanjutnya air menjadi aliran permukaan. Diunduh dari: taufikmohar.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/urban- runoff.ppt Runoff is the total amount of water flowing into a stream. It is the umbrella term for at least six (6) other terms: surface runoff, direct runoff, overland flow, saturation excess overland flow, interflow, baseflow, and probably a few others.

103 INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS – They are industrial wastes which are either dumped in the soil or are allowed to pass into water bodies. The effluents contains heavy metals, cyanides, thicynates, chromates, acids, alkalies, organic solvent,etc. Mercury sources ; Coal, smelting of ores, paper/paint industry Mercury causes Minamata disease. Minamata disease is the name given to mercury toxicosis (poisoning) that developed in people who ate contaminated sea food taken from Minamata Bay The disease results in crippling deformity Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) consist of chemicals – pesticides (such as DDT), industrial chemicals (such as polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs), and unwanted by-products of industrial processes or combustion (such as dioxins and furans) – that are dangerously resistant to environmental degradation. With no or little alterations of their original composition, POPs are transported to oceans and coastal areas by air, water and soil, via direct industrial effluents, sewages and solid source releases, as well as irrational dumping and dredging of waste. Diunduh dari :

104 Sources of lead pollution Paints, smelters, chemical and pesticide industries, petrochemicals. Lead poisoning (also known as plumbism, colica pictonium, saturnism, painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the heavy metal lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, reproductive and nervous systems. DIUNDUH DARI:.

105 Cadmium causes renal damage, emphysema and hypertension and Itai-Itai diseases. Cadmium is a relatively rare element that is a minor nutrient for aquatic organisms at low concentrations, but is toxic to aquatic biota at concentrations only slightly higher. In aquatic environments, organisms are exposed to cadmium in dissolved and particulate-bound forms, including ambient water, sediments, and food. Cadmium can be taken up by bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish directly or through the food chain as a potentially toxic metal, which can enter the organism body via waterborne and dietary pathways, although regulatory assessments of metal toxicity to aquatic organisms assume that toxic effects are caused by dissolved metals. In recent years, concern has been expressed about the possible effects on aquatic organisms from exposure to cadmium. Both acute and chronic toxicity tests are essential for better understanding of the response of aquatic organisms to cadmium. This topic provides many different studies on cadmium toxicity to aquatic biota. Cadmium Pollution Sources Smelting and refining of metals, or from the air in plants that make cadmium products such as batteries, coatings, or plastics. Cigarettes are also a significant source of cadmium exposure Cadmium is used in industry as a protective coat for iron, copper and steel Ex; telephone wires. Paint pigments DIUNDUH DARI: trophic-saltwater-organisms/toxicity-of-waterborne-cadmium-to-saltwater-aquatic- organisms-part-1/..

106 Effects Effects seen on liver and kidney mainly. Organs of toxicity:- Central Nervous System, Kidney. One of the main effects of cadmium poisoning is weak and brittle bones. Spinal and leg pain is common, and a waddling gait often develops due to bone deformities caused by the cadmium. The pain eventually becomes debilitating, with fractures becoming more common as the bone weakens. Other complications include coughing, anemia, and kidney failure, leading to death Symptoms DIUNDUH DARI: trophic-saltwater-organisms/toxicity-of-waterborne-cadmium-to-saltwater-aquatic- organisms-part-1/..

107 Amoebiasis, sometimes spelt amebiasis, is one of those common diseases, caused by a parasite which infects the bowel casing a type of gastroenteritis infection. This disease generally occurs in young to middle aged adults who ingest contaminated food or water containing the Entamoeba histolytica microorganism. Amoebiasis DIUNDUH DARI:..

108 Giardiasis Giardiasis (gee-ar-die-a-sis with a soft "G") is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the parasite, Giardia lamblia The most common manifestations of giardiasis are diarrhoea and abdominal pain, particularly cramping; however, diarrhea is not invariable and occurs in 60% to 90% of patients DIUNDUH DARI:..

109 PESTISIDA They are discharged to the water body through the agricultural run-off. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon, organo pesticides and inorganic pesticides are poisonous and causes sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and muscular tremors for the people Chromium has carcinogenic properties. Nickel can cause damage to liver and kidney. Arsenic can cause hyper-pigmentation, Keratosis and black foot disease DIUNDUH DARI: Pesticides are used to control weeds, pests and diseases in crops (including grassland). It is normal practice for several different pesticides to be applied to a single crop in any given growing season.

110 DIUNDUH DARI:.. MAGNIFIKASI BIOLOGIS

111 PENCEMARAN FLUORIDA 96 % of fluoride is found in bones and teeth. Fluorine is essential for the normal mineralization of bones and formation of dental enamel. Water resources near granitic rocks containing more than 2.5 ppm cause Fluorosis The cause of this diseases mainly due to consumption of high quantity of fluoride through water, food, cosmetic like fluoridated tooth paste, drugs and inhaling air contaminated with fluoride in industrial environment. DIUNDUH DARI:..

112 Fluorosis was first detected in India among cattle by the farmers of Andhra pradesh State during early The farmers noticed the inability of the bullocks to walk due to painfull and stiff joints. This endemic fluorosis had been identified in total 15 state of the Indian union. Fluorosis is a clinical condition recognized by Shrott in DIUNDUH DARI:..

113 LIMBAH PADATAN  Urban India produces 1,20,000 tons of MSW/Day.  Per capita waste generation in major cities of India ranges from 0.8 kg to 1.0 kg per day.  Of the MSW collected; 94% is dumped on land and 5% is composed.  23 metrocities generates 30,000 tons of SW/Day.  Class-I cities generate 50,000 tons of solid waste per day  Karnataka State generates tons/Day, disposes tons/Day and the remaining is un collected wastes. DIUNDUH DARI: There are certain municipal waste management programs that are known as municipal waste to energy programs. These processes are very effective sustainable source of energy. In this waste management process, the household wastes are used that usually people through away. In converts these waste materials into sustainable power that comes back to people in the form of electricity. The best part of this process is that it only helps us in keeping our environment clean, but also is providing us energy in form of electricity.. At the end we can say that waste management is a vast field that includes various types of waste management methods for different types of waste materials. Incineration, landfilling and recycling are some of the very popular way of waste management. Among all these methods of waste management, landfilling is considered to be oldest one. Using landfills for municipal waste disposals is thus a very common method of waste management.

