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Oleh : Prof. Dr. Ir. Sri Kumalaningsih, M. App. Sc.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Oleh : Prof. Dr. Ir. Sri Kumalaningsih, M. App. Sc."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Oleh : Prof. Dr. Ir. Sri Kumalaningsih, M. App. Sc.

3  IKAN LEMURU IKAN PELAGIS (IKAN YG HIDUP DI PERAIRAN PANTAI) POTENSI BESAR SBG PRODUK AWETAN  UKURAN RELATIF KECIL, HARGA MURAH, KADAR LEMAK & PROTEIN CUKUP TINGGI Komposisi Ikan Lemuru (per 100 gram bagian dapat dimakan) KOMPONEN JUMLAH (GRAM) PROTEIN18,7 LEMAK12,2 AIR64,3 KARBOHIDRAT1,7 ABU3,1

4 Ditimbang Disortasi Digunting Dicuci Dimasak dan Diexhausting Ditiris Diisi Saus Diberi Head Space Ditutup Dicuci Disterilisasi Didinginkan Pengepakan Penggudangan Ikan Lemuru Kepala, isi perut, ekor 100 o C, 15’ Minyak dan air 5-7 X 116 o C, 0,8 kg/cm 2 ; 90’

5  Bahan baku ikan lemuru dari Pasuruan (Probolinggo, Muncar, Grajagan, Puger, dan Sampang)  Ikan Lemuru : kulit tidak terkelupas, tidak pecah perut, bau segar, tekstur daging kenyal, mata jernih dan cembung, insang merah, ukuran ikan 17-23, kadar garam kurang dari 5%  Pendinginan ikan dengan es dan garam di Fiber Box suhu 0-2,5 o C

6 PENIMBANGAN IKAN LEMURU DITIMBANG, DIPOTONG ± 5% DARI BERAT IKAN DIKUMPULKAN DALAM 1 KERANJANG

7  TUJUAN : MENGHILANGKAN DARAH & KOTRAN, MENGURANGI JUMLAH MIKROBA  MESIN YANG DIGUNAKAN : ROTARY WASHER  AIR YG DIALIRKAN MASUK DAN KELUAR SECARA KONTINU SELAMA PROSES

8  Ikan dimasukkan ke dalam kaleng ukuran 202 x 308 (3-4 ekor ikan / 125 gram)  Cara pengisian berselang seling untuk saos  Diletakkan di atas talam

9  Precooking atau pemasakan pendahuluan  Mematangkan daging  Menginaktifkan enzim  Membunuh mikroba patogen  Mengurangi kadar air EXHAUST BOX 100 o c; 15’ TUJUAN

10 EXHAUSTING  PROSES PENGELUARAN / PENGHAMPAAN UDARA DAN GAS DARI DALAM BAHAN MAUPUN KALENG SETELAH MENGALAMI STERILISASI DAN PENDINGINAN MENJADI LEBIH KECIL DARIPADA TEKANAN UDARA LUAR  TUJUAN : UNTUK MENCEGAH TERJADI KERUSAKAN BAHAN / KALENG KARENA OKSIDASI

11 PENIRISAN TUJUAN : MEMBUANG CAIRAN (AIR, MINYAK, PROYEIN TERLARUT DALAM AIR)YG DIHASILKAN SAAT PEMASAKAN

12 PENGISIAN SAUS TUJUAN : MEMBERI RASA, MEMPERPENDEK PROSES STERILISASI, MENGURANGI KEMUNGKINAN KALENG BAGIAN DALAM BERKARAT AIR DIPANASKAN DIDINGINKAN PASTA TOMAT DIPANASKAN DIPOMPA DISALURKAN DIADUK PASTA BUMBU (BWG PTH, GULA, CABE, GARAM, & MSG) - STEAM 100 O C ; 15’ - TANGKI PENAMPUNGAN - PIPA PENGISIAN SAUS

13  TAHAP PENGADAAN RUANG KOSONG ( ±5 - 7%)  TUJUAN : MENGURANGI TEKANAN DALAM KALENG SELAMA PEMANSAN  KALENG BERISI SAUS CONVEYOR SEAMER

