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Sumber: Storey, J. 1996. Cultural Studies & the Study of Popular Culture. Great Britain: Edinburgh University press. Ida, R. 2011. Metode Penelitian Kajian.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sumber: Storey, J. 1996. Cultural Studies & the Study of Popular Culture. Great Britain: Edinburgh University press. Ida, R. 2011. Metode Penelitian Kajian."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sumber: Storey, J Cultural Studies & the Study of Popular Culture. Great Britain: Edinburgh University press. Ida, R Metode Penelitian Kajian Media dan Budaya. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press. Analisis Film Populer

2 TIGA AREA PENELITIAN VISUAL Site of Self: peneliti bertindak sendiri melakukan interpretasi, pemaknaan, dan pemahaman terhadap objek visual yang diamati/peneliti melakukan decoding suatu budaya visual. Metode yang dipakai: semiotik, analisis isi, analisis wacana atau analisis tekstual lainnya. Site of production: peneliti mengurai area produksi atau pembuatan gambar visual. Peneliti bisa melihat genre film dan mengajukan pertanyaaan-pertanyaan seperti: siapa yang membuat? Untuk siapa film itu dibuat? Mengapa dibuat? Kapan? Peristiwa apa yang melatarbelakangi pembuatannya? Dsb Metode yang dipakai: etnografi, analisis wacana Site of audience: peneliti mencari tahu bagaimana khalayak membaca dan memaknai gambar- gambar visaul yang dipertontonkan, disirkulasikan dan dipamerkan pada khalayak. Pertanyaan2 seperti: siapa yang memaknai gambar (profil khalayak)? Bagaimana khalayak menginterpretasi? Apa kenikmatan gambar yang mereka peroleh? Metode: psikoanalisis, etnografi khalayak, reception analysis, etc.

3 Elemen Analisis Film Populer Aspek Naratif: plot and story, cause and effect, use of time and space, opening and closing, and pattern of development. Biasanya menggunakan lensa teori tertentu dalam memahami isu/fenomena dalam film tsb. Aspek Non Naratif: colour, shape, rhythm, sound  film production, cinema techniques, visual styles, visual form.

4 Contoh Analisis Naratif dengan pendekatan Strukturalisme: Oposisi biner: Hero outside society good week wilderness Society Inside society Bad Strong civilization

5 Sixguns and Society, Will Wright (1975) 1. The hero enters a social group. 2. The hero is unknown to the society. 3. The hero is revealed to have an exceptional ability. 4. The society recognises a difference between themselves and the hero; the hero is given a special status. 5. The society does not completely accept the hero. 6. There is a conflict of interests between the villains and the society. 7. The villains are stronger than the society; the society is weak. 8. There is a strong friendship or respect between the hero and a villain. 9. The villains threaten the society. 10. The hero avoids involvement in the conflict. 11. The villains endanger a friend of the hero. 12. The hero fights the villains. 13. The hero defeats the villains. 14. The society is safe. 15. The society accepts the hero. 16. The hero loses or gives up his special status. Examples of movies using this formulae: American superhero movies

6 Contoh Analisis Film Bertema Pedagogi Resilience “resilience” is the term used to describe a set of qualities that promote successful adaptation despite risk and adversity.

7 CARING RELATIONSHIPS The presence of at least one caring person-provides support for healthy development and learning. Werner and Smith's (1989) study, covering more than 40 years, found that, among the most frequently encountered positive role models in the lives of resilient children, outside of the family circle, was a favorite teacher who was not just an instructor for academic skills for the youngsters but also a confidant and positive model for personal identification.

8 Narratives - Character Who changes during the story? How? Who are the ‘goodies’/ the heroes. Who are the ‘baddies’/ villains.

9 Representations : How are people, places, events and ideas depicted in the film? In what ways are stereotyping or anti- stereotyping involved?

10 Audiences: Who watches the film, what pleasures do they get and what effects might it have? Target Audience? - age range? gender? At what other audiences might it be aimed?

