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1 Laporan Laba Rugi dan Laporan Arus Kas BAB 4. 2 Why Is a Measure of Income Important? Pengambilan keputusan sehubungan dengan laporan keuangan selalu.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Laporan Laba Rugi dan Laporan Arus Kas BAB 4. 2 Why Is a Measure of Income Important? Pengambilan keputusan sehubungan dengan laporan keuangan selalu."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Laporan Laba Rugi dan Laporan Arus Kas BAB 4

2 2 Why Is a Measure of Income Important? Pengambilan keputusan sehubungan dengan laporan keuangan selalu memperhatikan ukuran keberhasilan perusahaan dalam pemakaian sumber daya yg digunakan dalam operasi Apakah aktivitas sudah menguntungkan ? Atau Apakah tingkat profitabilitas meningkat atau menurun ? Apakah aktivitas sudah menguntungkan ? Atau Apakah tingkat profitabilitas meningkat atau menurun ?

3 3 Apakah aktivitas sudah menguntungkan ? Bagaimana Tren Profitabilitas ? Bagaimana Hasil di Tahun depan ? Apakah perusahaan akan cukup menguntungkan sehingga mampu membayar bunga hutang dan deviden kepada pemegang saham dan masih tumbuh pada tingkat yg diinginkan ? Knowing the firm’s income is important because being able to measure income better helps to answer such questions. Why Is a Measure of Income Important?

4 4 How Is Income Measured? Pendekatan Transaksi Laba dengan pendekatan transaksi berfokus pada kejadian ekonomis yg mempengaruhi element tertentu pada laporan keuangan, yaitu pendapatan, beban, keuntungan dan kerugian

5 5 How Is Income Measured? Laba diukur sebagai perbedaan aliran masuk sumber daya (pendapatan dan keuntungan) dan aliran keluar (beban dan kerugian). Pendekatan Transaksi

6 6 How Is Income Measured? Pendekatan transaksi memberikan rincian yang dapat membantu memprediksi arus kas masa depan. Transaction Approach Disebut juga Metode penandingan/pengaitan Disebut juga Metode penandingan/pengaitan

7 7 Revenue and Gain Recognition Revenue: Arus kas masuk atau peningkatan lain dari aktiva suatu entitas atau pelunasan kewajibannya dari penyerahan atau produksi suatu barang, pemberian jasa atau aktivitas lain yang merupakan usaha terbesar atau usaha utama yang sedang dilakukan entitas tersebut

8 8 Expense: Arus keluar atau penggunaan lain dari aktiva atau timbulnya kewajiban dari penyerahan atau produksi suatu barang, pemberian jasa atau pelaksanaan aktivitas lain yang merupakan usaha terbesar atau usaha utama yg sdg dilakukan entitas tersebut Revenue and Gain Recognition

9 9 Gain: Peningkatan dalam ekuitas (aktiva bersih) dari transaksi sampingan atau transaksi yang terjadi sesekali dari suatu entitas dan dari semua transaksi, kejadian dan kondisi lainnya yang mempengaruhi entitas tersebut, kecuali yang berasal dari pendapatan atau investasi pemilik Revenue and Gain Recognition

10 10 Loss: Penurunan dalam ekuitas (aktiva bersih) dari transaksi sampingan atau transaksi yang terjadi sesekali dari suatu entitas dan dari semua transaks, kejadian dan kondisi lainnya yg mempengaruhi entitas tersebut, kecuali yang berasal dari pendapatan atau investasi pemilik Revenue and Gain Recognition

11 11 Pendapatan diakui apabila perusahaan yang menghasilkan pendapatan telah menyerahkan barang atau jasa yang dijanjikan kepada pelanggan dan ketika pelanggan telah melakukan pembayaran atau setidaknya memberikan janji pembayaran yang pasti Revenue and Gain Recognition

12 12 Pengakuan Lebih Awal Apabila terdapat pasar untuk suatu produk dijual dengan harga yang berlaku dpt dipastikan tanpa upaya penjualan yg besar, maka pendapatan dapat diakui pada saat produksi selesai

13 13 Pengakuan Lebih Awal Jika kontrak suatu produk atau jasa dilakukan di muka, pendapatan dapat diakui pada saat produksi dilakukan atau jasa dilaksanakan terutama jika periode produksi atau pelaksanaan jasa melebihi satu tahun fiskal.

