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Risk Management Control Audit INTRODUCTION TO FRAUD EXAMINATION Prepared by : Dr. Sudarwan, Ak., MAcc,. CIA., CCSA CEO PT. CENTRIA RESEARCH & ADVISORY.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Risk Management Control Audit INTRODUCTION TO FRAUD EXAMINATION Prepared by : Dr. Sudarwan, Ak., MAcc,. CIA., CCSA CEO PT. CENTRIA RESEARCH & ADVISORY."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Risk Management Control Audit INTRODUCTION TO FRAUD EXAMINATION Prepared by : Dr. Sudarwan, Ak., MAcc,. CIA., CCSA CEO PT. CENTRIA RESEARCH & ADVISORY

3 Risk Management Control Audit Agenda HARISESIMATERIKETERANGAN IIUNDERSTANDING FRAUDSLIDE IIUNDERSTANDING FRAUDSLIDE IIIFRAUD SYMPTOMSLIDE IVFRAUD AUDITINGSLIDE IIIFRAUD CLASIFICATIONSLIDE IIMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTIONSLIDE 47 - DST IIIMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTION IVMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTION IIIIMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTION IIMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTION IIIMODUS OPERANDI, DETECTION & PREVENTION IVFRAUD DETECTION TECHNIQUE

4 Risk Management Control Audit Fraud (Kecurangan)

5 Risk Management Control Audit Definisi Fraud Fraud adalah suatu tindakan melawan hukum yang meliputi, pencurian, penyalah gunaan kedudukan, perekayasaan suatu fakta atau informasi, pelanggaran ikatan perjanjian dan penyalah gunaan aset, dengan maksud menipu dan merugikan pihak lain serta menguntungkan pelaku atau pihak lain yang terkait dengan pelaku.

6 Risk Management Control Audit Unsur-unsur Fraud terdapat salah saji (misrepresentation) masa lampau (past) atau sekarang (present) fakta bersifat material (material fact) kesengajaan atau tanpa perhitungan (make-knowingly or recklessly) dengan maksud (intent) adanya pihak yang dirugikan dari salah saji tersebut menimbulkan kerugian. menguntungkan pelaku atau pihak lain yang terkait dengan pelaku

7 Risk Management Control Audit Klasifikasi Fraud 1. Tindak kecurangan atas Laporan Keuangan (Financial Statement Fraud), 2. Tindak kecurangan atas penyalahgunaan aset (Asset Missapropriation), 3. Korupsi, yang dalam konteks ini jauh lebih luas dari pengertian korupsi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam UU No. 31/1999 (termasuk penyempurnaannya).

8 Risk Management Control Audit Pelaku dan sarananya Ditinjau dari sudut pelaku dan sarana yang dipergunakan tindak kecurangan dapat mencakup: –Pelaku: Internal: –Manajemen –Staf/non manajemen Eksternal –Mitra kerja –Pelanggan –Pihak luar yang tidak terkait hubungan bisnis –Sarana: Konvensional Cyber Fraud

9 Risk Management Control Audit Penyebab Fraud FRAUD TRIANGLE PRESSURE OPPORTUNITYRATIONALISATION

10 Risk Management Control Audit PRESSURE Financial Pressures Vice Work Related Pressures Other Pressures

11 Risk Management Control Audit Financial Pressures Greed Living beyond one’s means High personal debt High medical bills Poor credit Personal financial losses Unexpected financial losses

12 Risk Management Control Audit Vice Gambling Drugs Alcohol Expensive life style

13 Risk Management Control Audit Work Related Little recognation for job performance Feeling of job satisfaction Fearing of losing one’s job Being overlooked for a promotion Feeling underpaid

14 Risk Management Control Audit Other Pressure Family/environment pressures Challenge to beat system

15 Risk Management Control Audit OPPORTUNITY Control Factor Noncontrol Factor

16 Risk Management Control Audit Control Factor Lack of control that prevent and/or detect fraudulent behavior : –Control environment –Risk assessment –Accounting/information system –Control procedures –Monitoring

17 Risk Management Control Audit Control Environtment Management role’s and examples Management communication Appropriate hiring Clear organization structure and assigned responsibility Effective internal audit departement

18 Risk Management Control Audit Risk Assessment Identification Measurement Prioritization Mitigation

19 Risk Management Control Audit Accounting System Recorded transaction are : –Valid –Properly authorized –Complete –Properly classified –Reported in proper period –Properly valued –Summarized correctly