114 Sumber limbah  MUNICIPAL WASTES  AGRICULTURAL WASTES AND SEWAGE SLUDGE  INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND MINING WASTES  BIO-MEDICAL WASTES  E-WASTES  RADIOACTIVE WASTES DIUNDUH DARI: Waste Management Recycling: Provides Benefits Recycling of waste materials is the best way of reducing wastes that helps in creating a clean living atmosphere. Waste management recycling process is scientifically very beneficial for both the environment and its living creatures. There are various methods of recycling available which are used for different types recycling products. For example: the method used in recycling of construction waste material differs from solid municipal waste recycling.

115 Water pollution by agriculture Brian Moss Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 12 February 2008 vol. 363 no DIUNDUH DARI: Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification of the catchment as well as nutrient, particulate and biocide pollution. The European Water Framework Directive implicitly recognizes this in requiring restoration of water bodies to ‘good ecological quality’, which is defined as only slightly different from pristine state. The implications for the management of agriculture are far more profound than is currently widely realized.

116 . FERTILIZER POLLUTION REDUCTION STRATEGIES Theresa Connor, P.E., General Manager, and Jack Merriam, Environmental Manager Sarasota County Water Planning and Regulatory 1001 Sarasota Center Blvd., Sarasota, Fl zerpollution.pdf Sarasota County became interested in controlling pollution from fertilizers as a result of community concerns about red tide blooms over the last several years. The Board of County Commissioners asked staff to look at ordinances to control fertilizer usage such as the one passed in St. Johns County. After looking at the St. Johns County ordinance and talking with their staff and commissioners Sarasota County decided to pursue a different route. Instead of jumping right in and passing an ordinance, Sarasota County decided to establish a series of “Community Conversations” with four different stakeholder groups: industry, government, civic groups, and environmental groups to look at all options. The conversations were a series of facilitated meetings which worked through questions or exercises with the ultimate goal of developing a set of comprehensive recommendations to the Board of County Commissions. The details of the process, statistics from survey questions, and the final recommendations will be part of the paper.

117 . Nitrification Potential of Soils under Pollution of a Fertilizer Plant Gintarė Sujetovienė EREM Vol 53, No 3 (2010) Diunduh dari: Nitrogen compounds found in soil in the form of mineral and organic bonds are available to microbes and plants as NO 3 - and NH 4 +, produced in consequence of ammonification, nitrification and N fixation. The laboratory experiment was conducted on samples of podzolic sandy soils. Soil samples were taken in the surroundings of a nitrogen fertilizer plant Achema, situated in the center of Lithuania. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soil contamination on the nitrification process. Nitrification generally proceeded more rapidly in control soils than in soils under the Achema pollution. On the average, mg NO 2 -N was nitrified per g N mineralized per hour in the plots under the influence of the nitrogen fertilizer producing plant pollution. In comparison with nitrified N in reference soils the values were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Soils from background ecosystems had, on the average, 63 times higher nitrification rate than in polluted soils. The eutrophication of pine sandy soils stimulated biological processes and that was likely related to higher soil pH and initial NH 4 +.

118 Bgm PUPUK MENCEMARI LINGKUNGAN?.diunduh dari: Fertilizer pollution is considered a nonpoint source of water pollution, meaning that there is no single point of contamination, but rather a slow and sporadic addition of the pollutant over a wide area. The fertilizer you add to your lawn or garden can get into the water supply in one of two ways: by being carried off the surface of the land by rainfall, or by seeping through the soil and contaminating the ground water beneath the land. Fertilizer can also pollute if it is accidentally dropped onto paved ground, where it is quickly moved into water runoff without even getting a chance to be absorbed by the soil. Fertilizer is not inherently bad, as all plants need these nutrients to survive, but when an area is overfertilized or incorrectly fertilized, that pollution becomes a problem.

119 EFEK PENCEMARAN PUPUK Read more: Fertilizers & Pollution | eHow.com & Pollution | eHow.com Isu-isu utama terkait dnegan pencemaran pupuk adalah “proses” terjadinya eutrofikasi, dimana permukaan tubuh perairan menjadi kaya hara, menyebabkan pertumbuhan algae yang berlebihan (algal blooming). Kalau algae ini mulai mati, dekomposisi bahan organik yang ada dalam perairan akan mereduksi ketersediaan oksigen dalam air, dan hal ini dapat mengakibatkan banyak organisme akuatik lainnya “mati”. Eutrophication is a natural process for warm, shallow lakes, but the addition of fertilizer pollutants can make the process occur over a series of decades, as opposed to centuries. Fertilizer pollution can even harm larger bodies of water, like the Gulf of Mexico. The northern Gulf of Mexico has a dead zone, where oxygen in the water is not sufficient for most forms of life, starting at the mouth of the Mississippi, where surface water pollutants from half the country wind up, and spread over about 6,000 square miles of water.

120 MENCEGAH PENCEMARAN PUPUK Read more: Fertilizers & Pollution | eHow.com pollution.html#ixzz20XYG0Tu5Fertilizers & Pollution | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/info_ _fertilizers- pollution.html#ixzz20XYG0Tu5 Langkah snagat penting untuk mencegah pencemaran lingkungan akibat pupuk adalah menganalisis (uji) tanah sebelum aplikasi pupuk. Most states will have a lab, often through a nearby university, where you can send your soil, and for a few dollars, you will learn which nutrients your land needs and which you can skip. You can also choose to use organic fertilizers, whose nutrients leech into the ground more slowly than normal fertilizers. Tidak melakukan aplikasi pupuk di tanggul sungai atau pematang danau, tidak melakukan pemupukan pada tanah yang beku, dan tidak memupuk sesaat sebelum hujan turun.

121 Nitrogen Fertilizer Losses from Rice Soils and Control of Environmental Pollution Problems T. M. A. Choudhury and I. R. Kennedy Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36: 1625–1639, 2005 Diunduh dari: Kebutuhan Nitrogen (N) tanaman padi dipenuhi dari N-tanah dan dari pupuk. Tanah-tanah sawah biasanya menunjukkan defisinesi N yang akut, sehingga diperlukan aplikasi pupuk N untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman padi. Pupuk N yang diaplikasikan ke tanah sawah sebagian akan hilang memalui berbagai mekanisme, termasuk penguapan amonia, denitrifikasi, dan pencucian hara. These losses may cause environmental problems such as polluting the atmosphere, aquatic systems, and groundwater. These problems cannot be alleviated completely. However, they can be reduced a considerable extent by various techniques. Research has been conducted around the world to minimize N fertilizer losses. This paper reviews this information on N fertilizer losses, indicating management practices for minimizing these losses from the soil-water system.