14 PENUTUPAN KALENG MENGGUNAKAN SAMBUNGAN GANDA (DOUBLE SEAM) MENGHASILKAN PENUTUPAN YG HERMITIS ANTARA BADAN KALENG & TUTUPNYA. PENTUPAN DILAKUKAN SAAT BAHAN MASIH PANASVAKUM

15  TUJUAN : KALENG BERSIH DARI KOTORAN & SISA SAUS YANG MENEMPEL  METODE : DENGAN PENYEMPROTAN AIR DAN PERENDAMAN DALAM AIR

16 1.MEMBUNUH MIKROBA & SPORA 2.MENONAKTIFKAN MIKROBA & SPORA TAHAN PANAS 3. PEMASAKAN ULANG 4. MELUNAKKAN DURI IKAN TUJUAN STERILISA SI RETORT 116 O c ; 90’ TEKANAN 0,8 kg/cm 2 Daya simpan 2 thn

17 PENDINGINAN RETORT DIMASUKKAN DALAM AIR TEKANAN DIPERKECIL & TUTUP RETORT DIBUKA SUHU KALENG SAAT KELUAR RETORT 40 O c  PERENDAMAN AIR BERTUJUAN UNTUK MENGEMBALIKAN KALENG YANG MENGGEMBUNG AKIBAT STERILISASI  PENDINGINAN BERTUJUAN MEMPERCEPAT PENURUNAN SUH & MENCEGAH OVER COOKING

18 PENGEPAKAN  DIMASUKKAN KOTAK KARTON (1 KOTAK 60 KALENG)  DIINKUBASI ± 1 MINGGU (U/ MENGETAHUI TERJADI PENGGEMBUNGAN / BAU BUSUK)  KOTAK KARTON DISEGEL DAN DISIMPAN (KEADAAN BAIK)

19  PENGGUDANGAN DENGAN SISTEM PALLETIZINGKOTAK KARTON DISUSUN & DITUMPUK PADA PALET BERDASAR TANGGAL PRODUKSIFIRST IN FIRST  PALET DIPINDAHKAN MENGGUNAKAN FORKLIFT

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23 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Moist Heat (Continued): u Pasteurization: Developed by Louis Pasteur to prevent the spoilage of beverages. Used to reduce microbes responsible for spoilage of beer, milk, wine, juices, etc. u Classic Method of Pasteurization: Milk was exposed to 65 o C for 30 minutes. u High Temperature Short Time Pasteurization (HTST): Used today. Milk is exposed to 72 o C for 15 seconds. u Ultra High Temperature Pasteurization (UHT): Milk is treated at 140 o C for 3 seconds and then cooled very quickly in a vacuum chamber. u Advantage: Milk can be stored at room temperature for several months.

24 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Dry Heat: Kills by oxidation effects. u Direct Flaming: Used to sterilize inoculating loops and needles. Heat metal until it has a red glow. u Incineration: Effective way to sterilize disposable items (paper cups, dressings) and biological waste. u Hot Air Sterilization: Place objects in an oven. Require 2 hours at 170 o C for sterilization. Dry heat is transfers heat less effectively to a cool body, than moist heat.

25 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Filtration: Removal of microbes by passage of a liquid or gas through a screen like material with small pores. Used to sterilize heat sensitive materials like vaccines, enzymes, antibiotics, and some culture media. u High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA): Used in operating rooms and burn units to remove bacteria from air. u Membrane Filters: Uniform pore size. Used in industry and research. Different sizes: u 0.22 and 0.45um Pores: Used to filter most bacteria. Don’t retain spirochetes, mycoplasmas and viruses. u 0.01 um Pores: Retain all viruses and some large proteins.

26 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Low Temperature: Effect depends on microbe and treatment applied. u Refrigeration: Temperatures from 0 to 7 o C. Bacteriostatic effect. R educes metabolic rate of most microbes so they cannot reproduce or produce toxins. u Freezing: Temperatures below 0 o C. u Flash Freezing: Does not kill most microbes. u Slow Freezing: More harmful because ice crystals disrupt cell structure. u Over a third of vegetative bacteria may survive 1 year. u Most parasites are killed by a few days of freezing.