20 Risk Management Control Audit Control Procedures Segregation of duties or dual custody System of authorization Independent checks Physical safeguards Documents and records

21 Risk Management Control Audit Monitoring Internal review: –Ongoing review –Periodical review External review: –External audit –Financial audit –Special audit –ISO audit

22 Risk Management Control Audit Noncontrol Factor Inability to judge quality of work Lack of disciplinary action Asymmetric information Ignorance and apathy No audit trail

23 Risk Management Control Audit RATIONALIZATION Common rationalization : The organization owes it to me I am only borrowing the money and will pay it back Nobody will get hurt I deserve more It’s for a good purpose Something has to be sacrified

24 Risk Management Control Audit Gejala Fraud (Fraud Symptom) Employee Management Investment

25 Risk Management Control Audit Employee Accounting anomalies Internal control weaknesses Analytical anomalies Extravagant lifestyle Unusual behavior Tips and complaints

26 Risk Management Control Audit Management Operating performaces anomalies Management characteristic that indicate possible motives Organization structure anomalies Irregularities in relationship with other parties

27 Risk Management Control Audit Invesment Numerous investment scams : Unreasionable promised rates of return Invesment that do not make sound business sense Pressure to get in early on investment Tax avoidance schemes Investment that not suiteable for your risk Pressure to put all your saving into a particular invesmet etc

28 Risk Management Control Audit Jenis, Korban dan Pelaku Fraud Jenis FraudKorbanPelakuPenjelasan/Contoh Pencurian oleh pekerja Pemberi kerjaPekerjaPekerja secara langsung atau tidak langsung mencuri dari pemberi kerja Kecurangan Manajemen Pemegang saham, pemberi pinjaman dan pihak lain yang mengandalkan poran keuangan Manajemen puncak Manajemen puncak menyajikan informasi yang salah pada laporan keuangan Scams InvestasiInvestorPerorangan/perus ahaan Perorangan mengelabui investor untuk menanamkan uangnya pada investasi yang tidak menguntungkan (Alam Raya) Kecurangan Pemasok Organisasi yang membeli barang atau jasa Organisasi atau individu Membebankan biaya yang tinggi atau tidak mengirim barang meskipun telah terjadi pembayaran Kecurangan Pembeli Organisasi yang menjual barang atau jasa PembeliPembeli membayar kuran dari yang seharusnya

29 Risk Management Control Audit Indikasi Perilaku Fraud Perilaku seseorang yang perlu mendapat perhatian kemungkinan adanya fraud: –Perubahan perilaku secara signifikan, misal menarik diri, tidak seperti biasanya, gaya hidup mewah. –Sedang mengalami trauma emosional di rumah atau tempat kerja –Penjudi berat –Peminum berat –Sedang dililit utang –Temuan audit atas kekeliruan (error) atau ketidakberesan (irregularities) dianggap tidak material ketika ditemukan –Bekerja tenang, bekerja keras, bekerja melampaui jam kerja, sering bekerja sendiri –Gaya hidup di atas rata-rata –Mobil atau pakaian mahal tetapi tidak sesuai pendapatannya.

30 Risk Management Control Audit Finansial Auditing dan Fraud Auditing

31 Risk Management Control Audit Financial Auditing Finansial Auditing adalah suatu proses dimana seorang yang kompeten dan independen mengumpulkan dan mengevaluasi bukti-bukti keuangan. (Joseph T Wells) Finansial auditing dimaksudkan untuk mengungkapkan penyimpangan-penyimpangan dan variances yang material dari standar-standar praktek auditing dan akuntansi yang lazim dan dapat digolongkan dalam pemeriksaan umum.

32 Risk Management Control Audit Fraud Auditing/Examiner Fraud Auditing merupakan suatu disiplin yang dipergunakan untuk menghambat, melihat dan mendokumentasikan penyimpangan-penyimpangan tersebut.