122 Nitrate pollution of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers and animal wastes in the Punjab, India Bijay Singh, G.S. Sekhon Agriculture and Environment Volume 3, Issue 1, December 1976, Pages 57–67 Diunduh dari: Fifty-seven water samples were obtained from wells situated on cultivated farms and near village settlements in the Ludhiana and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab (India). Water samples collected in June and September, 1975 were analysed for nitrate. Probability plots indicated that 90% of the well-water samples may contain less than 45 mg NO 3 − /l, the upper safe limit. The nitrate content of well water near villages was significantly higher than in the cultivated area. Animal wastes appear to be the major contributor in the village environment. The nitrate concentration of well water decreased significantly with depth to water table, but correlated positively with amount of nitrogenous fertilizers added per unit area per year. Soil profile samples taken in June, 1975 from farms in the immediate vicinity of the sampled wells were analysed for nitrate and water content. The amount of NO 3 − contained in the soil profile down to 2.10 m depth correlated significantly with the nitrate concentration of well water in September, thus confirming that nitrates tend to reach the water table during the rainy season (July–September). The projected geometric mean nitrate concentration of ground water (computed on the expectation that the nitrate content of the saturated zone would equal that of the 1.50−2.10 m soil layer) was found to be 35.6 mg NO 3 − /l, many times higher than the observed mean of 1.88 mg NO 3 −1 /l.

123 Nitrogen fertilisation and nitrate pollution of groundwater in sandy soils M. Khanif Yusop, O. Van Cleemput, L. Baert Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical Volume 7, Issue 1, 1984, Pages 43–48 Diunduh dari: Penelitian tentang hubungan antara pemupukan N dengan pencemaran groundwater dilakukan pada dua area lahan berpasir di Belgium selama dua tahun. Lahan di lokasi penelitian ditanami jagung dan barley dan dilakukan pemupkan N dan pupuk kandang dnegan dosis normal. The NO 3 − -N and Cl − content of the groundwater at 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 and 2·0 m depth was monitored every two weeks. The total rainfall during the two consecutive years was about 800 mm. On one of the fields, the NO 3 − -N content at all depths was most of the time above 11·3 mg NO 3 − -N dm −3, the WHO safe limit. However, on the other field the nitrate level was much lower, except at 0·5 m depth. The difference between the two fields was attributed to differences in the rate of N input. Fluktuasi selama penelitian dua tahun dipengaruhi oleh pemupukan N dan distribusi hujan. Rasio NO 3 − -N/Cl − menyatakan bahwa denitrifikasi pada tanah lapisan bawah tidak terlalu banyak.

124 Fertilizer-N use efficiency and nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries Bijay-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, G.S. Sekhon Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. Volume 20, Issues 3–4, December 1995, Pages 167–184 Diunduh dari: Around 76% of the world's population lives in developing countries where more fertilizer-N is currently applied than in developed countries. Fertilizers are applied preferentially in regions where irrigation is available, and soil and climatic conditions are favorable for the growth of crop plants. Due to low N application rates during the last 3 or 4 decades, negative N balances in the soil are a characteristic feature of the crop production systems in developing countries. In the future, with increasing fertilizer-N application rates, the possibility of nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries will be strongly linked with fertilizer-N use efficiency. A limited number of investigations from developing countries suggest that, in irrigated soils of Asia or in humid tropics of Africa, the potential exists for nitrate pollution of groundwater, especially if fertilizer-N is inefficiently managed. In a large number of developing countries in West and Central Asia and North Africa, the small amount of fertilizer applied to soils (mostly Aridisols) that remain dry almost all the year, do not constitute a major threat for nitrate pollution of groundwater, except possibly when soils are irrigated. In Asia and the Pacific regions, where 70% of the fertilizers are used to grow wetland rice on soils with low percolation rates, leaching of nitrates is minimal. Climatic water balance and soil moisture conditions do not favor leaching of nitrates from the small amount of fertilizer-N applied to Oxisols and Ultisols in Latin America. In developing countries located in the humid tropics, attempts have not been made to correlate fertilizer-N use with nitrate level in groundwater; however, fertilizers are being increasingly used. Besides high rainfall, irrigation is becoming increasingly available to farmers in the humid tropics and substantial leaching of N may also increase.

125 Fertilizers and eutrophication in southwestern Australia: Setting the scene E. P. Hodgkin and B. H. Hamilton Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Volume 36, Number 2 (1993), , DOI: /BF Diunduh dari: An excess of plant nutrients has caused serious eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems of southwestern Australia manifested by excessive growth and accumulation of green and bluegreen algae. Phosphorus is generally the limiting nutrient for algal growth and phosphatic fertilizers applied to nutrient-deficient, leaching, sandy soils are the main source of P, supplemented by rural industry point sources. Nitrogen is the limiting nutrient in marine embayments with little drainage from the land. Measures to reduce the load of P delivered to drainage include basing fertilizer application rates on soil testing for P and the use of less soluble P fertilizers. Catchment management plans are being implemented with community involvement to reduce P loads and maintain agricultural production. This introductory paper reviews the history of eutrophication in southwestern Australia and of studies into its causes, principally in the large Peel-Harvey estuary. It briefly summarises other papers in this special issue concerned with different aspects of the problem: how to fertilize the land without causing eutrophication.

126 Effects of conservation agriculture on runoff, soil loss and crop yield under rainfed conditions in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia Tesfay Araya, W. M. Cornelis, J. Nyssen, B. Govaerts, H. Bauer, Tewodros Gebreegziabher, Tigist Oicha, D. Raes, K. D. Sayre, Mitiku Haile, J. Deckers Soil Use and Management Volume 27, Issue 3, pages 404–414, September 2011 The aim of conservation agriculture (CA) is to improve soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion. An experiment was carried out in a rainfed field using a permanent raised bed planting system for 3 yr (2005– 2007) in Adigudem, northern Ethiopia in order to evaluate the effect of CA on runoff, soil loss and crop yield. CA practices were introduced in fields with Vertisols in a randomized complete block design on permanent 5 × 19 m plots. Three treatments were evaluated: (1) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues, (2) terwah (TER) that was similar to CT except that contour furrows were included at 1.5 m intervals, and (3) derdero+ (DER+), which consists of permanent raised beds with a furrow and bed system, retention of 30% of standing crop residues and zero tillage on the top of the bed. All ploughing as well as the maintenance of the furrows of the permanent raised beds was done using a local ard plough called maresha. Results from monitoring over 3 yr showed that soil loss and runoff were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CT followed by TER and DER+. Average soil losses of 5.2, 20.1 and 24.2 t/ha were recorded from DER+, TER and CT, respectively. Runoff was 46.3, 76.3 and 98.1 mm from DER+, TER and CT, respectively. Grain yield was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in DER+ under teff in 2006, probably due to the high sensitivity of teff to weeds. The yield of wheat in 2007 was significantly higher in DER+ followed by TER. The terwah system is recommended as a first measure for wider adoption to reduce runoff and soil loss and to increase crop yield. The long-term goal is to achieve a derdero+ system, i.e. a permanent raised bed planting system along with the application of crop residues.

