Constitution’s Preamble WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a [SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation]; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Preambule Konstitusi India KAMI, RAKYAT INDIA, dengan kesungguhan hati telah memutuskan untuk mengangkat Indiake dalam REPUBLIK BERDAULAT, SOSIALIS, SEKULER, dan DEMOKRATIS dan menjamin segenap warganegaranya: KEADILAN, sosial, ekonomi dan politik; KEBEBASAN berpikir, berpendapat, kepercayaan, iman, dan ibadah; KESETARAAN kedudukan dan kesempatan; dan mengembangkan semuanya PERSAUDARAAN yang menjamin martabat perseorangan serta persatuan dan kesatuan; DALAM MAJELIS KONSTITUANTE KAMI tanggal 26 November 1949, DENGAN INI KAMI MENYETUJUI, MENGUNDANGKAN, DAN MEMBERIKAN KONSTITUSI INI PADA KAMI SENDIRI.
Source of India Constitution US Constitution Central government, federal system and independence yudicial system. Irlandia Constitution Main duty. UK Constitution Parliamentary system. Spirit of Constitution: Western democracy, federalism, human rights from 1978 France Revolution and 1776 American Revolution.
Structure of Indian Government Executive Legislative Judicative
Executive The president of the republic is the head of state and supreme commander of the military forces but exercises the executive power only formally. The president is elected to a five-year term by an electoral college composed of the elected members of both houses of the national Parliament and of the lower houses of the state legislatures. The prime minister is appointed by the president and must be able to command majority support in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament. The prime minister is responsible to the Lok Sabha, which may force the prime minister from office at any time by demonstrating the lack of majority support for him.
Legislative The Indian Parliament is bicameral. The more important lower house is called the Lok Sabha, or “house of the people.” It has 543 members directly elected from single- member district constituencies based on population and two seats filled by nomination. Elections are normally held at five-year intervals. The upper house of Parliament is the Rajya Sabha, or “council of the states.” It has 250 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the president from among Indians distinguished in the arts and professions. The two houses of Parliament have the same power over ordinary legislation; both must pass bills in agreed form. However, money bills may be introduced only in the Lok Sabha, and the Rajya Sabha has only the power of delay.
Judicative At the apex of an integrated national judicial system is the Supreme Court of India. It consists of a chief justice and not more than 25 other judges appointed by the president. Judges of the Supreme Court serve until they reach the age of 65, unless removed by an elaborate and difficult parliamentary procedure.