33 Risk Management Control Audit Carl Jung Taxonomy Left Hemisphere………… Right Hemisphere Sensation/ Thingking Financial Auditpr Intuition/ Thingking Fraud Auditor Sensation/ Feeling Teacher Intuition/ Feeling Artist

34 Risk Management Control Audit Overt vs Covert Aspect Finansial auditing memandang kejadian, transaksi dan lingkungan sehubungan dengan ‘overt aspect’ mereka Fraud auditing cenderung melihat kepada kejadian, transaksi dan lingkungan sehubungan dengan ‘covert aspect’ mereka

35 Risk Management Control Audit The Iceberg Theory of Fraud waterline Struktural consideration Behavioral consideration Overt Aspect Hierarchy Financial Resources Goal of organization Skill and abilities of personnel Technological State Performance standards Efficiency Measurement Covert Aspect Attitude Felling Values Norm Interaction Supportiveness Satisfaction

36 Risk Management Control Audit 13 Prinsip Fraud Auditing 1.Fraud Auditing lebih mengarah kepada pola pikir dari pada metodologi. 2.Fraud auditor fokus pada pengecualian, keanehan, ketidakberesan akuntansi, dan pola tingkah laku bukan pada kesalahan dan kelalaian 3.Fraud auditing biasanya dipelajari melalui pengalaman, bukan dari buku maupun kertas kerja yang lalu. 4.Dari perspektif fraud auditing, fraud adalah kesengajaan dalam menyajikan ‘fakta keuangan’ yang salah bukan ‘sesuatu yang material’ 5.Fraud dilakukan dengan alasan ekonomi, egosentris, idiologi dan psikologi 6.Fraud cenderung mencakup “theory structure around motive, opportunity, and benefit” 7.Fraud pada lingkungan akuntansi berbasis komputer, dapat dilakukan pada tiap tahapan proses (input, trouhput atau output) 8.Skema kecurangan yang dilakukan oleh level pekerja biasanya berhubungan dengan pengeluaran. 9.Skema kecurangan yang dilakukan oleh level manajer biasanya berhubungan dengan ‘profit smoothing’ (meningkatkan pendapatan). 10.Tipe ‘accounting fraud’ sering disebabkan oleh ketiadaan kontrol dibandingkan dengan kekurangan kontrol. 11.Kejadian fraud tidak berkembang secara eksponensial, tetapi dampaknya berkembang secara eksponensial. 12.Accounting fraud sering ditemukan secara tidak sengaja dibandingkan dengan yang melalui tujuan dan disaign finansial audit 13.Pencegahan fraud lebih mengarah pada kecukupan kontrol dan penciptaan lingkungan kerja yang memberikan nilai pada kejujuran personel dan perlakuan yang adil

37 Risk Management Control Audit Kualifikasi Fraud Auditor Auditor harus memahami standar (kriteria) yang digunakan. Auditor harus mempunyai pengetahuan tentang kemungkinan fraud dan dapat menghubungkan dengan berbagai segmen Sistem Akuntansi dan operasi bisnis. Auditor harus mengetahui cara/prosedur terbaik untuk menyelidiki suatu informasi yang belum/tidak mempunyai bukti/data pendukung. Auditor harus memperhatikan motivasi karyawan dan lingkungan kerja tempat karyawan beroperasi untuk menentukan, jika ada hal yang perlu diperhatikan. Auditor harus memiliki sensitifitas atas kemungkinan kecurangan, terutama sekali terhadap peluang terjadinya kecurangan. Auditor harus memperoleh bukti yang cukup untuk memastikan apakah benar telah terjadi kecurangan seperti yang diisukan atau diperkirakan.

38 Risk Management Control Audit Kompetensi Yang Harus Dimiliki Fraud Auditor Legal Organizational Audit Investigative Risk Management

39 Risk Management Control Audit Legal Criminal, civil and contactual fraud Theft and embezzlement Material and immaterial misrepresentation Error and irregularities Mistake and mistatement Conspiracies and individually repetrated fraud

40 Risk Management Control Audit Organizational Fraud commited or against the company Insider and outsider fraud Insiders in conspiracies with outsiders High level and low level employe fraud Longterm and shortterm performance criteria Fraud in high-trust and low-trust organization

41 Risk Management Control Audit Audit Internal and external auditor responsibilities Statement and transaction fraud Overstated and understated records On-book and off-book fraud Financial and fraud auditing ect

42 Risk Management Control Audit Investigative Compromising control and personel Motivation on fraud Detection and prevention of fraud Psycho-social characteristic

43 Risk Management Control Audit Risk Management Risk prevention, transfer and assumption High risk companies, industries, occupatios, personalities Red flags

44 Risk Management Control Audit JENIS-JENIS FRAUD DARI SISI AKUNTANSI Corporate Fraud Audit Failure Fraudulent Financial Reporting

45 Risk Management Control Audit Corporate Fraud Economic crime, biasanya dilakukan oleh pejabat,eksekutif, dan manajer pusat laba (profits centre managers) dan perusahaan publik untuk memuaskan kebutuhan ekonomis jangka pendek.

