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SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR.

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Presentasi berjudul: "SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR."— Transcript presentasi:

1 SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR

2 Sejarah Ilmu Pengetahuan Pemikiran filsafat banyak dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan Pd dasarnya filsafat (Barat, India, Cina) muncul → sifat yg religius Di Yunani (mitos), India (Weda, Hindu), Cina (confusius) Barat: mitos → diganti rasio India: tidak pernah lepas induknya → Agama Hin du Pembagian periodisasi filsafat Barat → zaman (Kuno, Abad Pertengahan, Modern, Kini) Pembagian periodisasi filsafat Cina → zaman (Kuno, Pembaruan, Neo-Konfusionisme, Modern) Pembagian periodisasi filsafat India → periode (Weda, Wiracarita, Sutra-Sutra, Skolastik) Periode Filsafat Yunani → sangat penting → menjadi acuan

3 Historisitas Sejarah filsafat barat dibagi menjadi tiga, yaitu zaman Yunani Kuno dengan ciri pemikirannya bersifat kosmosentris Zaman Pertengahan dengan ciri pemikirannya yang bercorak teosentris Zaman Modern dengan ciri pemikirannya yang bercorak antroposentris Zaman Kontemporer dengan ciri pemikiran logosentris.

4 YUNANI - KUNO 6SM MITOS FILSAFAT 3SM - 6M LOGOS ABAD TENGAH 14M THEOLOGI ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE ABAD MODERN 18M19M ABAD KONTEMPORER 20M14-15M RENAISSANCE AUFKLARUNG RASIONALISME EMPIRISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITIVISME FENOMENOLOGI STRUKTURALISME NEOPOSITIVISME FAKTOR HEURISTIKILMU CABANG AGAMA FILSAFAT BIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA KIMIA SOSIOLOGI KOMPUTER PARIWISATA DLL.

5 YUNANI KUNO MITOS SM LOGOS3SM - 6M

6 FILSAFAT Phylo= menyenangi Sophia= bijaksana MITOLOGI Dongeng, Takhayul Pertanyaan timbul (ingin tahu) DE-MITOLOGI Dipikirkan (secara kritis) LOGOS (ilmu)

7 Apakah ARCHE dari segala sesuatu yang ada ? Thales ( SM) Anaximander ( SM) Anaximanes ( SM) Phytagoras ( SM) Demokritos ( SM) AIR APEIRON UDARA BILANGAN ATOM

8 SOCRATES ( SM) PLATO ( SM) ARISTOTELES ( SM) Dialektika Rasionalisme Metafisika Logika Biologi Empirisme

9 Abad 6 SM – 0 M –Periode Filsafat Yunani –Ahli filsafatnya Thales –Menggunakan pola deduktif –Kemunculan ilmu sangat berkembang Abad 0 – 6 M – Periode Kelahiran Nabi Isa – Pertentangan Gereja – Filsafat mengalami kemunduran – Raja membatasi kebebasan berfikir

10 ABAD PERTENGAHAN ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE ABAD KEGELAPAN BAGI ILMU PENGETAHUAN DOGMA

11 RENAISSANCE AUFKLARUNG (PENCERAHAN) MASEHI 18 MASEHI PERMULAAN ABAD MODERN LEONARDO DA VINCI COPERNICUS KEPLER GALILEO GALILEI FRANCIS BACON VOLTAIRE JJ. ROUSSEAU MONTESQUIEU IMMANUEL KANT

12 AGAMA DAN FILSAFAT MULAI DI PISAHKAN AGAMA DI DASARI KEYAKINAN (KEIMANAN) FILSAFAT DI DASARI OLEH OLAH PIKIR (SEKULARISASI) RASIONALISME EMPIRISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITIVISME TUMBUH ILMU-ILMU CABANG (“MENINGGALKAN FILSAFAT”) BIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA KIMIA SOSIOLOGI

13 SKEMA HUBUNGAN FILSAFAT DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN

14 perkembangan Abad 6 M ditandai dengan runtuhnya mitologi dan dongeng-dongeng. Abad 6-16 M ditandai dengan kuatnya doktrin teologis atau anciella theologia. Filsafat digunakan untuk memperkuat keyakinan agama. Abad 16 zaman modern yang ditandai dengan renaissans merebaknya ilmu pengetahuan. Abad 20 atau zaman pasca renaissans ditandai dengan menguatnya pemikiran pasca modernis