11 ASPEK NON-NARATIF

12 Two types of film “statements”: Paradigmatic and syntagmatic Paradigmatic: Everything that is seen in the shot (mise-en-scene) including how it is composed: what to shoot how to shoot it Usually associated with realism. Syntagmatic (contextual)—usually associated with expressionism: editing/“montage”

13 Paradigmatic statements Mise-en-scene: everything in the shot, including how it is composed Staging, sets, props, costumes, casting, etc. Use of frame Closed Open Proxemics /proximity (distance from camera) – Close Ups – Long shots – Medium Shots Proxemics /“blocking”: use of space, placement of actors, etc. Composition – lines (vertical; horizontal; diagonal or oblique) – lighting source/direction – camera angle/PoV tilt (low/high; up/down): look for horizon roll (slant) crane (extremely high) overhead/”bird’s-eye view “(often with see-through ceiling) helicopter (ELS): God’s-eye view

14 More paradigmatic statements Choice of film: Low or hi-rez (70 mm, 35 mm, 16 mm or Super-8; videotape). Low rez (grainy) suggests immediacy and actuality. Lighting: Available (“magic hour”) or artificial. bright or dark (noir). key, fill, back, etc. silhouette (back light only). Colors: warmth, coolness, danger, passion, etc. color intensity (saturation). Focus: sharp soft (sometimes done with filters or screens) planar (rack shot/rack focus): can alternate between two planes deep focus (dev. by Gregg Toland; see Citizen Kane) zoom in or out (what does zoom-in to ECU of face imply?) Camera movement: track shot, dolly shot, truck shot, crane (or motorized Louma) shot, sky-cam hand-held (shaky). Documentary style: suggests immediacy, actuality, action

15 Composition (deep focus)

16 Synecdoche

17 Rack focus

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19 Close-ups Camera angles, close-ups, and editing techniques contribute to viewers’ feelings toward a character. Viewers do not care much either way about characters seen at a distance. They are more likely to empathize or identify with a character who is often seen in close-ups. Meyrovitz, Joshua. “Multiple Media Literacies.” Journal of Communications 48 (1). Winter 1998:

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21 Low-angle shot

22 Aura (halo effect)

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25 Syntagmatic statements Two images juxtaposed suggest a third meaning:

26 Analisis Kritis Film Dalam cultural studies, ada 4 isu besar yang menjadi objek kritik: race, class, age, and gender. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk memahami muatan ideologis sebuah film, seperti: poskolonialisme, orientalisme, feminisme, dan marxisme. Fokus analisis juga dapat pada representasi: Bagaimana identitas tertentu direpresentasikan dalam film/majalah/iklan.

27 Contoh analisis ttg representasi ras Fenomena whitewash “While we talk a lot about harmful media beauty ideals like extreme thinness, appearance-focused “fitness,” sex appeal, and photoshopping phoniness, one of the most oppressive ideals excludes anyone who isn’t … white. We call it the whitewashing of beauty. “extreme thinness “fitness,”sex appeal,photoshopping phoniness By Lindsay Kite, “Beauty Whitewashed: How White Ideals Exclude Women of Color.” Published at how-white-ideals-exclude-women-of-color on Feb. 28, 2011.

28 ‘real and polished’ photos in digital manipulation

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30 Race-bending practices “Asian-American actors have never been treated as full-time actors. We’re always hired as part-timers. That is, producers call us when they need us for only race-specific roles. If a part was seen as too ‘demanding,’ that part often went to a non-Asian.” – Mako, the voice actor of Uncle Iroh in Avatar: The Last Airbender Mako

31 Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (1927), Boris Karloff in The Mask of Fu Manchu (1932), Rudolph Valentino in The Sheik (1921) Charlton Heston in A Touch of Evil (1958), Victor Mature in Chief Crazy Horse (1955), Warner Oland in Charlie Chan in Paris (1935).

32 Contoh analisis ideologi film Contoh analisis film menggunakan teori orientalisme: Avatar, The Adventure of Tintin, The Last Samurai, The Mummy, etc. Orientalisme adalah kritik yang dilontarkan oleh Edward Said dalam memahami cara orang Barat mendefinisikan/memandang orang Timur, yang ujung- ujungnya mengunggulkan diri mereka sebagai yang lebih superior.  The concept of power/knowledge (Foucault) Salah satu elemen naratif/non naratif yang orientalis yaitu adanya oposisi biner dalam cerita maupun gambar-gambar (scenes) dalam film. ‘What’s the difference between ‘us’ and ‘them’? Who wins at the end? Who is constructed as the savior?’


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