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1 Chapter Nine: Messages and Conversation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito

2 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon2  The Conversation Process  Conversational Management  Conversational Disclosure  Organizational Conversation  Conversational Problems : Prevention & Repair

3 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon3 Conversation should be pleasant without scurrility, witty without affectation, free without indecency, learned without conceitedness, novel without falsehood. William Shakespeare

4 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon4  The way you talk depends not only on the goal you hope to achieve, but on who you are and who you think the other person

5 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon5 The Conversation Process— Opening  Phatic Communion  Greeting Reciprocated  Consistent with Rest of Conversation

6 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon6

7 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon7  Greeting are kind of feedforward & serve various functions (Knapp & Vengelisti,2009)  Opening up channel of communication  Reveal important information about the relationships  Help maintain relationships

8 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation The Conversation process  Pesan yg memantapkan hubungan antara 2 org & membuka saluran agar interaksi lebih bermakna  Pesan yg membuka saluran komunikasi dan bukan mengkomunikasikan informasi  Bisa verbal &non verbal  Greeting hal yg lazim, kurang diperhatikan  Konsisten dalam nada suara  Phatic penting utk memprakarsai interaksi Opening : phatic communication It’s message that establishes a connection between two people and opens up the channels for more meaningfull interaction Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon8

9 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon9 Function of feed forward  To open channels communication: phatic communication  To preview the message  To disclaim  To altercast

10 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon10  (1) Membuka saluran komunikasi, mengacu pd komunikasi fatik  Informasi yg memberitahukan anda ttg aturan interaksi yg normal, diharapkan, diterima & diberlakukan  Memberitahukan bhw org lain ingin berkomunikasi  Membuka saluran komunikasi & bukan mengkomunikasikan informasi  (2) mengantar pesan yg akan datang  Pentingnya pesan  Informasi kualitas -/+

11 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon11  (3) memastikan pesan 2 dipahami & tdk akan berakibat negatif  menggunakan pemastian ketika kita berfikir bhw apa yg dikatakan akan menemukan perlawanan  (4) penentuan peran  Digunakan utk menempatkan penerima dlm peran tertentu, meminta penerima menanggapi sesuai peran yg ditentukan  meminta pendapat dr sudut pandang ttt

12 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon12  Pesan pembuka: informasi yg diberikan sebelum pesan pokok disampaikan  Mengatakan kepada kita sesuatu ttg pesan yang akan datang  Metta message  Pemusatan gagasan yg umum, tidak terperinci-  gunakan pesan pembuka secara hemat  Gunakan feedfirward utk memperkirakan kemampuan penerimaan orang, untuk apa anda mengatakan, gunakan utk mengetes.

13 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon13 The Conversation Process— Business  The substance or focus of the conversation  Substance of Conversation  The term business is used to emphasize that most conversation are goal directed  Longest Part of Conversation

14 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon14  Bisnis : fokus pada percakapan  Digunakan utk menekankan sbg besar percakapan diarahkan pd tujuan ( to learn, relate, influence, play, help)  Mempersatukan berbagai macam interaksi  Budaya memiliki hal tabu utk dibicarakan  Topik & bahasa tertentu hrs dihindarkan khususnya bagi orang luar  bicara pertunjukan matador, politik/agama -  timbul masalah  Percakapan diatur melalui pertukaran peran pendengar & penerima  Memberi keterangan terperinci dan memuaskan percakapan

15 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon15 The Conversation Process— Feedback  Reflect Back On Conversation  Signal Business is Completed  Can Go Back to Business

16 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon16  Merefleksikan kembali percakapan  Isyarat percakapan dilengkapi  Feedback bisa -/+, memberi pesan atau kritik  Fokus pd orang/pesan  High/low monitoring -  hati2 membentuk respon yg dirancang utk tujuan ttt

17 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon17  Positive –negative feedback  person focused-message focused  Immediate –delayed  Low monitoring – high monitoring.

18 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon18 The Conversation Process— Closing  The Goodbye  Reveals Satisfaction  Schedule Future Conversations

19 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon19  Penutup  kalimat ucapan menunjukkan kepuasan orang2 dlm percakapan -  i hope you will can soon  Digunakan menjadwal percakapan yad  Ketika percakapan tidak jelas  percakapan menjadi kaku -  anda tidak cukup yakin utk mengatakan “say goodbye”

20 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon20 Initiating Conversations  Self-References : say something about yourself  Other-References : say something about another person or ask a question  Relational References : say something about the two of you  Context References : say something about the pysical,social – psychological, cultural or temporal context. Microsoft Image

21 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon21 Manajemen percakapan  Memprakarsai percakapan  Referensi diri : mengatakan sesuatu ttg diri anda  Referensi lain : mengatakan sesuatu ttg org lain/ mengajukan pertanyaan bukan utk mengomentari, orientasi pada perasaan suka/ emosi yg dialami -  nice to meet you  Referensi hubungan: may i join you  Referensi konteks : menyatakan sesuatu ttg konteks ( fisik, psikologis, budaya & temporal)

22 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon22 Opening Lines  Cute-flippant  Innocuous  Direct Microsoft Image

23 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon23  Cerdik –tidak serius : penuh humor, tidak langsung -  membuka percakapan utk memperluas pertemuan  is that really your hair  Pesan pembuka tidak membahayakan/merusak --  what do you think of  Pembuka langsung : menunjukkan secara jelas ketertarikan pembicara dalam pertemuan dengan orang lain -  saya sedikit malu tapi sy senang bertemu anda