46 Risk Management Control Audit Audit Failure Suatu kegagalan audit merupakan risiko yang dihadapi oleh auditor berkaitan dengan kemungkinan pelaksanaan audit yang tidak memenuhi standar kualitas yang telah ditetapkan. Kegagalan audit akan mengakibatkan Kantor Akuntan Publik berhadapan dengan litigasi yang mahal dan kehilangan reputasi.

47 Risk Management Control Audit Frauddulent Financial Reporting Amerika serikat mendefinsikan Fraudulent Financial Reporting sebagai “intentional of reckless conduct, whether act or omission, that result in materially misleading financial statements”. Contoh kecurangan laporan keuangan antara lain: –Memanipulasi –Menyembunyikan pengaruh transaksi yang lengkap dari catatan/ dokumen. –Mencatat transaksi tanpa substansi –Salah menerapkan kebijakan akuntansi –Gagal mengungkapkan informasi yang signifikan.

48 Risk Management Control Audit TANDA-TANDA ADANYA FRAUD Fraud auditor harus jeli melihat tanda-tanda: Ada selisih antara saldo-saldo tahun ini dan sebelumnya Selisih buku besar dan buku tambahan Perbedaan yang terungkapkan dari hasil konfirmasi Transaksi yang tidak didukung oleh bukti yang memadai Transaksi yang tidak dicatat, baik yang khusus maupun yang umum Terdapat perbedaan kepentingan ( conflict of intrest )

49 Risk Management Control Audit OCCUPATIONAL FRAUD AND ABUSE Corruption Asset Misappropriation Fraudulent Statement

50 Risk Management Control Audit Summary Occupational Fraud And Abuse Fraud and Abuse

51 Risk Management Control Audit CORRUPTION Bribery Conflicts of interst Illegal Gratuities Economic extortion

52 Risk Management Control Audit Bribery Invoice kickback Bid rigging

53 Risk Management Control Audit Kickback Scheme Diverting business to vendor Overbilling schemes –Employess with approval authority –Fraudster lacking approval authority Slush fund

54 Risk Management Control Audit Kickback Modus Kickback-overbilling

55 Risk Management Control Audit Bid-rigging Scheme Can be catagorized based on stage of bidding The pre-solicitation phase –Need recognition schemes –Specification schemes The solicitation phase –Bid pooling –Fictitious suppliers –Other methods The submission phase –Preferential treatment

56 Risk Management Control Audit Bid-rigging Modus Bid rigging

57 Risk Management Control Audit Bribery Detection Red flags that may indicate that employee are involce in a bribery scheme : –General purchasing –Prebid solicitation –Bid solicitation –Bid or contrac acceptance –Behavior profile of bribery recipient

58 Risk Management Control Audit General purchasing Material ordered at optimal reorder point ? Made from the same vendor ? Establish bidding policies being followed ? Cost of material out of line ?

59 Risk Management Control Audit Prebid solicitation Tailoring specification and statement Using “prequalification” procedures to restrict competition Noncompetitive procurement justification Buyer provide to contractor information on a preferential basis Use information provide by contractor who will be permitted to bid Permitted consultant who assisted in preparing biding document Spitting cost into separate contract

60 Risk Management Control Audit Bid solicitation Limiting time for submission Revealing information to contractor Permit improper communication between contractor Failure to ensure a sufficient number of potential competitors Bid solicitations are vague Inadequate internal control over Improper communication by purchaser Financial interest by purchaser Assistance by purchaser etc

61 Risk Management Control Audit Bid or contract acceptance Restricting procurement to exclude any qualified contractor Improper acceptance of late bid Falsification of document Change in a bid after other bidder’s price known Withdrawal of low bidder who may become a subcontractor to the higher bidder who gets the contract Collution between bidders Revealing one bidder’s price to another False certification by contractor.