27 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Dessication: In the absence of water, microbes cannot grow or reproduce, but some may remain viable for years. After water becomes available, they start growing again. Susceptibility to dessication varies widely: u Neisseria gonnorrhea: Only survives about one hour. u Mycobacterium tuberculosis: May survive several months. u Viruses are fairly resistant to dessication. u Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp.: May survive decades.

28 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Osmotic Pressure: The use of high concentrations of salts and sugars in foods is used to increase the osmotic pressure and create a hypertonic environment. Plasmolysis: As water leaves the cell, plasma membrane shrinks away from cell wall. Cell may not die, but usually stops growing. u Yeasts and molds: More resistant to high osmotic pressures. u Staphylococci spp. that live on skin are fairly resistant to high osmotic pressure.

29 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Radiation: Three types of radiation kill microbes: 1. Ionizing Radiation: Gamma rays, X rays, electron beams, or higher energy rays. Have short wavelengths (less than 1 nanometer). Dislodge electrons from atoms and form ions. Cause mutations in DNA and produce peroxides. Used to sterilize pharmaceuticals and disposable medical supplies. Food industry is interested in using ionizing radiation. Disadvantages: Penetrates human tissues. May cause genetic mutations in humans.

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31 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Radiation: Three types of radiation kill microbes: 2. Ultraviolet light (Nonionizing Radiation): Wavelength is longer than 1 nanometer. Damages DNA by producing thymine dimers, which cause mutations. Used to disinfect operating rooms, nurseries, cafeterias. Disadvantages: Damages skin, eyes. Doesn’t penetrate paper, glass, and cloth.

32 Physical Methods of Microbial Control: Radiation: Three types of radiation kill microbes: 3. Microwave Radiation: Wavelength ranges from 1 millimeter to 1 meter. Heat is absorbed by water molecules. May kill vegetative cells in moist foods. Bacterial endospores, which do not contain water, are not damaged by microwave radiation. Solid foods are unevenly penetrated by microwaves. Trichinosis outbreaks have been associated with pork cooked in microwaves.

33 Chemical Methods of Microbial Control Types of Disinfectants 1. Phenols and Phenolics: u Phenol (carbolic acid) was first used by Lister as a disinfectant. u Rarely used today because it is a skin irritant and has strong odor. u Used in some throat sprays and lozenges. u Acts as local anesthetic. u Phenolics are chemical derivatives of phenol u Cresols: Derived from coal tar (Lysol). u Biphenols (pHisoHex): Effective against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. Used in nurseries. Excessive use in infants may cause neurological damage. u Destroy plasma membranes and denature proteins. u Advantages: Stable, persist for long times after applied, and remain active in the presence of organic compounds.

34 Chemical Methods of Microbial Control Types of Disinfectants 2. Halogens: Effective alone or in compounds. A. Iodine: u Tincture of iodine (alcohol solution) was one of first antiseptics used. u Combines with amino acid tyrosine in proteins and denatures proteins. u Stains skin and clothes, somewhat irritating. u Iodophors: Compounds with iodine that are slow releasing, take several minutes to act. Used as skin antiseptic in surgery. Not effective against bacterial endospores. u Betadine u Isodine

35 Chemical Methods of Microbial Control Types of Disinfectants 2. Halogens: Effective alone or in compounds. B. Chlorine: u When mixed in water forms hypochlorous acid: Cl 2 + H 2 O >H+ + Cl-+ HOCl Hypochlorous acid u Used to disinfect drinking water, pools, and sewage. u Chlorine is easily inactivated by organic materials. u Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): Is active ingredient of bleach. u Chloramines: Consist of chlorine and ammonia. Less effective as germicides.

36 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 3. Alcohols: u Kill bacteria, fungi, but not endospores or naked viruses. u Act by denaturing proteins and disrupting cell membranes. u Evaporate, leaving no residue. u Used to mechanically wipe microbes off skin before injections or blood drawing. u Not good for open wounds, because cause proteins to coagulate. u Ethanol: Drinking alcohol. Optimum concentration is 70%. u Isopropanol: Rubbing alcohol. Better disinfectant than ethanol. Also cheaper and less volatile.

