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Review Article (Tinjauan Pustaka) Isnani Azizah Salim Suryono FKUI Histologi/Med J Indones 6-Oktober-2009.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Review Article (Tinjauan Pustaka) Isnani Azizah Salim Suryono FKUI Histologi/Med J Indones 6-Oktober-2009."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Review Article (Tinjauan Pustaka) Isnani Azizah Salim Suryono FKUI Histologi/Med J Indones 6-Oktober-2009

2 Why Write/Not Write? 1 Reasons why we write Gain intellectual stimulation Share ideas Report research/case Express an opinion Generate discussion Advance one’s discipline Assert “ownership” Attain promotion/tenure Enhance personal reputation Achieve some immortality Earn income Reasons given for not writing Not enough time Nothing to write about No one to work with Lack of secretarial support Lack of knowledge how to research info No mentor for writing No motivation No self confidence Don’t know how to start Hate writing! 2CI/rev art/IAS/

3 Tinjauan Pustaka  T.O.R. Apa itu article review? (What?) Apa kegunaan menulis Article Review? (Why?) Who? Siapa yang menulis review article? Bagaimana mencari topik untuk article review? (How?) Cara membuat article review untuk jurnal? – Bagian-bagian – Purpose, Source, Principal findings, Conclusion – Reference: the Vancouver system 3CI/rev art/IAS/

4 What? = an essay: – Has a topic, – A beginning, – Development of theme in a logical manner, – Has an ending. Original in that they bring new thinking to the literature. Provide us with practical insights & offer new approaches to old problems  innovative & expand medical understanding. 4CI/rev art/IAS/

5 What? Bukan artikel asli/hasil penelitian sendiri. Merupakan sinopsis/rangkuman berupa evaluasi kritis atas kepustakaan & menghasilkan simpulan penting sebagai jawaban, berdasarkan kajian kritis tersebut. 3 Umumnya ditulis atas permintaan dari jurnal yang khusus untuk review.. 5CI/rev art/IAS/

6 Introduction: why? 1 Compared to original articles, review articles get no respect.. Though, many respected academicians write it to: – Assert their claims. – Mark their territory. Have to be very well written to be able to hold reader’s attention  should be peer reviewed for content & carefully edited, so can be easy to read. 6CI/rev art/IAS/

7 Why Literatur kedokteran saat ini telah berkembang pesat & berjumlah amat banyak sehingga para praktisi & peneliti kewalahan mengikuti perkembangan suatu bidang ilmu kedokteran. 2 Merupakan jenis artikel yang paling banyak dibaca agar tidak tertinggal dalam topik / masalah tertentu  info harus lengkap & mutakhir! 7CI/rev art/IAS/

8 Siapa saja Penulis Review Article? 5 Invited Writers... An expert in the chosen field. Usually from the Academic rank. Should be a person with ability to be away from the normal/routine working environment, not subject to interruption frome colleagues, telephoone calls, etc; more likely with academic position rather than a busy clinician. CI/rev art/IAS/

9 Where to send? 4 Ke mana suatu Tinjauan Pustaka dikirim? TP merupakan gagasan & tinjauan dari hasil karya temuan penelitian yang dimuat dalam jurnal primer, maka tulisan yang ditujukan bagi kalangan terpelajar namun bukan ahli atau spesialis di bidang tulisan tsb, jurnal sekunder. 9 CI/rev art/IAS/

10 Jurnal sekunder, apa saja? Abstracting Journal  Berkala penyari: memuat ringkasan atau abstrak jurnal primer. Review Journal  Berkala tinjauan: memuat pembahasan berbagai artikel ilmiah sejenis yang mutakhir, untuk memberi gambaran kemajuan menyeluruh suatu topik (state or the art) 3 Berkala ilmiah yang menerima berbagai jenis artikel: artikel asli, pilot study, short communications, laporan kasus, & TP,  BMJ, MJI, MKI d.l.l. 10CI/rev art/IAS/