127 Eutrophication J. W. G. Lund Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 21 March 1972 vol. 180 no Diunduh dari: Eutrophication is enrichment by plant nutrients. Here man-made eutrophication is considered. The chief sources of enrichment are sewage, artificial fertilizers and agricultural wastes. Large populations of plants and animals, alive or dead, cause difficulties in the water industry and may interfere with recreation, especially fishing. Most of the phosphorus and nitrogen can be removed from sewage effluent if the cost is justified. A large reduction of agricultural run-off is impractical but some reduction is possible. The removal of polyphosphates from detergents is a palliative but a suitable replacement which does not pose a threat to the environment is not yet on the market. Though the main factors causing eutrophication are well known, there is little detailed understanding of their interaction with other environmental factors. Consequently it is not yet possible to forecast the exact changes to be expected in aquatic ecosystems, a fact which is illustrated by certain changes in two mildly enriched lakes over the last 27 years.

128 Effects of Solid Wastes  Pollute ground water  Waste becomes storehouses for pathogens  Bag pickers affected by skin diseases, respiratory tract infections, stomach infections, eye irritation, etc.  Dumping helps the breeding of mosquitoes  Burning releases furans (Chlorinated Carbons) which reduces the fertility of human.  Hazardous substances include mercury, chromium, etc Bioaccumulation  Accumulation of copper in soil inhibit plant growth. DIUNDUH DARI:.. …10/11/2012

129 PENCEMARAN LAHAN

130 1.the degradation of earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and its misuse. Haphazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few of the contributing factors. 2.the addition of undesirable matter to the land that damage the terrestrial organisms, reduce the uses of the land by man for agricultural, residential, recreational or other purposes or increase the risk of health hazards to man Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 The many types of land pollution Solid waste Topsoil Erosion –Soil loss and desertification Hazardous waste –Reactive waste –Corrosive waste –Ignitable waste –Toxic waste –Radioactive waste –Medical waste –Home waste

131 With the growth of the population and the wider use of 'throw-away' bottles and cans, the problem of litter and waste spoils the beauty of our environment. In addition, the discarded solid waste, if untreated, will decay, producing bad smells and polluting and the sea. SUMBER PENCEMARAN LAHAN Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 Contaminated land defined as “Any land which appears to the local authority in whose authority it is situated to be in such a condition, by reason of substances in, or under land that significant harm is being caused or there is significant possibility of such harm being caused” (Part IIA of the Environment Protection Act (1990, Section 78(A))

132 Some governments have already begun to take action- using incinerators. Incinerators burn up all the trash creating ashes instead of piles of trash. Recycling is the safest solution to this world’s problem. The glass, paper, plastic, and metal objects we dispose of everyday can be used to make milk cartons, tools, and carpets. The only problem with this is the fact that industries won’t use secondary materials. According to Garbage Recycling only 30% of today’s trash is recycled. SOLUSI PENCEMARAN LAHAN Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 Macam-macam bahan pencemar lahan

133 Mengganggu kehidupan liar/ bebas di alam Hujan asam merusak tumbuhan dan tanaman. Kerusakan vegetasi sumber poangan dan sarang satwa bebas. Merusak keseimbangan alam dan mengganggu kehidupan manusia. EFEK PENCEMARAN LAHAN Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 CADMIUM Cadmium can be found in cigarettes, fertilisers used in agriculture and in low levels in all foods (highest in shellfish, liver, and kidney meats) Mean cadmium content in soil 1.2 mg/Kg. Median 0.9 mg/Kg (England and Wales)

134 pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation; and poison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. For example, pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them. EFEK PENCEMARAN LAHAN Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 Efek Cd pada kesehatan manusia Breathing or eating air or food contaminated with cadmium over a long period of time can cause health effects including: Renal dysfunction (characterised by proteinuria) Growth disturbances Lung disturbances (bronchitis, obstructive lung disease) Skeletal damage (osteomalacia and osteoporosis – Itai-itai disease) Reproductive disturbances Anaemia

135 1.Pertanian Organik 2.Pembuangan sampah (seresah) secara tepat 3.Daur ulang sampah 4.Meminimumkan aplikasi herbisida dan pestisida 5.Menghindari kemasan yang berlebihan 6.Efisiensi sumberdaya dan reduksi limbah. PENCEGAHAN PENCEMARAN LAHAN Diunduh dari: ………. 11/11/2012 MITIGASI LONGSOR TANAH MitigationMitigation of a landslide means reducing the effects or the intensity of the landslide. Most methods of mitigation overlap with preventive measures so the subject matter in this post will overlap with the post on Landslides-Prevention. However, in my opinion, the importance of landslide mitigation calls for a separate post. After a landslide occurs, the first task is to remove the mass of soil that has been displaced from its original position so that human life, if disrupted, can get back to normal. The next task is to determine the exact cause of the landslide in order to decide on the mitigation plan.

136 PENGELOLAAN PENCEMARAN

137 PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN UDARA DIUNDUH DARI:. MENGURANGI POLUSI AKIBAT TRANSPORTASI 1.Kontrol Input (Pencegahan Polusi) a.Pembakaran BBM yang lebih bersih b.Meningkatkan efisiensi BBM c.Alternatif mode transportasi · Angkutan umum · Walking · Bicycling · Electric vehicles d.Decrease the number of miles driven e.Changes in land use decisions to reduce the necessity of the automobile or long-distance daily commutes 2. Kontrol Output (Kontrol Polusi) Memperbaiki sarana kontrol polusi.

138 KONTROL POLUSI UDARA Gaseous Particulates Diunduh dari : APLIKASI SISTEM PENGENDALIAN PARTIKULAT Sistem kontrol ini seringkali dipilih berdasarkan kriteria umum seperti bagan berikut.

139 Gas-GAS POLUTAN 1.Penjerapan 2.Penyerapan 3.Pembakaran Diunduh dari : hour-for.html. Air Pollution Control Technology is Affordable and applies to Coal, oil, natural gas, Biofuel/Biomass and Peat The Economics of retrofitting existing plants with air pollution control and the technologies that can be used was reviewed here The Economics of retrofitting existing plants with air pollution control and the technologies that can be used was reviewed here

140 Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Non-regenerative: non-recovery and reuse of chemical reagents Regenerative: recovery and reuse of chemical reagents Diunduh dari : FGD Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained a significant amount of sulfur dioxide. Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes.