37 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 4. Heavy Metals: u Include copper, selenium, mercury, silver, and zinc. u Oligodynamic action: Very tiny amounts are effective. A. Silver: u 1% silver nitrate used to protect infants against gonorrheal eye infections until recently. B. Mercury u Organic mercury compounds like merthiolate and mercurochrome are used to disinfect skin wounds. C. Copper u Copper sulfate is used to kill algae in pools and fish tanks.

38 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 4. Heavy Metals: u Include copper, selenium, mercury, silver, and zinc. u Oligodynamic action: Very tiny amounts are effective. A. Silver: u 1% silver nitrate used to protect infants against gonorrheal eye infections until recently. B. Mercury u Organic mercury compounds like merthiolate and mercurochrome are used to disinfect skin wounds. C. Copper u Copper sulfate is used to kill algae in pools and fish tanks.

39 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 4. Heavy Metals: D. Selenium u Kills fungi and their spores. Used for fungal infections. u Also used in dandruff shampoos. E. Zinc u Zinc chloride is used in mouthwashes. u Zinc oxide is used as antifungal agent in paints.

40 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 5. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats): u Widely used surface active agents. u Cationic (positively charge) detergents. u Effective against gram positive bacteria, less effective against gram-negative bacteria. u Also destroy fungi, amoebas, and enveloped viruses. u Zephiran, Cepacol, also found in our lab spray bottles. u Pseudomonas strains that are resistant and can grow in presence of Quats are a big concern in hospitals. u Advantages: Strong antimicrobial action, colorless, odorless, tasteless, stable, and nontoxic. u Diasadvantages: Form foam. Organic matter interferes with effectiveness. Neutralized by soaps and anionic detergents.

41 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 6. Aldehydes: u Include some of the most effective antimicrobials. u Inactivate proteins by forming covalent crosslinks with several functional groups. A. Formaldehyde gas: u Excellent disinfectant. u Commonly used as formalin, a 37% aqueous solution. u Formalin was used extensively to preserve biological specimens and inactivate viruses and bacteria in vaccines. u Irritates mucous membranes, strong odor. u Also used in mortuaries for embalming.

42 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 6. Aldehydes: B. Glutaraldehyde: u Less irritating and more effective than formaldehyde. u One of the few chemical disinfectants that is a sterilizing agent. u A 2% solution of glutaraldehyde (Cidex) is: u Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, and viricidal in 10 minutes. u Sporicidal in 3 to 10 hours. u Commonly used to disinfect hospital instruments. u Also used in mortuaries for embalming.

43 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 7. Gaseous Sterilizers: u Chemicals that sterilize in a chamber similar to an autoclave. u Denature proteins, by replacing functional groups with alkyl groups. A. Ethylene Oxide: u Kills all microbes and endospores, but requires exposure of 4 to 18 hours. u Toxic and explosive in pure form. u Highly penetrating. u Most hospitals have ethylene oxide chambers to sterilize mattresses and large equipment.

44 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 8. Peroxygens (Oxidizing Agents): u Oxidize cellular components of treated microbes. u Disrupt membranes and proteins. A. Ozone: u Used along with chlorine to disinfect water. u Helps neutralize unpleasant tastes and odors. u More effective killing agent than chlorine, but less stable and more expensive. u Highly reactive form of oxygen. u Made by exposing oxygen to electricity or UV light.

45 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 8. Peroxygens (Oxidizing Agents): B. Hydrogen Peroxide: u Used as an antiseptic. u Not good for open wounds because quickly broken down by catalase present in human cells. u Effective in disinfection of inanimate objects. u Sporicidal at higher temperatures. u Used by food industry and to disinfect contact lenses. C. Benzoyl Peroxide: u Used in acne medications.

46 Chemical Methods of Control Types of Disinfectants 8. Peroxygens (Oxidizing Agents): D. Peracetic Acid: u One of the most effective liquid sporicides available. u Sterilant : u Kills bacteria and fungi in less than 5 minutes. u Kills endospores and viruses within 30 minutes. u Used widely in disinfection of food and medical instruments because it does not leave toxic residues.

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