2Kegagalan (Failure)Failure – ketidakmampuan untuk melakukan kerja dengan appropriate mannerEquipment / machine failure on production floor – worn out bearing, pump, pressure leaks, broken shaft, overheated machine etc.Equipment failure in office – failure of power supply, air- conditioned system, computer network, photocopy machineVehicle failure – brake, transmission, engine, cooling system
3Konsekuensi Permasalahan Mesin Masalah MesinDampak LangsungBiaya / Konsekuensi AkhirMalfunctionDeteriorasi mesinUmur mesin singkatKetidakefisienan mesinBiaya perbaikan tinggiVariabilitas outputScrap dan reworkBreakdownBahaya keselamatanCederaPekerja menganggurPersediaanFasilitas menganggurPenundaan jadwal
4Pemeliharaan (Maintenance) Semua aktivitas untuk memelihara fasilitas dan mesin serta peralatan bekerja dengan baik sehingga sistem dapat bekerja sebagaimana dimaksudkanMeliputi: servicing, repair, modification, overhaul, inspection and condition verificationIncrease availability of a systemKeep system’s equipment in working order
5Maintenance in Manufacturing Companies ElectronicAutomotivePetrochemicalsRefineryFurnitureCeramicsFood and beverages
6Tujuan PemeliharaanUpaya untuk memaksimalkan kinerja mesin dan peralatan secara efisien dan teraturPrevent breakdown or failuresMinimize production loss from failuresIncrease reliability of the operating systems
7Tujuan Dasar Pemeliharaan (Principle Objectives in Maintenance) Mencapai kualitas produk dan kepuasan pelanggan melalui adjusted and serviced equipmentMemaksimalkan usia pemakaian mesin dan peralatanMenjaga mesin dan peralatan aman dan mencegah bahaya keselamatanMeminimasi frekuensi dan lamanya interupsi atau gangguanMemaksimalkan kapasitas produksi – melalui utilisasi tinggi fasilitas
8Permasalahan dalam Pemeliharaan Kurangnya perhatian manajemen pada pemeliharaanRendahnya partisipasi accounting dalam analisis dan melaporkan berbagai jenis biayaKesulitan dalam menerapkan analisis kuantitatifKesulitan dalam mendapatkan estimasi waktu dan biaya untuk pekerjaan pemeliharaanKesulitan dalam pengukuran kinerja
9Maintenance Costs Cost to replace or repair Losses of output Delayed shipmentScrap and rework
10Tipe Pemeliharaan Reactive or Corrective Maintenance: Breakdown maintenanceReactive approach; dealing with breakdowns or problems when they occurProactive Maintenance:Preventive maintenanceProactive approach; reducing breakdowns through a program of lubrication, adjustment, cleaning, inspection, and replacement of worn parts
11Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance Perbaikan dilakukan setelah mesin dan peralatan rusak dan tidak dapat melakukan fungsinya secara normal lagiDapat dibenarkan untuk pabrik kecil dimana:Waktu kerusakan bersifat tidak kritis dan biaya perbaikan lebih rendah dari tipe pemeliharaan lainnyaAlasan keuangan untuk penjadwalan tidak ada
12Kerugian Corrective Maintenance Breakdown generally occurs inappropriate times leading to poor and hurried maintenanceExcessive delay in production & reduces outputFaster plant deteriorationIncreases chances of accidents and less safety for both workers and machinesMore spoilt materialsDirect loss of profit
13Scheduled Maintenance Scheduled maintenance is a stitch-in-time procedure and incorporatesinspectionlubricationrepair and overhaul of equipmentIf neglected can result in breakdownGenerally followed for:overhauling of machineschanging of heavy equipment oilscleaning of water and other tanks etc.
14Preventive Maintenance (PM) Prinsip – “Prevention is better than cure”Prosedur - Stitch-in-timeItlocates weak spots of machinery and equipmentprovides them periodic/scheduled inspections and minor repairs to reduce the danger of unanticipated breakdowns
15Candidates for Preventive Maintenance Frequency of FailureGood candidates have more normal distribution with low variabilityMean Time Between Failure (MTBF)
16Keuntungan PM Reduces break down and thereby down time Less odd-time repair and reduces over time of crewsGreater safety of workersLower maintenance and repair costsLess stand-by equipment and spare partsBetter product quality and fewer reworks and scrapsIncreases plant lifeIncreases chances to get production incentive bonus
17Kunci Keberhasilan Sistem PM Scheduling – Should be automated to the maximum extent possibleExecution – Should be done before the actual break down occurs.Priority should be given to preventive maintenance and a very aggressive program to monitor the schedule and ensure that the work is completed according to schedule should be in place. If the scheduling of PM isn’t sort out properly it could cost the firm a great deal in lost sales plus an inefficient PM program. Therefore, through automation we can make sure proper maintenance takes place in due time.Execution – Without proper execution, the PM program will not provide the desired results which would result in the same consequences as a failure in scheduling. This will be discussed in detail in the next slides.