11 Ciri-ciri TP: sesuaikan denga IA. 3,4 Panjang, halaman cetak. Subyek lebih bersifat umum. Umumnya memakai banyak pustaka acuan. Penyajian bersifat padat & memuat istilah teknis ilmiah dalam jumlah terbatas & dilengkapi dengan penjelasan artinya. Uraian bersifat panjang-lebar, tidak telegrafik. 11CI/rev art/IAS/

12 Jenis-jenis TP: Periksa IA! Sesuaikan dengan “Instruction to Authors”: Kajian kritis kepustakaan? Kelengkapan pustaka yang dibahas? Susunan, gaya, fokus kajian? Kumpulan bahan & komentarnya, tanpa perlu mengevaluasi artikel2 yang terbit mengenai subyek. Pengertian terbaru dalam bidang yang berkembang pesat (state of the art). 12CI/rev art/IAS/

13 Special types of Review Article: 1.Literature Review Written to discuss the state of the art. Title often use the word: literature/review/state of the art of... Absence of: study of/surveillance of/effects of.. Long list of reference (up to 100  check I.A!). Purpose: – Summarize a topic as bridge to applied use  latest info for good patient care. – Synthesize knowledge as springboard for future research. – Support academic rigor in a field. – Database for health policy decisions. 13CI/rev art/IAS/

14 Literature Review, examples 1 “Diabetic Retinopathy” (N Eng J Med 2004; 350: 48-59) “Neuroprotection in Parkinson Disease: Mysteries, Myths, & Misconceptions.” (JAMA 2004; 291: ) “Detection, Evaluation, & Treatment of Eating Disorders: The Role of Primary Care Physician.” (JGIM 2000; 15 (8): ) 14CI/rev art/IAS/

15 Special types of Review Article: 2. Meta-Analysis Combining results of several studies into a summary conclusion, using quantitative strategies that will allow consideration of data in diverse res repo. = a special type of systematic review to answer focused clinical question (Siwek, 2002 from 1) = a research study on research studies, calls for knowledge of statistical methods >> clinician authors  Needs collaboration with co-author trained in statistical analysis. 15CI/rev art/IAS/

16 Meta Analysis, examples “Arterial Puncture Closing Devices compared with Standard Manual Compression after Cardiac Catherization: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis” (JAMA 2004;291: ) “Meta-Analysis of Vascular and Neoplastic Events Associated with Tamoxifen” (J Gen Intern Med 2003;18: ) 16CI/rev art/IAS/

17 Special types of Review Article: Evidence-Based Clinical Review 17CI/rev art/IAS/

18 Who Publishes & Reads them? Publisher: – NEJM  Review article – BMJ-USA  Reviews – JAMA  Clinician’s corner: Contempo Updates– Linking Evidence & Experience – The Lancet. Reader: – Almost all clinicians  physicians, scientists, med students, residents, fellows. – Health policy experts & attorney. – Busy physicians: relax evenings, long plane rides etc 18CI/rev art/IAS/

19 “Planning a review article”. 1 Getting started: – Begin with daily job  what intrigued us most? What have I learned in my years of practice, that I would like to share with m colleagues? 2 phases: – Search PubMed, MDConsult, Google, favorite Web searching site. – Research phase  learn more about topic, decide whether to write on that topic.. 19CI/rev art/IAS/

20 Mencari/Memilih topik: Atas permintaan Pemesan. Atas tawaran Penulis  – Apa yang sedang menarik perhatian ilmiah kita? – Atau bila belum ada ‘wangsit’  search, browsing, “mendem” di perpustakaan, diskusi dengan sesama ilmiawan, selevel atau di atas kita. – Tentukan ‘rencana’ judul tulisan kita! Mulai mengumpulkan informasi  buat catatan2 dengan key words, sumber & halamannya. CI/rev art/IAS/

21 Title Represents the contents of the article Fewest possible words adequately describing the content ( ± 12 kataan!), how? – Omit unnessary words Preferably written in “positive” sentences A label rather than a complete sentence Avoid abbreviations & acronyms! CI/rev art/IAS/