14 14 Pengakuan Kemudian Jika penagihan atau perolehan aktiva atas barang atau jasa yang diserahkan dianggap meragukan, pendapatan dan keuntungan dapat diakui pada saat kas diterima.

15 15  Penandingan/pengaitan langsung.  Alokasi sistematik dan rasional  Pengakuan dengan segera Pengakuan Beban dan Kerugian

16 16 Revenue$xxx Costs and expenses: Costs of salesxxx Selling and administrativexxx Interest expensexxx Other income/expense, netxxx Restructuring chargexxx Total costs and expensesxxx Income before income taxesxx Income taxes xx Net income $ xx Single-Step Income Statement Form of the Income Statement

17 17 Revenue$xxx Costs of goods sold: Beginning inventoryxxx Net purchasesxxx Cost of goods available for salexxx Less ending inventoryxxxxxx Gross profit on salesxxx Operating expenses: Selling expensesxxx General expensesxxxxxx Other incomexxx Multiple-Step Income Statement Form of the Income StatementContinuedContinued

18 18 Other income (from previous page)$xxx Other revenue and gainsxxx Other expenses and losses(xxx) Income from continuing operations before income taxesxxx Income taxes on continuing operations(xxx) Discontinued operations: Loss from operations of discontinued business segment (net of tax)$xxx Loss on disposal of segment (net of tax)xxx(xxx) Extraordinary gain (net of tax)xxx Net income$xxx Form of the Income Statement

19 19 Form of the Income Statement Comparative financial statements present several years’ financial statements side by side. This enables users to analyze performance over multiple periods and identify significant trends. Consolidated financial statements combine the financial results of the “parent company” with other companies that it owns, called subsidiaries.

20 20 Components of the Income Statement Laba dari operasi berkelanjutan 1.Revenue 2.Harga Pokok Penjualan 3.Beban Operasional 4.Pendapatan dan keuntungan lain 5.Beban dan kerugian lain 6.Pajak penghasilan atas operasi berkelanjutan

21 21 Components of the Income Statement Pendapatan dari operasi berkelanjutan Determining Subtotals Laba Kotor: Pendapatan – HPP Laba Operasional: Laba Kotor – Beban Operasional ContinuedContinued

22 22 Components of the Income Statement Income from Continuing Operations Determining Subtotals Income from continuing operations before income taxes: Operating income + Other revenues and gain – Other expenses and losses Income from continuing operations: Income from continuing operations before income taxes – Income taxes on continuing operations

23 23 Components of the Income Statement Revenue Revenue reports the total sales to customers for the period less any sales returns and allowances or discounts.

24 24 Components of the Income Statement Cost of Goods Sold Beginning inventory +Net purchases +Freight-in +Other inventory acquisition costs =Cost of goods available for sale –Ending inventory =Cost of goods sold

25 25 Components of the Income Statement Cost of Goods Sold Cost of goods sold is a significant item on merchandising and manufacturing companies’ income statement.

26 26 Components of the Income Statement Gross Profit/laba kotor Net sales –Cost of goods sold =Gross profit Gross profit ÷ Net sales = Gross profit percentage/persentase laba kotor

27 27 Components of the Income Statement Operating Expenses/Beban Operasi Operating expenses may be reported in two parts: 1)Selling expenses/Beban pemasaran 2)General and administrative expenses/beban umum dan adm

28 28 Components of the Income Statement Operating Income/Laba Operasi Operating income measures the performance of the fundamental business operations conducted by a company. Gross profit –Operating expenses =Operating income

29 29 Components of the Income Statement Other Revenues and Gains Mencakup unsur yang berkaitan dengan aktivitas sampingan perusahaan. 1)Rent revenue/pend Sewa 2)Interest revenue/Pend Bunga 3)Dividend revenue/Pend Deviden 4)Gains from the sale of assets/Keuntungan dari penjualan Harta

30 30 Components of the Income Statement Other Expenses and Losses Deductions (dikurangkan) from operating income. 1)Interest expense/Beban Bunga 2)Losses from the sale of assets/Beban kerugian dari penjualan harta

31 31 Net Income or Loss AT&T 14.7%8.4%6.2% McDonald’s11.0% 13.9%14.7% IBM9.0%9.2%8.8% Nike6.2%6.4%5.1% Return on Sales

32 32 Earnings Per Share Formula for Income from Continuing Operations Income from continuing operations Weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding

33 33 Earnings Per Share Price-Earnings Ratio Market value per share Earnings per share Widely referred to as the PE ratio

34 34 Laba Komprehensif Comprehensive income is angka yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan semua nilai perubahan kekayaan selama satu periode. Sebagai tambahan atas laba bersih, laba komprehensif mencakup semua unsur yang umumnya muncul dari perubahan kondisi pasar yg tidak berhubungan dengan operasi normal perusahaan

35 35 Comprehensive Income The more common adjustments made in arriving at comprehensive income are: Penyesuaian translasi mata uang asing. Keuntungan dan kerugian yang belum direalisasi atas surat berharga yg tersedia untuk dijual. Keuntungan dan kerugian yang ditangguhkan atas instrumen keuangan derivatif.

36 36 Comprehensive Income Sebagian besar perusahaan memasukkan laporan laba komprehensif sebagai bagian dari laporan ekuitas pemegang saham.

37 37 Earnings, Net Income, and Comprehensive Income Revenue Expenses Operating Income Gains Losses Earnings Cumulative Accounting Adjustment Net Income Unrecognized Holding Gains Unrecognized Foreign Exchange Changes Comprehensive Income $ $ 20 3 (8) $ 15 (2) $ $ 16

38 38 The Statement of Cash Flows

39 39 Sebagus apakah laporan arus kas itu ? Apakah sebuah laporan arus kas menceritakan hal yg belum diketahui dari neraca dan laporan rugi laba ?

40 40 What Good Is a Cash Flow Statement? Ya karena ada situasi dimana laba tidak dapat memberikan gambaran yg jelas atas kinerja perusahaan ?

41 41 What Good Is a Cash Flow Statement? Begitu juga hal-hal lain yg berhubungan dengan laporan keuangan akan ada di laporan arus kas Sehingga laporan arus kas menjadi instrumen penting dalam penilain laba Laporan arus kas menjelaskan perubahan pada kas atau setara kas dalam periode tertentu

42 42 Structure of the Cash Flow Statement Apakah maksud setara kas ? Investasi jangka pendek yg sangat likuid. Dapat segera ditukar dengan kas ketika diperlukan dan sangat dekat dengan masa jatuh temponya sehingga kecil resiko terjadinya perubahan nilai akibat perubahan tingkat suku bunga

43 43 CASH INFLOWS Cash Inflows Operating Activities Investing Activities Financing Activities Structure of the Cash Flow Statement

44 44 Aktivitas operasi—Transaksi-transaksi dan kejadian-kejadian yg akan menentukan laba bersih. Activitas Investasi—Transactions and events that involve the purchase and sale of securities, property, plant, equipment, and other assets not generally held for resale, and serta memberi dan menagih pinjaman Financing Activities—Transactions and events dimana kas diperoleh dan dibayarkan kembali kepada pemilik dan kreditor. Cash Flow Patterns

45 45 Pola Arus Kas Over the Life of a Company Start-up, High-Growth Company/PT baru yang sedang tumbuh pesat Financing Investing Operating

46 46 Cash Flow Patterns Over the Life of a Company Steady-State Company/PT yg sedang mempertahan kan posisi Operating Investing Financing Dividends

47 47 Cash Flow Patterns Over the Life of a Company Cash Cow/PT yg sudah Mapan Operating Investing Financing Dividends Share Repurchases Loan Repayment

48 48 Noncash Transactions Investing and financing activities that do not affect cash. Significant transactions should be disclosed separately. These transactions do not affect the statement of cash flows.

49 49 Reporting Cash Flows from Operations Direct Method—A method of reporting net cash flows from operations that shows cash receipts and payments for a period of time. This method is more straight forward. Indirect Method—A method of reporting net cash flow from operations that involves reconciling net income to a cash basis. It shows how noncash flows affect net income.

50 50 The Direct Method This method reports directly the major classes of operating cash receipts and payments of an entity during a period. Accrual-basis revenues and expenses must be converted to equivalent cash receipts and payments. The amount of cash actually collected or paid is determined.