15 Mythology Aim of early Greek philosophers is to find natural rather than supernatural explanations for natural practices

16 Natural Philosophers Nature of the physical world Science Thales – 625BC – 545BC – Greek colony in Asia Minor – first know philosopher – everything from water – single basic substance Anaximander – BC – all created things are limited – that which comes before and after must be “boundless” - basic stuff could not be as ordinary as water Anaximenes – BC – source of all things must be air of vapour

17 Democritus BC “everything was built up of tiny invisible blocks” (p. 43)‏ Each block was eternal and immutable firm and solid not all the same – different shapes and sizes unlimited number Called atoms, “un-cuttable” (p. 43)‏

18 How accurate is Democritus theory to what we know today? Atoms theory still exists P. 84 – the lego horse – Plato’s idea of the model plan – “World of ideas”

19 Athens – circa 450 BC “Cultural center of the Greek world.” (p. 61)‏ Focus changed from natural philosophy to “the individual and the individual’s place in society.” (p. 62)‏ Democracy evolved Art of rhetoric – “saying things in a convincing manner.” (p. 62)‏

20 Prominent Philosophers Sophist – “a wise and informed person” (p. 62) – “ man and his place in society” (p. 62)” “No absolute norms for what was right or wrong.” (p. 63)‏ Protogoras ( BC) “Man is the measure of all things” (p. 62)‏

21 Socrates BC there are norms wrote nothing down greatest influence on western thinking taught in the city squares known to us through Plato’s writings we must use our reason to grasp “philosophical truths” p. 65 feigned ignorance – “Socratic irony”

22 Socrates died because of his convictions

23 Plato BC Pupil of Socrates theory of ideas Myth of the cave – denies the reality of the natural world We must become enlightened

24 Myth of the Cave From The Republic What we take in with our senses is not real, but rather a poor copy of it – we see only shadows – imprisoned by our senses – the shadows are less real than the actual Should take in the world intellectually Ignorance is likened to imprisonment

25 Plato and Aristotle

26 Aristotle BC student of Plato Elemental theory – fire, water, wind, earth Rejected Plato's “world of ideas” Senses are important Women as inferior

27 Medieval/Baroque Machiavelli – – control populace – politics, government - two books, The Prince is still used today in politics (Stalin really liked The Prince)‏ Spinoza – in God (one substance) tolerance and free thought – “Rationalist Mystic” Hobbes – – materialist – natural world – political thinking - The Leviathan – “The value or worth of a man is, as of all things, his price.” Hume

28 THOMAS HOBBES “Alam semesta, segala yang ada, bersifat korporeal, atau badani, yang memiliki dimensi besaran panjang, lebar, dan kedalaman” Yang ada hanyalah materi, Setiap benda bergerak, termasuk manusia, adalah mesin Proses mental merupakan gerakan materi yang ada dalam kepala manusia. Hobbes terpesona oleh gerak, khususnya setelah mengunjungi Galileo.

29 Locke – – father of empiricism and liberalism, education. “All mankind is good and ought not to harm one another.” “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experiences.” Hume – – nothing is certain (complexity), empiricist, take actions because of morals Leibniz – 1646 – 1716 – rationalist – borrowed reality – “There is a reason why every fact is as it is and not otherwise.” – calculus (Leibniz or Newton)‏

30 Existentialism/Modernism Kierkegaard – – father of existentialism - individual finds own identity a problem – mystery of own existence deBeauvoir – French existentialist – Sartre - feminism Sartre – – fate doesn't exist – man is what he conceives himself to be “Hell is other people.” Descartes – – father of modern philosophy – method of doubt - “Cogito ergo sum - I think therefore I am.” Camus– – French writer – absurd that humans demand significance in an indifferent universe - “Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is.”

31 Senses or Reason Empiricists – believe that we learn through our senses; we learn based on observation, experience ; we are born with a clean slate (tabula rasa)‏ Rationalists – believe one has to have an understanding of one’s self to learn “Know thyself”; senses offer a limited world; rely on “truths,” logic and intuition Kant synthesized the two – need reason and the senses to learn


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