18Execution The Bath Tub Model – Three stages of new parts Infant mortality stageA fairly long run stageWear out stageTraditional View according to Bath Tub Model – Replace components just before they entered wear out stageReliability specialists often describe the lifetime of a population of products using a graphical representation called the bathtub curve. The bathtub curve consists of three periods: an infant mortality period with a decreasing failure rate followed by a normal life period (also known as "useful life") with a low, relatively constant failure rate and concluding with a wear-out period that exhibits an increasing failure rate.
19Execution Traditional view says – Wear out stage = Increased rate of failure.Point to Ponder –Since, wear out stage represents increased rate of failure, wouldn’t it be plausible to execute the PM program at this stage?Earlier we discussed of the two conditions for considering a PM system one of which was to have a increasing rate of failure. So would it be practical to use a PM system every time a component has an increasing rate of failure?Give the trainees some time to think over. This is not a theoretical question but a practical implication of PM. Theoretically, every time there is an increasing rate of failure it would be best to use PM. But would it be so practically?
20Fokus PM Cleaning Found through testing Lubrication and inspection And correcting deficienciesIn order for a successful PM system, the system should focus mainly on cleaning, lubrication and correcting deficiencies that are found through testing and inspecting the equipment. Without proper testing and inspection, it would not be possible to decide whether to implement a PM program or when to implement it. For cost reduction purposes and efficiency of the program, it’s vital to keep the predetermined part replacement to a minimal and done only where statistical evidence clearly points out wear-out characteristics. If the components are not yet in a wear-out stage its best to continue with a PM system to extract the maximum life from it given that the component has an increasing failure rate and the cost of PM is less than corrective control.Predetermined parts replacement should be minimal and done only where statistical evidence clearly indicates wear-out characteristics
21Predictive (Condition-based) Maintenance In predictive maintenance, machinery conditions are periodically monitored and this enables the maintenance crews to take timely actions, such as machine adjustment, repair or overhaulIt makes use of human sense and other sensitive instruments, such asaudio gauge, vibration analyzer, amplitude meter, pressure, temperature and resistance strain gauges etc.
22Predictive Maintenance (Contd.) Unusual sounds coming out of a rotating equipment predicts a troubleAn excessively hot electric cable predicts a troubleSimple hand touch can point out many unusual equipment conditions and thus predicts a trouble
27Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Komitmen untuk melakukan pemeliharaan melebihi preventive and predictive maintenance.Semua pekerja terlibat dalam pemenuhan kepuasan pelanggan, dimana pelanggan didefinisikan sebagai tahapan berikut dari sebuah prosesSuatu kerusakan mesin dilihat sebagai defect, dan TPM berkomitmen untuk mencegah breakdown and malfunctionTPM merupakan aspek lanjutan dari continous improvement, yang merupakan proses mengedukasi dan melibatkan pekerja, upgrading and redesigning equipment, penerapan foolproofing devices, memonitor kinerja mesin dan peralatan, dan mengeliminasi sumber- sumber pemborosan mesin dan peralatan
28Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) TPM merupakan Japanese approach untukMembuat budaya perusahaan untuk efisiensi maksimumUpaya mencegah kerugian dengan biaya minimumZero breakdowns and failures, Zero accident, and Zero defects etcEsensi kerja tim (aktivitas kelompok kecil) berfokus pada kondisi dan performansi fasilitas-fasilitas untuk mencapai zero loss for improvementKeterlibatan semua SDM mulai dari top management hingga operator
29TPM Active Planned Maintenance Process Production Operators Clean & CheckObserveCategorizeManufacturing EngineersEquipment PlanningEquipment StudiesProduction Planning & ControlSchedule P.M.Quality EngineersStandards & CalibrationsActivePlannedMaintenanceProcessAll of these activities must work together to fully achieve a successful planned maintenance program.Everyone must understand their roles and responsibilities and execute as a team.Planned maintenance can no longer be the sole responsibility of the maintenance department.
31A Socio-Technical System Manufacturing (and many other) systems have both technical and human/social aspects that are tightly bound and interconnected. Moreover, it is the interconnections more than individual elements that determine system performance.The technical system includes machinery, processes, procedures and a physical arrangement. We usually think of a factory in terms of its technical system.The social system includes people and their habitual attitudes, values, behavioral styles and relationships. It includes the reward system. It is the formal power structure as depicted on organization charts and the informal power structure deriving from knowledge and personal influence.
32Hasil Penerapan TPM3M reduced their maintenance cost by 60% within three years.DuPont reduced off-quality by 69% and improved capacity by 29% in three years.Harley-Davidson estimates that the ROI from TPM has been ten-fold to the cost of implementation.Kodak reported a $5 million investment in TPM that resulted in a $16 million increase in profits.