62 Risk Management Control Audit Behavior profile of bribery recipient A drug and/or alcohol addition Personal financial problems A gambling habit Extravagant lifestyle Loan shark or other private debt Family supported by the subject Extraordinary medical expense Significant cash expense for entertainment and/or travel

63 Risk Management Control Audit Bribery Prevention Bribery prevention policy A company policy that specifically addresses the problems and illegalities associated with bribery and related offense, such –Gift –Reporting gift –Discount –Business meeting

64 Risk Management Control Audit Conflicts of interst Purchase schames Sales schames Other schames

65 Risk Management Control Audit Purchase schames Over billing for Unique asset Turnaround sales

66 Risk Management Control Audit Sales schames Underbillings Writing off sales

67 Risk Management Control Audit Other schames Business diversions Resource diversions Financial disclosure

68 Risk Management Control Audit Conflict of Interest Modus purchase scames

69 Risk Management Control Audit Conflict of Interest Detection Method can be use : Tips and complaints Comparison of vendor addresses with employee addresses Review of vendor ownership Review of exit interviews and comparison of vendor addresses to addresses of subsequent employers Interviews of purchasing personnel for favorable treatment of one or more vendors

70 Risk Management Control Audit Conflict of Interest Prevention A policy that requiring employee to complete an annual disclosure statement of conflict of interest Communication with employee regarding their other business interest

71 Risk Management Control Audit Asset Misappropriation Cash Inventory and all Other Assets

72 Risk Management Control Audit CASH Skimming Cash larceny Faudulent disbursement

73 Risk Management Control Audit Skimming Schames Unrecorded sales Understated sales and receivables Theft of checks trough the mail Shorterm skimming

74 Risk Management Control Audit Skimming Schames Skimming scheme

75 Risk Management Control Audit Unrecorded sales Register manipulation Skimming during non business hours Skimming of “Off-site Sales” Poor collection procedures

76 Risk Management Control Audit Unrecorded sales Modus Unrecorded sales

77 Risk Management Control Audit Understated sales and receivables Difference between actual purchase price than cash register record Difference between actual purchase item than cash register record False discount

78 Risk Management Control Audit Understated sales and receivables Modus Understated sales

79 Risk Management Control Audit Theft of checks trough the mail Single employee is in charge of opening the mail and recording the receipt of payment Taking checks received in the mail, failling to record these check, and substituting them for collection of currency

80 Risk Management Control Audit Theft of checks trough the mail modus Theft of incomming checks

81 Risk Management Control Audit Shorterm skimming Converting Stolen Check Concealing the Fraud

82 Risk Management Control Audit Converting Stolen Check Dual endorsement False company account Altered payee designation Check for currency substitution

83 Risk Management Control Audit Concealing the Fraud Destroying or altering records of the transaction Concealing receivables skimming scheme –Lapping –Stolen statements –False account entries Debit accounts Debiting existing or fictitious accounts Writing off account balances –Inventory padding

84 Risk Management Control Audit Shorterm skimming modus Short Term Skim

85 Risk Management Control Audit Skimming Detection Some detection methods that may be effective in detecting skimming schames are : –Receipt or Sales Level detection –Check convertion detection –Journal entry review

86 Risk Management Control Audit Receipt or Sales Level detection Key analytical procedures, such vertical and horizontal analysis of sales account Ratio analysis Detail inventory control procedures

87 Risk Management Control Audit Check convertion detection Red flag arise when employee attempt to convert a stolen check. –Question of validity of the check –Dual endorsement is not allowed –Canceled checks with dual endoresement should be scutinized –A forget endorsement is discovered –Employee has opened a bank account with a name similar to the victim company –An alteration of check payee or endorsement is discovered –etc

88 Risk Management Control Audit Journal entry review Journal entry that should be exemine : False credit to inventory to conceal unrecorded or understated sales Other write-off of inventory for reason of lost, stolen or obsolete product Write-off of account receivable account Irregular entries to cash account

89 Risk Management Control Audit Skimming Prevention Received of sales level control Check conversion control General control Skimming controls

90 Risk Management Control Audit Received of sales level control Internal control procedures for received of sales Management communication to employee

91 Risk Management Control Audit Check conversion control Work in cooperatives effort with the bank Check tampering and convertion control

92 Risk Management Control Audit General control Poliy and procedures of general control of sales entry and general ledger access will cover: –Appropriate segregation of duties –Transaction must be properly record –Proper safeguard measures –Independent reconciliation