24 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon24 Maintaining Conversations Cooperation  Maxim of Quantity  Be As Informative As Necessary to communicate the intended meaning  Information that makes the meaning clear  Peole violate this maxim when they try to relate an incident & digress to give unnecessary information  Maxim of Quality  Say What You Know Is True,& do not say what you know to be false  Violate the quality maxim by : lying, exaggerating, minimizing major problems Microsoft Image

25 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon25  Dalam percakapan hrs mengikuti prinsip kerjasama & aturan  Memberi keterangan penting, sbgmana pentingnya mengkomunikasikan makna yg direncanakan -  kejelasan informasi & makna  Maxim of quantity dilanggar ketika terkait dng peristiwa tt, mrk menyimpang dr pokok masalah, mberi inf tdk penting. Inf penting dilupakan  Maxim of quality : mengatakan apa yg anda tahu adalah benar, tdk mengataka apa yg anda tahu salah  Berbohong, membesar – besarka persoalan, meremehkan masalah utama, menyangsikan apa yg dikatakan

26 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon26 Maintaining Conversations Cooperation  Maxim of Relation  Talk About What is Relevant to the conversation  Violate : Digress widely, frequently interject irrelevant comment Maxim of Manner  Be Clear, Avoid Ambiguities,brief,organize your thoughts a meaningfull sequence  Use terms that listener understand  Clarify terms Microsoft Image

27 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon27  Membicaraka apa yg relevan dengan percakapan  Digunakan oleh org yg menyimpang dr pokok pembicaraan, menyelipkan komentar yg tidak relevan  Maxim manner : jelas, hindari kerancuan, penerangan secara rinci, sistematis, urutan logis, gunakan istilah yg mudah dipahami, menjelaskan istilah yg tdk dipahami  Maxim bervariasi dari satu budaya ke budaya lain  Jepang tdk pantas memperdebatkan & menunjukkan secara langsung kesalahan org lain -  buruk, kehilangan muka, rasa malu  Cina  mencemarkan diri sendiri, jika menunjukkan penghargaan diri sendiri/ reputasi yg baik -  merendahkan diri -  bentuk kesopanan

28 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon28 The Principle of Dialogue  Monologue  One Person Speaks, Other Listens  No Real Interaction  Dialogue  Two-Way Interaction  Concern for Other and Relationship

29 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon29 Maintaining Conversations Turn-Taking  Speaker Cues  Turn Maintaining  Turn Yielding  Listener Cues  Turn Requesting  Turn Denying  Back-Channeling

30 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon30  Turn maintaining : membantu menjaga stabilitas peran anda sbg pembicara, memilih berbagai macam isyarat : dapat didengar, menarik nafas menunjukan bhw anda ingin berkata lebih, memelihara pola intonasi, makna bhw anda bermaksud mengatakan lebih  Turn yielding : memberitahu pendengar bhw anda tlh menyelesaikan & berharap mempertukarkan peran sbg pembicara/pendengar  Paralingustik, dropping intonation, kebungkaman yg lama, kontak mata langsung.

31 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon31  Listener cues : mengatur percakapan  Turn requesting: membiarkan pembicara tahu bhw anda bertujuan sbg pembicara -  sy ingin mengatakan sesuatu  Turn denying : enggan mengambil alih peran pembicara, bicara sepintas lalu -  sy tdk tahu  Back-channeling: mengomunikasikan berbagai tipe informasi balik ke pembicara tanpa pernyataan tanda -  ujaran: mm, uh, yeah  Suportive, menegaskan, terlibat & mendengar dlm interaksi  Indikasi setuju/tdk : senyum, komentar, vokal  Indikasi tingkat keterlibatan  Klarifikasi : kata seru langsung : when, what,dll

32 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon32 Conversational Management Closing  Reflect Back  State Desire to End Conversation  Refer to Future Interaction  Ask for Closure  State that You Enjoyed the Conversation Microsoft Image

33 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Closing  Mengacu pada percakapan sebelumnya dan merangkum secara ringkas  Keinginan mengakhiri percakapan & mendapat sesuatu yg lain -  sy ingin melanjutkan percakapan tapi.....  Berbicara ttg interaksi yad -  kenapa kita tdk bersama mg depan utk melanjutkan diskusi  Meminta penutup : menjelaskan apa yg ingin anda ketahui  Nyatakan bhw anda menikmati percakapan. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon33

34 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon34 Organizational communications Formal Communication  Up ward communication : consist of message sent from the lower levels of hierarcy to the upper levels  From line worker to manager  Job-related activities & problem,ideas for change & suggestions for improvement; feeling about organizations, etc  Down ward communication: consist of messages from the higher levels to the lower levels of the hierarchy  Explanations of procedures, goal of procedures, changes, appraisal of workers

35 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon35  The Grapevine: formal organization messages, concern job-related issues--- the grapevine addresses topics that you wan discusses in interpersonal setting  Estimates of accurate ranging from: 75 – 95 %  More accurete than management’s formal messages. INFORMAL CONVERSATION

36 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon36 Gossip and Grapevine  Gossip  Talk About Third Party Not Present  Cultural Rules  The Grapevine  Grows as Organization Grows  Most Likely Important Subjects  Part of Effective Business Communication

37 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon37 Conversational Problems Prevention The Disclaimer  Hedging  Credentialing  Sin Licenses  Cognitive Disclaimer  Suspension of Judgment Microsoft Image

38 Chapter 9: Messages and Conversation Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon38 Conversational Problems Repair The Excuse  Motives for Excuses  Types of Excuses  Good and Bad Excuses Microsoft Image

39 The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed.


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