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Perkembangan Kesusastraan Cina (1). Periodisasi Sastra Cina 1.Sastra masa dinasti 2.Sastra moderen.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Perkembangan Kesusastraan Cina (1). Periodisasi Sastra Cina 1.Sastra masa dinasti 2.Sastra moderen."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Perkembangan Kesusastraan Cina (1)

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3 Periodisasi Sastra Cina 1.Sastra masa dinasti 2.Sastra moderen

4 1. Sastra Masa Dinasti -Awal Kesusastraan di Cina Prasejarah dan D. Xia 夏 (abad SM), D.Shang 商 (Abad SM) -Sastra masa Zhou 周 (Abad SM), Qin 秦 ( SM), Han 漢 (206 SM – 220 M) -Sastra masa Sui 隋 ( ), Tang 唐 ( ) -Sastra masa Song 宋 ( ) -Sastra masa Yuan 元朝 (1206/ ) Ming 明朝 ( ) -Sastra masa Qing 清朝 ( )

5 Awal Kesusastraan di Cina Prasejarah dan D. Xia 夏 (abad SM), D.Shang 商 (Abad SM)  jiaguwen ( 甲骨文 ) : inskripsi pada tempurung kura-kura, berisi ramalan  Mitologi: Nuwa, Panku, dll

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8 Sastra masa Zhou 周 (Abad 11 SM SM) 5 Klasika ( 五经 )  Shu Jing ( 书经 ) Kitab Sejarah  Shi Jing ( 诗经 ) Kitab Puisi  Yi Jing ( 易经 ) Kitab Ramalan  Chun Qiu ( 春秋 ) Kitab Musim Semi  Li Ji ( 礼记 ) Kitab Aturan 4 Kitab ( 四书 )  Daxue 大学  Meng Zi 孟子  Zhong Yong 中甬  Lun Yu 论语 Konfusius

9  Daoisme (daojia 道家 )  Daodejing 道德經, Laozi 老 子  Seni Berperang (sunzi bingfa 孙子兵法 ) olehSun Tzu Lao Zi Sun Zi

10 Qin 秦 ( SM)  Qin Shihuangdi 秦 始皇帝  Changcheng 長城  Pembakaran karya-karya kanon

11 Han 漢 (206 SM – 220 M)  Buku-buku catatan sejarah  Shiji( 史记 ) oleh Sima Qian ( SM) Sima Qian

12 Tang 唐 ( )  Puisi  Libai (lipo), Du Fu, Wang Wei, Meng Haoran

13 Libai  月下獨酌 花間一壺酒, 獨酌無相親; 舉杯邀明月, 對影成三人。 月既不解飲, 影徒隨我身; 暫伴月將影, 行樂須及春。 我歌月徘徊, 我舞影零亂; 醒時同交歡, 醉後各分散。 永結無情遊, 相期邈雲漢。 Li Bai  DRINKING ALONE WITH THE MOON From a pot of wine among the flowers I drank alone. There was no one with me -- Till, raising my cup, I asked the bright moon To bring me my shadow and make us three. Alas, the moon was unable to drink And my shadow tagged me vacantly; But still for a while I had these friends To cheer me through the end of spring.... I sang. The moon encouraged me. I danced. My shadow tumbled after. As long as I knew, we were boon companions. And then I was drunk, and we lost one another....Shall goodwill ever be secure? I watch the long road of the River of Stars.

14 Dufu  杜甫  贈衛八處士 人生不相見, 動如參與商, 今夕復何夕? 共此燈燭光。 少壯能幾時? 鬢髮各已蒼。 訪舊半為鬼, 驚呼熱中腸。 焉知二十載, 重上君子堂。 昔別君未婚, 兒女忽成行; 怡然敬父執, 問我來何方。 問答乃未已, 驅兒羅酒漿。 夜雨剪春韭, 新炊間黃粱。 主稱會面難, 一舉累十觴; 十觴亦不醉, 感子故意長。 明日隔山岳, 世事兩茫茫。  Du Fu  TO MY RETIRED FRIEND WEI It is almost as hard for friends to meet As for the morning and evening stars. Tonight then is a rare event, Joining, in the candlelight, Two men who were young not long ago But now are turning grey at the temples....To find that half our friends are dead Shocks us, burns our hearts with grief. We little guessed it would be twenty years Before I could visit you again. When I went away, you were still unmarried; But now these boys and girls in a row Are very kind to their father's old friend. They ask me where I have been on my journey; And then, when we have talked awhile, They bring and show me wines and dishes, Spring chives cut in the night-rain And brown rice cooked freshly a special way....My host proclaims it a festival, He urges me to drink ten cups -- But what ten cups could make me as drunk As I always am with your love in my heart?...Tomorrow the mountains will separate us; After tomorrow-who can say?

15 Wang Wei  王維  送別 下馬飲君酒, 問君何所之? 君言不得意, 歸臥南山陲。 但去莫復聞, 白雲無盡時。聞  Wang Wei  AT PARTING I dismount from my horse and I offer you wine, And I ask you where you are going and why. And you answer: "I am discontent And would rest at the foot of the southern mountain. So give me leave and ask me no questions. White clouds pass there without end."