93 Risk Management Control Audit Skimming controls Red flag for detecting : Mail open by someone independent Delevey of unopened businiss mail prohibited to employee Lock box used Cash receipt pre number Check reconciliation Cash receipt deposit daily Employe who handle receipt bonded etc

94 Risk Management Control Audit Cash larceny Theft of cash from the register Other larceny of sales and receivables Cash larceny from the deposit

95 Risk Management Control Audit Theft of cash from the register Personal check Reversing transaction Altering cash counts Destroying register tapes

96 Risk Management Control Audit Theft of cash from the register modus Cash larceny from the register

97 Risk Management Control Audit Other larceny of sales and receivables Post all record but stolen the money received and : –Plan to pay the money back –Make unsupported entries –Destroy all the record

98 Risk Management Control Audit Other larceny of sales and receivables modus Other Cash Larceny

99 Risk Management Control Audit Cash larceny from the deposit Deposit lapping Deposit in transit

100 Risk Management Control Audit Cash larceny from the deposit modus Cash larceny from the deposit

101 Risk Management Control Audit Cash larceny detection Receipt recording Analytical review Register detection Cash account analysis

102 Risk Management Control Audit Receipt recording Depth analysis for : Mail and register receipt point Jounalizing and recording of receipt The security of the cash from receipt to deposit

103 Risk Management Control Audit Analytical review Analyzing relationship between sales, cost of sales and return and allowances can detect inappropriate refunds and discount.

104 Risk Management Control Audit Register detection Access to the register must be closely monitored Independent person for preparing register count sheet and aggreed them to register total Popular concealment methods must be watched for. Complete register documentation and cash etc

105 Risk Management Control Audit Cash account analysis Reviwing and analyzing all journal entries made to account cash

106 Risk Management Control Audit Cash larceny prevention Segregation of duties Assigment rotation and mandatory vacation Surprise cash count and procedures supervision Phisical security of cash

107 Risk Management Control Audit Fraudulent Disbursemet Check Tampering Register disbursement Billing Payroll Expense reimbursement

108 Risk Management Control Audit Check Tampering Forged maker schemes Forged endorsement schemes Altered payee schemes Concealed check schemes Authorized maker schames

109 Risk Management Control Audit Check Tampering check Tampering Schemes

110 Risk Management Control Audit Forged maker schemes Obtaining the check –Employee with accses to company checks –Employee lacking accses to company checks To whom is check made payable –To the perpetrator –To an accomplice –Payable to “cash” –Payable to vendor Forging the signature –Free hand forgery –Photocopied forgery –Authomatic check-signing instruments Miscoding fraudulent checks Converting the check

111 Risk Management Control Audit Forged maker modus Forged Maker Schemes

112 Risk Management Control Audit Forged endorsement schemes Intercepting check before delivery –Employee involve in delivery of check –Poor control of signed check –Theft of returned check –Re-routing the delivery of check Converting the stolen check

113 Risk Management Control Audit Forged endorsement modus Forged Endorsement Schemes

114 Risk Management Control Audit Altered payee schemes Altering check prepared by other : –Inserting a new payee –Taking on Altering check prepared by the fraudster : –Eresable ink –Blank check Converting altered check

115 Risk Management Control Audit Altered payee modus Altering Check

116 Risk Management Control Audit Concealed check schemes Employee prepares a fraudulent check and submits it Marker sign the check quickly and without adequate review

117 Risk Management Control Audit Concealed check modus Concealed Check

118 Risk Management Control Audit Authorized maker schames Overriding control through intimidation Poor control Special project account Tampering with signature card

119 Risk Management Control Audit Authorized maker modus Authorized Marker

120 Risk Management Control Audit Check Tampering Detection Account analysis through cut-off statement Bank reconciliation Bank confirmation Check tampering red flag –Voided check –Missing check –Check payablee to employee –Altered endorsement or dual endorsement –Return check –Altered payee –Duplicate check –etc

121 Risk Management Control Audit Check Tampering Prevention Check disbursement control Bank assisted control Phisical tampering prevention Check theft control procedures

122 Risk Management Control Audit Register disbursement False refund False Voids

123 Risk Management Control Audit False refund Fictitious refund Overstated refund Credit card refund

124 Risk Management Control Audit False refund modus False refund

125 Risk Management Control Audit False void Employee withold the customer’s receipt at the time of sales.

126 Risk Management Control Audit False void modus False Void

127 Risk Management Control Audit Register disbursement detection Fictitious refund and void sales –Closely examine the documentation submitted with cash receipt Register schame red flag –Inapropriate employee segregation –Cashier have acces to control key –Register refund not methodically review –Personal check from cashier found in register –Missing register tapes –Inventory total appear forced