51 51 Indirect Method Adjustments for receivables and other current operating assets. Adjustments for payables and other current liabilities. Adjustments for depreciation and other noncash items. Adjustments for gains and losses. The indirect method makes the following adjustments:

52 52 Operating Activities Cash Inflow Cash receipt of sales Collection of receivables Interest revenue Dividend revenue Cash Inflow Cash receipt of sales Collection of receivables Interest revenue Dividend revenue Cash Outflow Inventory paymentsInventory payments Interest paymentsInterest payments WagesWages UtilitiesUtilities RentRent Cash Outflow Inventory paymentsInventory payments Interest paymentsInterest payments WagesWages UtilitiesUtilities RentRent

53 53 Relationship Between Net Income and Operating Cash Flow Business dalam aktivitas operasi Laba bersih Gunakan aturan akuntansi akrual Hilangkan akrual untuk mendapatkan arus kas Kas diterima dan dikeluarkan Arus kas operasi

54 54 Sales and Cash Collected from Customers: Beginning accounts receivable$ 40 +Sales 150 =Cash available for collection$190 –Ending accounts receivable 60 =Cash Collected from Customers $130 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method

55 55 Cost of Goods Sold and Cash Paid for Inventory: Ending inventory$ 75 +Cost of goods sold80 =Required inventory$155 –Beginning inventory100 =Cash paid for inventory this year$ 55 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method

56 56 Wages Expense and Cash Paid for Wages: Beginning wages payable$ 7 +Wages expense25 =Total obligation to employee$32 –Ending wages payable10 =Cash paid for wages$22 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method

57 57 Adjustments for Gains and Losses Gains or losses do not represent the cash effect of the transaction. Adjustment to Account Net Income Losses Gains These adjustments are made to net income since the sale of an investment is an investing activity, not an operating activity.

58 58 Adjustments for Receivables Changes in accounts directly affect revenues recorded on an accrual basis. AccountAdjustment to AccountChange Net Income Accounts Receivable Inventory

59 59 Adjustments for Payables Changes in liabilities mean the reverse of changes in current operating asset accounts. AccountAdjustment to AccountChange Net Income Accounts Payable Wages Payable

60 60 Noncash Adjustments Depreciation and similar noncash items do not affect cash and are not reported on the statement of cash flows. Any noncash item that reduces net income should be added back to net income in the indirect method. Any noncash item that increases net income should be subtracted from net income in the indirect method.

61 61 Investing Activities Cash Inflow Sale of plant assets Sale of securities, other than trading securities Collection of principal on loans Cash Inflow Sale of plant assets Sale of securities, other than trading securities Collection of principal on loans Cash Outflow Purchase of plant assets Purchase of securities, other than trading securities Making of loans with other entities Cash Outflow Purchase of plant assets Purchase of securities, other than trading securities Making of loans with other entities

62 62 Financing Activities Cash Inflow Issuance of own stock Borrowings Cash Inflow Issuance of own stock Borrowings Cash Outflow Dividend paymentsDividend payments Repaying principal on borrowingRepaying principal on borrowing Treasury Stock purchaseTreasury Stock purchase Cash Outflow Dividend paymentsDividend payments Repaying principal on borrowingRepaying principal on borrowing Treasury Stock purchaseTreasury Stock purchase

63 63 Differences between Income and Cash from Operations Cash from Net Cash from Net Company Name Operations Income Difference Company Name Operations Income Difference General Motors$19,750$ 4,452$(15,298) Lehman Brothers(14,733)1,77516,508 Ford Motors33,7643,467(30,297) Citigroup2,67313,51910,846 SOURCE: Standard and Poor COMPUTSTAT Year 2000 (All amounts are in millions)

64 64 General Format of a Statement of Cash Flows Cash Provided by (Used for): Operating Activities$XXX Investing Activities XXX Financing Activities XXX Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash$XXX Cash—Beginning of Year XXX Cash—End of Year$XXX

65 65 Preparing a Cash Flow Statement 1.Compute how much the cash balance changed during the year. 2.Convert the income statement from an accrual-basis to a cash-basis summary of operations. a. Eliminate expenses that do not involve the outflow of cash, such as depreciation. b.Eliminate gains and losses associated with investing or financing activities. c.Adjust for changes in the balances of current assets and current liabilities.