141 KONTROL POLUSI UDARA: NON-REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS Chemicals: lime, limestone, caustic soda, soda ash, ammonia –SO 2 + CaCO 3 ---> CaSO 3 + CO 2 –SO 2 + Ca(OH) 2 ---> CaSO 3 + H 2 O –CaSO 3 + 1/2 O 2 ---> CaSO 4 Types –Wet –Dry Diunduh dari : Biofiltrasi sebagai teknologi kontrol polusi udara, untuk mengambil senyawa organik yang menguap (VOC) Biofiltration is a biological air pollution control (APC) technology. Waste gases are treated by passage through a biologically active porous medium. Biofilters originated in Europe for odor abatement. Over the past two decades, biofilters have developed from systems abating odors to technically sophisticated and controlled units removing specific chemicals from industrial sources. Use this report only for your study and reference.

142 TEKNOLOGI TIPE BASAH 1.Venturi 4. Static packed 2.Moving bed 5. Tray tower 3.Spray towers Diunduh dari : VENTURI PRE-SCRUBBER RENDAH ENERGI UNTUK KONTROL POLUSI UDARA United States Patent A low-energy venturi pre-scrubber optimized for removing abrasive particles from a gaseous effluent is disclosed. While venturi scrubbers are efficiently used for at removing entrained particulates in air pollution control systems, they can be damaged due to the abrasive characteristics of entrained particles, such as silica particles greater than a micrometer in diameter. According to the present invention, high scrubbing efficiencies can be obtained in equipment that is not damaged by the abrasive particles by first removing the abrasive particles in a low-energy venturi, and then removing the remaining particles in a second scrubber. In addition to improving the lifetime and reducing the maintenance costs of the venturi, scrubbing fluids have fewer large particles, allowing their use in downstream components, such as evaporative coolers.

143 Teknologi Pengendalian Gas NOx Preventif –Meminimumkan suhu operasi –Ganti bahan bakar –Udara tidak berlebihan –Resirkulasi gas buang –Pembakaran bersih –Pembakaran bercerobong –Kompor rendah NOx –Pembakaran sekunder –Injeksi air/uap. Pasca Pembakaran –Reduksi katalitik yg selektif –Reduksi non-kataliitik yang selektif –Reduksi katalitik non- selektif Diunduh dari : NO X selective catalyticreductioncontrol based on simple models Gregor Dolanc,, Stanko Strmčnik, Janko Petrovčič Journal of Process Control Volume 11, Issue 1Volume 11, Issue 1, February 2001, Pages 35–51 The selective catalytic reduction process.

144 POLUTAN PARTIKULAT Cyclone Filter Liquid scrubbing Electrostatic precipitation (ESP) Diunduh dari : for.html. Air Pollution Control Technology for Brick Industries Technology: Developed by Prof. B.D. Tripathi for air pollution control in Brick Industries (2003). Principle: This low cost technology is based on the cyclone and wet scrubber methodology for the removal of particulate matters and gaseous pollutants from Stack/Kilns of the Brick Industries. Removal: 80% to 95% particulate matters and toxic gases are removed. Recognition of the Technology: Technology is commonly used in fixed kiln of the brick industries.

145 Cyclone DeDe L3L3 D2D2 L1L1 L2L2 DdDd H B d 0.5 = cut diameter at 50% removal  = dynamic viscosity of gas, Pa-s B = width, m H = height, m  p = particle density, kg/m3 Q g = gas flow rate, m3/s  = effective number of turns Diunduh dari :.

146 EFISIENSI CYCLONE

147 FILTRASI UDARA Diunduh dari : 1.Cleaner air to breathe 2.No harmful ozone emissions 3.Reduces pollen, dust and airborne pollutants 4.Reasonably priced Less house cleaning 5.Never needs replacing 6.Anti-microbial filter media Lifetime warranty 7.High dust & particle holding capacity 8.Filtrasi Elektrostatika Electrostatic Air Filters deliver cleaner household air, reduce mold and other causes of allergy. The best thing about electrostatic air filters is once you have it you will never have to replace a high tech electrostatic air filter/cleaner/purifier. When you decided to invest in a premium quality electrostatic air filter, you are investing in better indoor air quality! These filters keep your system clean and free of irritants for years and years. High performance lifetime furnace filters replace the standard low efficiency "disposable" filter with no modifications to your current system.

148 Case A: Pore blocking Case B: Pore plugging Case C1: Pore narrowing Case C2: Pore narrowing w/lost pore Case D: Pore bridging Diunduh dari :. FILTRASI UDARA

149 1.Impaction 2.Diffusion 3.Straining (Interception) 4.Electrostatics Diunduh dari : GreenAir : Pembersih udara secara ekologis GreenAir is an ecological air purifier concept that uses an innovative idea of purifying the indoor environment with living plants. Mostly, indoor air is more polluted than outdoor air which is an effect of various factors. Researches have shown that there are many plants that can effectively purify air in a natural way. Implementing those plants, GreenAir is envisioned to absorb contaminants from indoor air through the roots and leaves. This concept includes a fan that helps to pull the polluted air to the root region (using solar panel as the energy source), so that huge amount of contaminants can be gathered to purify in a shorter span of time.

150 FILTER UDARA Diunduh dari : Particles in Indoor Air - Particulates, Health Effects, & Air Filter Efficiency Chart Sometimes called “particulates,” these are small solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They can be captured in mechanical or electrostatic filter elements. How many get captured depends on the size of the particle along with the type, size, and efficiency of the filter and the rate of airflow.

151 ESP Diunduh dari : /USB_Air_Purifier_with_ESP_Dust_Collection_Rod_Negative_Ionizer.html. USB Air Purifier with ESP Dust Collection Rod & Negative Ionizer

152 SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR Air permukaan dan Groundwater Surface water is the water we see in streams, rivers, wetlands, and lakes across the country. Every square mile of ground drains into one of these bodies of water. The area drained is known as a watershed. As smaller creeks and rivers feed into larger ones, the size of the watershed increases. DIUNDUH DARI: Fertilizers and their Impact on Watershed Ecology Posted: February 10th, 2010 Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution ranks as one of the top causes of degradation in some U.S. waters for more than a decade. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus lead to regional water quality problems like algal blooms, hypoxia and declines in wildlife habitat. “Aerobic conditions” in water ways signifies the presence of oxygen in a hydrological system. The natural cycles of the water feature may be more or less in balance until an excess of nitrate, or nitrogen, and/or phosphate enters the system. At this time, water plants and algae begin to grow more rapidly than normal. There is also an excess die off of plants and algae as sunlight is blocked at lower levels. Bacteria try to decompose the organic waste, consuming the oxygen, and releasing more phosphate which is known as “recycling or internal cycling”. Some of the phosphate may be precipitated as iron phosphate and stored in the sediment where it can then be released if anoxic conditions develop.