128 Risk Management Control Audit Register disbursement prevention Review the segregation of duty Access to register must be closely Maintain supervisor near area of the cash register Review supporting document for void and refund Review the numerical sequence and completeness of cash register tapes

129 Risk Management Control Audit Billing Invoicing via shell companies Invoicing via nonaccomplice vendor Personal purchase with company funds

130 Risk Management Control Audit Invoicing via shell companies Forming a shell company Submitting false invoices Self approval of fraudulent invoices “Rubber stamps” supervisors Reliance on false document Collusion Purchase of service rather than goods Pass-through schemes

131 Risk Management Control Audit Invoicing via shell companies modus False Billing from Shell Companies

132 Risk Management Control Audit Invoicing via non-accomplice vendor

133 Risk Management Control Audit

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135

136 Fraudulent Statement Financial Non-financial

137 Risk Management Control Audit  ANALISIS TREND  PENGUJIAN KHUSUS ATAS KEGIATAN YG BERESIKO TINGGI  ANALISIS VARIANCE (EXCEPTIONAL ANALYSIS)  RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS  PELAKU POTENSIAL ( Melalui pemeriksaan atas catatan pembukuan gejala manipulasi dpt diidentifikasikan) ( Jika seseorang bekerja pada suatu jabatan ttt, tindakan negatif apa yg dpt dilakukan ?) TEKNIK MENDETEKSI FRAUD:

138 Risk Management Control Audit TEKNIK MENDETEKSI KECURANGAN: CRITICAL POINT AUDITING: -teknik dimana melalui pemeriksaan atas catatan pembukuan, gejala suatu manipulasi dapat diidentifikasikan -hasilnya berupa gejala atau kemungkinan terjadinya kecurang an yg pada gilirannya mengarah kepada penyelidikan yang lebih rinci -semakin akurat dan komprehensif suatu catatan, semakin e- fektif teknik ini dlm mengetahui gejala kecurangan -pendeteksian yg lazim dilakukan dgn teknik ini adalah: * Analisis Trend * Pengujian Khusus terhadap kegiatan-kegiatan yg memiliki re- siko tinggi seperti: pembelian, penjualan dan pemasaran, persediaan

139 Risk Management Control Audit JOB SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS (JSA)  Didasarkan pada suatu asumsi bhw bila seseorang/sekelompok karyawan bekerja pada posisi tertentu, peluang/tindakan negatif (kecurangan) apa saja yang dapat dilakukan  Teknik ini merupakan analisis dengan resiko kecurangan dari sudut “PELAKU POTENSIAL”  Hal-hal yg perlu dilakukan dlm menggunakan teknik ini adalah: * metode pendekatan: - mengidentifikasikan semua posisi pekerjaan dengan mengamati: struktur organisasi, uraian tugas, manual dan formulir yang ada, dan pendelegasian wewenang - menyiapkan analisis setiap pejabat * pengawasan rutin (utk mempersulit pelaku kejahatan menjalankan operasinya * karakter pribadi seperti kekayaan yg tidak dapat dijelaskan, pola hidup mewah, pegawai yg sering merasa kecewa/tidak puas, sifat egois dari karyawan, karyawan yg sering mengabaikan instruksi, karyawan yang merasa dianggap paling penting * Tindak Lanjut: hasil analisis akan memberikan gambaran ttg jenis peker- jaan mana yang beresiko tinggi dan metode fraud yg bagaimana yg se baiknya diterapkan

140 Risk Management Control Audit THEFT ACT INVESTIGATE METHOD:  Surveilance & Copert Operation (Pengamatan thp op. perush)  Invigilation (Kewaspadaan )  Physical Evidence CONCEALMENT INVESTIGATE METHOD: (Penyembunyian)  Document Examination  A u d i t  Computer Searches  Physical Asset Count CONVERSION INVESTIGATIVE METHOD:  Public Record Searches  Net Worth Analysis INQUIRY INVESTIGATIVE METHODS:  Interviewing & Interogation  Honestly Testing

141 Risk Management Control Audit EVIDENCE SQUARE TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE PERSONAL OBSERVATION


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