66 66 3.Analyze the long-term assets to identify the cash flow effects of investing activities. 4.Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity account to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions. 5.Make sure that the total new cash flow from operating, investing, and financing activities is equal to the net increase or decrease in cash as computed in Step 1, then prepare a formal statement. 6.Prepare supplement disclosure of significant noncash transactions. Preparing a Cash Flow Statement

67 67 Example: Comparative Balance Sheet Accounts Payable Long-term Notes Payable Common Stock Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Equity Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents Accounts Receivable Inventory Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities and Equity $ (72) $560 $ $560 $ (60) $470 $ $470

68 68 Income Statement, 2005 Sales Expenses: Cost of goods sold Selling and general expense Depreciation Interest expense Operating income Gain from sale of equipment Income before income taxes Income tax expense Net income $345 $ (200) $145 5 $ $110

69 69 Cash $ 40 Cash Change in Cash $ 42 Determine change in cash and cash equivalents: Step 1

70 70 Convert from an accrual-basis to a cash- basis summary of operations: Step 2 EXAMPLE: Eliminate depreciation expense, $44, because it does not require the use of cash. Cash provided by operations44 Accumulated Depreciation44 (t-account or work sheet entry)

71 71 Convert from an accrual-basis to a cash- basis summary of operations: Step 2 EXAMPLE: Eliminate the $5 gain from selling equipment. Cash33 Accumulated Depreciation32 Equipment60 Gain on Sale of Equipment5 Add back $5 to cash provided by operations.

72 72 Analyze the long-term assets to identify the ash flow effects of investing activities. Step 3 Expenditures for Property, Plant, and Equipment: Beginning equipment$140 –Equipment sold during the year 60 =80 –Ending equipment 200 =Expenditures for equipment during year $ 120

73 73 Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity accounts to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions: Step 4 Expenditures for Long-Term Debt: Beginning L-T Notes Payable balance$ 50 –Notes reacquired during the year 0 =50 –Ending L-T Notes Payable balance 100 =L-T Notes Payable issued during year50

74 74 Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity accounts to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions: Step 4 Payment of Dividends: Beginning Retained Earnings balance$ 90 +Net income110 =200 –Ending Retained Earnings balance 110 =Dividends paid90

75 75 Steps 5 and 6 Steps 5 and 6 relate to actually preparing the formal and supplementary statements.

76 76 Cash Flows from Operating Activities: Net income$110 Adjustments: Depreciation expense 44 Gain on sale of equipment (5) Increase in accounts receivable (30) Decrease in inventory 30 Increase in accounts payable 20 Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities$169 Operating Activities Section: Indirect MethodContinuedContinued

77 Cash Flows from Operating Activities: Cash Collected from Customers$414 Cash Payments for: Inventory (155) Selling & General Expenses (58) Interest (2) Income Taxes (30) (245) Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities$169 Operating Activities Section: Direct MethodContinuedContinued 43

78 78 The investing and financing sections are the same whether the direct or indirect approach is used. Operating Activities Section: Direct Method

79 79 Investing and Financing Activities Sections Cash Flows from Investing Activities: Proceeds from sale of equipment$ 33 Purchase of equipment(120) Net cash provided by investing activities(87) Cash Flows from Financing Activities: Issuance of long-term notes payable50 Payment of cash dividends(90) Net cash used for financing activities(40) Net increase in cash42 Cash, January 1, Cash, December 31,

80 80 Investing and Financing Activities Sections Cash Flows from Investing Activities: Proceeds from sale of equipment$ 33 Purchase of equipment(120) Net cash provided by investing activities(87) Cash Flows from Financing Activities: Issuance of long-term notes payable50 Payment of cash dividends(90) Net cash used for financing activities(40) Net increase in cash42 Cash, January 1, Cash, December 31,

81 81 Assessing Financial Strength Financial strength is a function of— Liquidity Profitability Growth potential Risk

82 82 Assessing Financial Strength Cash flow-to-net income Cash from operations Net income oMeasure of earnings quality oTends to be greater than 1 oShould remain fairly stable for the years for a specific company

83 83 Assessing Financial Strength Cash flow adequacy Cash from operations Net income oMeasures relationship between investment spending and cash generated by operations oIndicate a company’s attitude towards reinvestment in long-lived production assets oWhen ratio is small it indicates that cash flows from operations fall short of funding growth

84 84 Assessing Financial Strength Cash times interest earned Cash from operations + Interest paid + Taxes paid Interest expense oMeasures ability to service debt oGenerally, a higher ratio indicates more solvency

85 85 Forecasted Statement of Cash Flows Six Steps 1.Compute the change in cash. 2.Convert the income statement from an accrual to cash basis. 3.Analyze the long-term asset accounts. 4.Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity. 5.Prepare the forecasted statement of cash flows. 6.Disclose noncash activities.

86 86 The End


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