153 1.While surface water is found in the form of rivers and lakes, groundwater is stored in aquifers. Aquifers are formations of cracked rock, sand, or gravel that hold water and yield enough water to supply wells or springs. More than 95 percent of the world’s usable water resources are stored in its groundwater. 2.Approximately third-quarter of all Nigerians depends on groundwater for their drinking water. In most times, 80 percent of all Nigerians depend on groundwater for their drinking water, and more than 97 percent of all rural Nigerians, depend on groundwater for their drinking water supplies. DIUNDUH DARI: SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR Groundwater is the water that exists below the land surface and fills the spaces between sediment grains and fractures in rocks. A geologic formation saturated with groundwater is considered to be an aquifer if it is sufficiently permeable as to allow the groundwater to be economically extracted. It is replenished naturally through the infiltration of rainfall and artificially through the irrigation of crops. Soluble chemicals in rainwater (like NO x in acid rain) or at the land surface (like pesticides) can be transported downward with percolating water to reach groundwater. Read more: Groundwater - water, environmental, United States, impact, EPA, chemicals, wells, use - water, environmental, United States, impact, EPA, chemicals, wells, usehttp://www.pollutionissues.com/Fo-Hi/Groundwater.html#ixzz21rPuZdvZ

154 1.As people pump and use water from these underground aquifers, the water must be replaced. Aquifers are replenished or recharged by water seeping down through the soil from surface water supplies. In some parts of the country, groundwater supplies are very deep, and pollutants may be filtered out by layers of soil, sand, and gravel. 2.In parts of Nigeria, there are more direct links to the groundwater. In some parts of north-central and south of Nigeria, the groundwater supply may come within a few meters of the soil surface. That’s why this area of south is covered with wetlands and prairie potholes. In these areas, there is much less filtration by the soil and a greater risk of contamination by animal wastes, pesticides, and other pollutants. In other parts of the country, like the east and some part of the south west corner, limestone sits just below the soil surface. This limestone layer, or karst, can crack, erode, and form caverns that allow water and any pollutants to travel with little filtering from the soil. DIUNDUH DARI: SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR Apa yang dimaksud dengan pengisian aquifer? Aquifer recharge is the process by which rainwater seeps down through the soil into an underlying aquifer. There are many natural processes that determine how much rainwater actually reaches and replenishes an aquifer instead of being evaporated, consumed by plants and animals, or simply running off the ground surface into streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Mengapa diperlukan pemetaan pengisian aquifer? The protection of our water resources is important for everyone in the State concerned with the quality and availability of clean drinking water. Previous water conservation and supply programs have proven to be insufficient for adequately protecting our drinking-water supplies. About half of the water used by humans for daily living is extracted from the ground. Therefore it is important to identify those parts of the State where our ground water is most likely to be replenished so that we can attempt to protect these vital resources from pollution and any land-use practices that will decrease the quality and availability of clean water.

155 SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR Non-point source pollution refers to pollutants that come from a widespread area and cannot be tracked to a single point or source. Soil erosion, chemical runoff, and animal waste pollution are all examples of non-point source pollution. Non-point source pollution is major water quality problem by sheer volume and in terms of current and future economic costs to the nation. DIUNDUH DARI:. Illustration of nonpoint sources of groundwater pollution. Purpose of the project: The purpose of this project is to identify pollution potential regions, there by tracing the nonpoint pollution sources. The DRASTIC system was used to evaluate the area’s potential for ground-water pollution. The results identified areas, that are more or less vulnerable to contamination and this was displayed graphically in form of maps.

156 Point source pollution – also known as “the end of the pipe pollution”– can be traced to a specific source, such as a leaking chemical tank, effluents coming from a waste treatment or industrial plant, or a manure spill from a hog confinement lagoon. Although this may seem easy to control, there are economic, political, and other factors involved. For known point source pollution threats, households, communities, industry, and agribusiness must deal with the problem of disposing of wastes and by-products. DIUNDUH DARI: SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR Sumber pencemaran yang berupa titik because it enters the water directly, can be easily traced from sources such as factories and chemical plants. But nonpoint source pollution, harder to trace and to treat, can cause long-term damage before the problem is handled. It can come from many different sources and travel long distances through a watershed before it is noticed.

157 PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN METODE PENGOLAHAN 1.There are various levels of treatment that prevent dumping raw waste products from being dumped into surface waters. Industrial wastes may require special treatment to remove harmful chemicals before reentering the water system. 2. For the more common problem of organic wastes, the three main treatment methods for treating waste water are 3.septic systems, lagoons, and sewage treatment plants. 4.Each method must be properly sized so that the treatment system is able to handle the volume of waste entering it. 5.Sistem Septik dirancang untuk individual rumahtangga, 6.Lagoons dapat memenuhi kebutuhan untuk kota-kota kecil, 7.Fasilitas pengolahan air-limbah diperlukan untuk pengendalikan pencemaran. DIUNDUH DARI:..

158 SISTEM SEPTIK Septic systems are generally used in rural areas to handle household wastes. They usually use a large tank buried in the ground to contain and break down household sewage. Attached to the tank is a series of perforated pipes that are buried in a drain field and are usually surrounded by crushed rock or gravel to facilitate drainage. Fats, oils, and grease, as well as large waste particles, are stored and later pumped out of the holding tank, while the water and suspended solids in the water flow into the soil through the perforated pipes. TANAH Di sekitar SISTEM SEPTIK memfilter berbagai senyawa toksik, dan bakteria mendekomposisi bahan organik DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN

159 SISTEM SEPTIK STANDARD: Septic systems are most popular in rural and suburban areas and must be located in soils that meet standards for percolation or the ability to drain away water. standards require a maximum percolation rate of one inch of water in 60 minutes. A slow percolation rate allows soil bacteria to break down wastes as they move into soil layers. CONCERN: Septic systems are generally a greater source of concern for groundwater pollution than for surface water pollution. However, septic systems are a real concern for surface water pollution when they are located near lakes, rivers, and streams. Of particular concern are lakes with high concentrations of tourist homes. Note: 1 Cube Inch is equal cm 3, Multiple inch by 2.54 to get Centimetre DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN

160 Lagoons 1.Many communities, feedlot operators, and industries use lagoons to control wastes. A lagoon is simply one or a series of shallow holding pits into which wastes are pumped and treated. In a well-designed lagoon system, the material is aerated so bacteria can break down the organic matter. 2.STANDARD: In municipal lagoons, the water generally stays in the lagoon for at least 30 days for this process to be completed. Then the water is removed and treated with chlorine as needed to destroy remaining bacteria. The remaining solids must be disposed of by spreading on farm fields or burying. 3.CONCERN: Lagoons are inexpensive to construct and operate compared to other systems. However, poorly constructed lagoons and lagoons built where the water table is very high have been found to leak. The most often found contaminant tends to be nitrates. DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN

161 Primary sewage treatment simply filters out unwanted items such as sticks, stones, garbage, and other debris that arrive at the treatment plant and allows time for the solid materials to settle out. Secondary treatment uses aeration and aerobic, or oxygen-using, bacteria to break down organic wastes. The water is then treated with chlorine to kill bacteria and discharged into adjacent rivers and streams. Treatment plants remove approximately 1.90 percent of the organic waste and suspended solids, 2.less than 70 percent of the toxic metals and synthetic organic chemicals, 3.50 percent of the nitrogen in the form of nitrates, and 4.30 percent of the phosphorus in the form of phosphates. CONCERN: This remaining discharge is still high in nutrients and is not pure water entering the surface water. More advanced treatment systems are available, but they are rarely used due to their high cost. The remaining sludge is sent to a landfill as waste or applied to the land as a soil additive. DIUNDUH DARI:.. PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN

162 PROSES PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH DIUNDUH DARI:..

163 PERLAKUAN PENCEMAR Runoff pollution is difficult to control. The best method of control is limited use of chemical pesticides. The speed and amount of movement depends on whether the pesticide is water-soluble, the soil type, the amount of rain, and the proximity of the water table to the surface. Over time, nearly all pesticides break down to other chemicals as they are exposed to sunlight and air. Generally, it is these base chemicals that are detected in groundwater. Some agricultural drainage wells provide direct pathways for pollutants to enter groundwater. The forms of nitrogen that cause problems as pollutants are the nitrate and ammonium forms. The nitrate form is water-soluble and moves with the water into surface water or groundwater. The ammonium form attaches to soil particles. DIUNDUH DARI:..

164 MELESTARIKAN KUALITAS AIR Cultural, Mechanical, Biological and Chemical Control DIUNDUH DARI: PENGOLAHAN AIR-LIMBAH SECARA BIOLOGIS The following scheme represents the systematics of the most commonly applied aerobic biological wastewater treatment systems:

165 SOLUSI TERBAIK ADALAH PENCEGAHAN Just as there is no single source of water pollution, there is no single answer to solve the problem. Once water has become contaminated, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to clean. Surface water flows quickly, and a pollutant will generally be diluted as it enters larger bodies of water. However, even large bodies of water, such as the Gulf of Mexico near the mouth of the Mississippi River, cannot tolerate many years of eroded soils, increased nutrients, and chemical pollution. Groundwater, however, moves very slowly. In heavy clay layers or in bedrock, water might only move several inches per year. Even in gravel and sand aquifers, groundwater may move only several hundred to a thousand feet per year. Once the water is polluted, it will spread out slowly over a period of many years. Some problems, such as hazardous waste sites, require massive, expensive clean-up procedures. With other problems, such as large manure spills, little can be done but let the wastes become diluted as they reach larger bodies of water. However, there are steps to take to reduce some of the most serious problems such as siltation from erosion is passed legislative law to warn deterrent DIUNDUH DARI:..

166 MEMINIMUMKAN PENCEMARAN 1.No-till and minimum-till farming: Most of the crop residues - the stalks and leaves of the harvested crop - are left on the surface of the field with no-till and minimum-till farming. Crops are planted into the crop residue the next year. This may reduce soil loss by up to 90 percent. The residue helps keep raindrops from directly hitting the soil and breaking it into small erodible particles. 2.With no-till or minimum-till farming, crop residue remains to protect the soil from rain or wind. 3.Contour farming: Contour farming involves planting crops in rows that circle around a hill in contours rather than in straight rows that go up and down the hill. These contours help break the water flow. With conventional farming methods, straight rows encourage the water to run down the row and wash along soil. DIUNDUH DARI:..

167 1.Terraces: For very steep hillsides, terraces may be required. Terraces are constructed by planting a short slope with grass or other cover crops and then planting the level area with crops. This pattern of short slopes and planting areas follows the hillsides. This practice breaks up the steep hill into a series of shorter slopes and level areas and slows down the water flow. Since the terraces are planted in grass, they hold the slope in place and reduce erosion. Terracing provides good protection for steeper slopes, especially if combined with low-till or no-till farming. 2.Grassed waterways: Where concentrated water runoff occurs due to the sloping of several hills or along bottom slopes, planting grass or hay is recommended. As water collects and runs along these erosion-prone areas, the denser root systems of the grasses help hold the soil in place to prevent these areas from washing out and forming gullies. DIUNDUH DARI:.. MEMINIMUMKAN PENCEMARAN

168 1.Grasses and filterstrips: Stream banks and road ditches also need to be protected. Plants growing on banks and slopes help hold the soil. Along stream and river banks, filter-strips of grasses and trees help slow down water run-off and help prevent soil from washing into waterways. 2.Filter strips help reduce erosion along stream and river banks. DIUNDUH DARI: MEMINIMUMKAN PENCEMARAN FILTER JALUR-VEGETATIF Filter strips are land areas of either planted or indigenous vegetation, situated between a potential, pollutant-source area and a surface-water body that receives runoff. The term 'buffer strip' is sometimes used interchangeably with filter strip, but filter strip is the preferred usage. Runoff may carry sediment and organic matter, and plant nutrients and pesticides that are either bound to the sediment or dissolved in the water. A properly designed and operating filter strip provides water-quality protection by reducing the amount of sediment, organic matter, and some nutrients and pesticides, in the runoff at the edge of the field, and before the runoff enters the surface-water body. Filter strips also provide localized erosion protection since the vegetation covers an area of soil that otherwise might have a high erosion potential.

169 PENGELOLAAN HAMA 1.Since polluted groundwater is nearly impossible to clean, prevention is the only solution. For pesticides, this means reducing the use of chemicals and focusing on an integrated pest management program that controls weeds and insects by more natural means whenever possible and resorting to pesticides only as a last resort. 2.Good pest management depends on four methods of s control: cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical. DIUNDUH DARI: What is IPM? IPM stands for Integrated Pest Management. The definition of IPM from the National IPM Network is "IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks."