22 Abstrak Amat berbeda dari artikel penelitian, tidak selalu ada, kecuali atas permintaan jurnal tujuan  Gaya terstruktur (250 kata) atau bebas (150 kata) – Obyektif: tujuan primer TP & penekanannya (apakah Penyebab? Diagnosis? Atau prognosis?) – Sumber data: ringkasan sumber, waktu pengambilan & keterbatasan. – Ekstraksi data: peraturan untuk abstraksi data, penilaian kualitas & validitas data, & penerapannya. 22CI/rev art/IAS/

23 The review contents: logical order 1.What is the problem? 2.Historical background 3.Basic science 4.Methodology 5.Animal studies 6.Human studies 7.Discussion 8.Conclusions 9.Recommendations 10.The future CI/rev art/IAS/

24 Kerangka TP: Abstrak – Sintesis data: hasil utama dari tinjauan & metoda yang digunakan dalam mendapatka hasil ybs. – Simpulan: simpulan utama, termasuk kemungkinan penerapan klinis (hindarkan generalisasi berlebihan) & anjuran mengenai penelitian tambahan bila perlu. 24CI/rev art/IAS/

25 Kerangka TP: Pendahuluan Menjawab suatu / sejumlah pertanyaan, misalkan: – “apa yang kita ketahui & tidak kita ketahui mengenai (suatu subyek)” atau: – “ apa yang disebut ” atau – “Bagaimana mengobati Yang diakibatkan oleh ?” Kalimat-kalimat pertama pada paragraf pertama harus dibuat sejelas & semenarik mungkin. 25CI/rev art/IAS/

26 The ideal review Should be: Topical Up to date Balanced Accurate Authoritative Quotable Provocative A good read Should not be: Old hat A 12 th review out of 11 others A personal view only Anecdotal Superficial Out of context Boring CI/rev art/IAS/

27 References Each investigation has as its foundation  Work of predecessors in the field. Back ground knowledge of the published work is critical for the success & soundness of study, also credibility of the paper. Need to have key references!! Reference should have right balance: Comprehensive  Relevant 27CI/rev art/IAS/

28 Search: Index Medicus / Medline List of printed indexes Index Medicus Excerpta Medica Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts etc Science Citation Index Jounal’s cumulative indexes CI/rev art/IAS/

29 List of computer databases: > 700 Biosis – Biology, incl clinical & experimental med, immunology, pharmacology, biophysics, & biochemistry EMBASE (Excerpta Medica)—excludes nursing, veterinary med, & dentistry, is particularly strong on drug related literature Health—non clinical, administration IPA—drug development Toxline—toxicology, including terratgens, mutagens, carcinogens, pollutants, & pesticides; adverse drug reactions CI/rev art/IAS/

30 Penulisan Kutipan & Daftar Pustaka Citation & list of Reference  Vancouver syst, Keuntungan: 1.Nas lebih ringkas 2.Penulisan daftar pustaka > ringkas & sederhana 3.Kemungkinan ketidaksesuaian sitasi > sedikit 4.Memudahkan penelusuran pembaca Kekurangan: bila hendak menyisipkan sitasi baru artikel yang baru ditemukan.. CI/rev art/IAS/

31 Cara menuliskan referens sistem Vancouver Bisa dilihat di Instruction for Authors Med J Indones Download website: CI/rev art/IAS/

32 References 1.Taylor RB. How to write a review article. In: the clinician’s guide to Medical Writing. Portland, Oregon; Springer p Huth EJ. How to write & publish papers in the medical sciences, 2 nd ed. Baltimore. Williams Wilkins Day RA. How to write & publish a scientific paper, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press Rifai MA. Perencanaan Naskah. Dalam: Pegangan gaya penulisan, penyuntingan & penerbitan karya-ilmiah- Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press Strunin L. How to write a review. In: Hall GM (ed). How to write a paper. London; BMJ Publishing Group: CI/rev art/IAS/


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