16 Sastra masa Song 宋 ( ) Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio ( 聊斋志异 ), oleh Pú Sōnglíng ( 蒲松龄 )

17 Sastra masa Yuan 元朝 (1206/ )  Drama  Cikal bakal Opera Peking (mulai pada masa Tang)

18 Sastra masa Qing 清朝 ( )  Si Da Ming Zhu 四大名著  Impian Bilik Merah ( 红楼梦 hong lou meng, dikenal A Dream of Red Mansions atau The Story of the Stone and The Chronicles of the Stone, 石头记 Shítóu Jì), oleh Cáo Xuěqín ( 曹 雪芹 )  Batas Air ( 水浒传 Shui Hu Chuan dikenal All Men Are Brothers and Outlaws of the Marsh), oleh Shī Nài'ān ( 施耐庵 )  Roman Tiga Negara ( 三国演义 sanguo yanyi) oleh Luó Guànzhōng 罗贯中  Perjalanan ke Barat ( 西游记 xi you ji), dikenal Monkey King and Monkey, oleh Wú Chéng'ēn ( 吴承恩 )

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21 Karya lain Jin Ping Mei atau Golden Lotus( 金瓶 梅 ), oleh Lánlíng Xiàoxiàoshēng ( 兰 陵笑笑生 ) Ru Lin Wai Shi atau The Scholars( 儒林外史 ), oleh Wú Jìngzǐ ( 吳 敬梓 )

22 Kesusastraan Cina Masa Dinasti Fungsi: -Mencapai tujuan moral, sosial, dan politik -Pragmatik dan didaktik (berhubungan dengan Taois, Konfusianis, Budhis) Prinsip dasar sastra tradisional Cina: 1. Wenshi bu fen 文史不分 (sastra dan sejarah tidak terpisahkan) 2. Shiyanzhi 诗言志 (puisi mengungkapkan maksud) 3. Wenyizaidao 文艺在道 (sastra sbg wahana Dao)

23 2. Sastra Moderen  Era Republik ( )  Gerakan Kebudayaan Baru ( ) Hu Shi ( 胡適 ) ( ) dan Chen Duxiu ( 陳獨秀 ) ( ) mengatakan bahwa “bahasa yang mati tidak dapat menghasilkan sastra yang hidup”. Penggunaan bahasa sehari-hari, meninggalkan bahasa klasik  Gerakan 4 Mei 1918  Lu Xun 魯迅 ( )  Guo Moruo 郭沫若 ( )  Mao Dun 茅盾 ( )  Ba Jin 巴金 ( )  Lao She 老舍 ( )  Ding Ling 丁玲 ( )

24 Era Mao  Pidato Mao Zedong di Yan An (2 Mei 1949) : tentang Sastra dan Seni  Masa Revolusi Kebudayaan ( )  Sastra propaganda  Drama (gadis berambut putih 白毛女 ; Bái Máo Nǚ )

25 Era Tahun 80-an  朦胧诗 Puisi Gelap  Bei Dao ( 北岛 ; Běi Dǎo , Zhao Zhenkai ( 趙振開 )

26 回答  卑鄙是卑鄙者的通行证,  高尚是高尚者的墓志铭,  看吧,在那镀金的天空,  飘满了死者弯曲的倒影。  冰川纪过去了,  为什么到处都是冰凌?  好望角发现了,  为什么死海里千帆相竞?  我来到这个世界上,  只带着纸、绳索和身影,  为了在审判之前,  宣读那些被判决的声音。  告诉你吧,世界 我 -- 不 -- 相 -- 信! 纵使你脚下有一千名挑战者, 那就把我算作第一千零一名。 我不相信天是蓝的, 我不相信雷的回声, 我不相信梦是假的, 我不相信死无报应。 如果海洋注定要决堤, 就让所有的苦水都注入我心中, 如果陆地注定要上升, 就让人类重新选择生存的峰顶。 新的转机和闪闪星斗, 正在缀满没有遮拦的天空。 那是五千年的象形文字, 那是未来人们凝视的眼睛。

27 The Answer Baseness is the secret knock of the base Integrity the epitaph of the noble Look how the gilded sky drifts full of The inverted crooked reflections of the dead The ice age has past, So why are there icicles everywhere? The Cape of Good Hope has been discovered Why do a thousand sails contend for the Dead Sea? I came into this world Carrying only paper, rope, a silhouette To speak aloud before the trial A voice that has already been judged I tell you, world I—do—not—believe! If a thousand challengers lie trampled beneath your feet Count me as number one thousand and one. I don't believe the sky is blue I don't believe in thunder's echoes I don't believe that dreams are false I don't believe in death without retribution If the sea is destined to breach the dykes Let all the water of bitterness flow into my heart If the land is destined to rise up Let humanity choose a new summit for existence again. A new turning point and flickering stars Embroidered now across the unobstructed heavens These are the pictographs of five thousand years These are the staring eyes of future generations. --Bei Dao

28  伤痕文学, shānghén wénxué Sastra Luka  Liu Xinwu “ 班主任 ” The Class Teacher  Tokoh-Tokoh: Wang Meng, Chen Dong Dong, Bei Dao, Xue Di, Wang Xiao Ni, dll


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