170 PENGENDALIAN SECARA BUDIDAYA Cultural control relies on planting factors such as crop rotation and planting after weeds have been killed following germination. Good management starts with scouting fields on a regular basis. Keeping records of past problem areas helps control pests, as well as the need for chemical means of controlling pests. The first step is to determine the seriousness of the infestation of weeds or insects. This is where trade-offs take place. Will the potential loss of crop yield be greater than the cost of chemical treatment? Are there other options that might be cheaper and less environmentally dangerous? There are no set answers since each farm is different and each year brings new challenges. DIUNDUH DARI: PERGILIRAN TANAMAN The rotation of crops is not only necessary to offer a diverse "diet" to the soil micro organisms, but as they root at different soil depths, they are capable of exploring different soil layers for nutrients. Nutrients that have been leached to deeper layers and that are no longer available for the commercial crop, can be "recycled" by the crops in rotation. This way the rotation crops function as biological pumps. Furthermore, a diversity of crops in rotation leads to a diverse soil flora and fauna, as the roots excrete different organic substances that attract different types of bacteria and fungi, which in turn, play an important role in the transformation of these substances into plant available nutrients. Crop rotation also has an important phytosanitary function as it prevents the carry over of crop-specific pests and diseases from one crop to the next via crop residues

171 PENGENDALIAN SECARA MEKANIK 1.Mechanical weed control or cultivation is one of the oldest forms of control. Tools like the rotary hoe are used when plants are small, while a cultivator is used on larger plants. Although mechanical control requires the use of fuel to pull the implement across the fields, it results in reduced chemical control. 2. Sebagian petani menggantikan herbisida dengan cara-mekanik, karena dianggap biayanya lebih murah. Dampak Aplikasi Pestisida Kontaminasi Air Pestisida masuk ke dalam air melalui titik-titik semprotan selama aplikasinya di daun tanaman, melalui runoff, dan pencucian ke dalam tanah. Dalam beberapa hal tertentu, pestisida diap[likasi langsung kre permukaan air, misalnya untuk mengendalikan nyamuk. Kontaminasi air snagat tergantung pada sifat-sifat pestisida (kelarutannya dan hydro-fobisitasnya), sifat-sifat tanah, kondisi cuaca, bentang-lahan dan jarak antara lokasi aplikasi dnegan perairan. Transport yang cepat memasuki groundwater dapat terjadi karena adanya hujan lebat sesaat setelah aplikasi pestisida. Selama tahun 90-an, herbisida Atrazine dan Endosulphan paling sering ditemukan di air permukaan USA dan Australia karena aplikasinya yang snagat meluas. Pestisida lainnya adalah Pronofos, Dimethoate, Chlordane, Diuron, Prometryn dan Fluometuron (Cooper 1996).

172 PENGENDALIAN HAYATI 1.Biological control introduces insects and plant diseases that target specific weed or other pest populations. One example in the Midwest is the introduction of the musk thistle weevil which feeds on musk thistles. Thistles are tough weeds to control, and the weevil appears promising in controlling pest populations. 2.Insect control is best suited for pasture land rather than crop land Cultivation tends to disrupt the life cycle of the insects. 3.Researchers are also developing microbial controls. These microbes are essentially plant diseases that occur naturally. The microbes are cultured in labs and sprayed on fields where they select the weeds but not the crops. 4.One major advantage of biological control is that the diseases can adapt to changing weeds so they can’t build up resistance or tolerances, which has occurred with herbicides and insects. 5.Musk thistle weevils are used as a biological control on thistles. DIUNDUH DARI: PENGENDALIAN HAYATI HAMA DAN PENYAKIT Biological control of pests in agriculture is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) that relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory or other natural mechanisms. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

173 PENGENDALIAN SECARA KIMIAWI 1.Farmers using other controls methods must occasionally resort to chemical control for tough cases. However, even when chemical control is required, it’s possible to reduce the amounts of chemicals used. 2.Careful calibration or setting of the sprayer is essential to not over-apply chemicals. 3.In addition, many farmers use banding techniques that spray chemicals in a narrow band over the crop row and rely on cultivation for the weeds between rows. An Iowa State University research study shows that this method reduces the amount of chemicals used by 50 to 67 percent, while maintaining the corn yield on 99 percent of the fields tested. APLIKASI PESTISIDA Kontaminasi Tanah Pestisida masuk ke dalam tanah melalui titik semprotan selama aplikasi daun, residu pestisida tercuci dari daun, pelepasan dari granulates atau dari benih yang ditanam dalam tanah. Beberapa jenis pestisida, seperti fumigant tanah dan nematosida diaplikasikan langsung ke tanah untuk mengendalikan hama dan epenyakit yang ada dalam tanah. Transpor, persistensi dan degradasi pestisida dalam tanah tergantung pada sifat-ciri kimia pestisida dan sifat-ciri fisika, kimia dan biologis tanah. Semua faktor-faktor ini mempengaruhi sorption/ desorption, volatilisation, degradation, serapan oleh tanaman, run-off, dan pencucian pestisida.

174 PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN NITRAT 1.General management practices may help ease the problem of nitrate pollution, but they also rely on trade-offs that protect both the economic interests of the farmer and the natural environment. 2.The bottom line is not to apply more nitrogen based fertilizers, either artificial or natural animal byproducts, than the crops need for that growing season. 3.Since ammonia may be lost to the air and nitrates may be moved with the water, it is economical for the farmer to apply only the amount of nitrogen needed and only at the time it is needed by the plants. DIUNDUH DARI: EFEK LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT PUPUK SINTETIS To play on the safe side, farmers sometimes dump too much nitrogen (N) on the land. Not only is it an expense that can't be recovered, it also can take a heavy toll on the environment.

175 BAHAN KIMIA TOKSIK Toxic organic chemical, primary pesticide may be carry into the water in the surface runoff from agricultural areas. Perhaps the most dangerous type is the family of chemical called Chlorinated hydrocarbons. Common examples are known by there common chemical names as chlordane, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, and the famous DDT., which has been banned all over the world. They are very effective poison against insect that demand agriculture crops. Unfortunately, they can kill fish, birds, and animals, including humans. And they are not very biodegradable, taking more than 30 years in some cases to dissipate from the environment. DIUNDUH DARI: pest/pest.html.. Movement of Pesticides and Best Management Practices by Heather Burner, Scott Crosswell, Kara Kaufman, Scott O'Rourke, and Lisa Shelton Spring 1997

176 SENYAWA ANORGANIK & MINYAK Senyawa anorganik yang bersifat toksik, terutama kelompok logam berat, seperti Pb, Hg, Cr, biasanya berasal dari aktivitas industri dan dipandang sebagai limbah berbahaya Oil is washed into surface water in ruoff from road and parking lot, and groundwater can be polluted from leaking underground tanks, accidental oil spills from large transport tankers at a sea occasional occur, causing significant environmental damage. Blow out accident at offshore oil wells can release many thousand of tonnes of oil in a short period of time. Tumpahan minyak di laut pada akhirnya akan bergerak ke pantai, mempengartuhi kehidupan akuatik dan dapat merusak daerah-daerah rekreasional/wisata pantai. DIUNDUH DARI:..


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