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Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by: Consumer Behavior 3 C H A P T E R Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by: Consumer Behavior 3 C H A P T E R Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by: Consumer Behavior 3 C H A P T E R Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e.

2 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 2 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Market Baskets ●market basket (or bundle) Daftar jumlah barang atau beberapa barang TABLE 3.1 Alternative Market Baskets A2030 B1050 D4020 E3040 G1020 H1040 Market BasketUnits of FoodUnits of Clothing Untuk mengetahui perilaku konsumen, perlu mengetahui pilihan-pilihan pada market basket

3 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 3 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e.  Kosep dasar barang lebih banyak adalah lebih baik maka : E lebih disukai dibanding A dan G, A lebih disukai dibanding G tetapi A tidakdapat dibandingkan dengn B, D atau H tanpa informasi tambahan CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.1 Indifference curves

4 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 4 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Sepanjang kurva indifference U1 mempunyai tingkat kepuasan yang sama, A, B, dan D mempunyai tingkat kepuasan yang sama CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.2 Indifference curves ● indifference curve kurva yang menggambarkan semua kombinasi barang dalam market basket yang menunjukan tingkat kepuasan yang sama Konsumen akan lebih memilih E karena tingkat kepuasan lebih tinggi dibanding U1, tetapi lebih memilih A dibanding H dan G dengan tingkat kepuasan yang lebih rendah

5 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 5 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. An Indifference Map CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.3 Indifference Maps A lebih disukai dibanding B dan D, dengan tingkat kepuasan yang lebih tinggi

6 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 6 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Asumsi: kurva indefference tidak boleh berpotongan Indifference Curves Cannot Intersect CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.4 Indifference Maps

7 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 7 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.5 The Marginal Rate of Substitution MRS antara clothing (C) and food (F) turun dari 6 (A dan B) menjadi 4 (B and D) menjadi 2 (D dan E) dan 1 (E dan G). Diminishing marginal rate of substitution. Semakin banyak suatu barang dikonsumsi, diharapkan konsumen akan bersedia melepaskan suatu barang untuk mendapatkan barang lain ●marginal rate of substitution (MRS) jumlah maksimum yang bersedia konsumen tukarkan untuk mendapatkan satu unit tambahan barang lain

8 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 8 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. (a), jus apel dan jus jeruk dapat dipertukarkan tanpa peduli antara kedua pilihan tersebut Perfect Substitutes and Perfect Complements CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Figure 3.6 Perfect Substitutes and Perfect Complements (b), Tambahan sepatu kiri saja tidak akan menambah tingkat kepuasan kecuali kalo mendapatkan tambahan sepatu kanan pasangannya

9 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 9 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Preferences for automobile attributes can be described by indifference curves. Each curve shows the combination of acceleration and interior space that give the same satisfaction. Preferences for Automobile Attributes CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Owners of Ford Mustang coupes are willing to give up considerable interior space for additional acceleration. Figure 3.7 The opposite is true for owners of Ford Explorers. They prefer interior space to acceleration.

10 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 10 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER PREFERENCES 3.1 Utility and Utility Functions ● utility Numerical score representing the satisfaction that a consumer gets from a given market basket. ● utility function Formula that assigns a level of utility to individual market baskets. Utility Functions and Indifference Curves Figure 3.8 u(F,C) = FC

11 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 11 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Clothing (C) BUDGET CONSTRAINTS 3.2 Market baskets associated with the budget line F + 2C = $80 The Budget Line ● budget constraints Constraints that consumers face as a result of limited incomes. ● budget line All combinations of goods for which the total amount of money spent is equal to income. TABLE 3.2 Market Baskets and the Budget Line A 040$80 B2030$80 D4020$80 E6010$80 G80 0$80 Market BasketFood (F)Total Spending

12 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 12 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. BUDGET CONSTRAINTS 3.2 Line AG (which passes through points B, D, and E) shows the budget associated with an income of $80, a price of food of P F = $1 per unit, and a price of clothing of P C = $2 per unit. The Budget Line A Budget Line Figure 3.10 P f F+ P C C = I …3.1 C = (I/Pc)-(Pf/Pc) F ….3.2

13 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 13 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. BUDGET CONSTRAINTS 3.2 Income changes A change in income (with prices unchanged) causes the budget line to shift parallel to the original line (L 1 ). When the income of $80 (on L 1 ) is increased to $160, the budget line shifts outward to L 2. If the income falls to $40, the line shifts inward to L 3. The Effects of Changes in Income and Prices Effects of a Change in Income on the Budget Line Figure 3.11

14 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 14 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. BUDGET CONSTRAINTS 3.2 Price changes A change in the price of one good (with income unchanged) causes the budget line to rotate about one intercept. When the price of food falls from $1.00 to $0.50, the budget line rotates outward from L 1 to L 2. However, when the price increases from $1.00 to $2.00, the line rotates inward from L1 to L 3. The Effects of Changes in Income and Prices Effects of a Change in Price on the Budget Line Figure 3.12

15 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 15 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER CHOICE 3.3 Tingkat kepuasan makasimal di titik A saat indifference curve U 2 bersinggungan. Di A, MRS = Pc/Pf = ½ Di B, karena MRS > Pc/Pf [− (−10/10) = 1] l > (1/2), tingkat kepuasan tidak maksimal Maximizing Consumer Satisfaction Figure 3.13 The maximizing market basket must satisfy two conditions: 1.It must be located on the budget line. 2.It must give the consumer the most preferred combination of goods and services.

16 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 16 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER CHOICE 3.3 ● marginal benefit Benefit from the consumption of one additional unit of a good. ● marginal cost Cost of one additional unit of a good. Using these definitions, we can then say that satisfaction is maximized when the marginal benefit—the benefit associated with the consumption of one additional unit of food—is equal to the marginal cost—the cost of the additional unit of food. The marginal benefit is measured by the MRS. Satisfaction is maximized (given the budget constraint) at the point where MRS = P F /P C.

17 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 17 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Consumer Choice of Automobile Attributes CONSUMER CHOICE 3.3 The consumers in (a) are willing to trade off a considerable amount of interior space for some additional acceleration. Given a budget constraint, they will choose a car that emphasizes acceleration. The opposite is true for consumers in (b). Figure 3.14

18 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 18 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. CONSUMER CHOICE 3.3 When a corner solution arises, the consumer maximizes satisfaction by consuming only one of the two goods. Given budget line AB, the highest level of satisfaction is achieved at B on indifference curve U 1, where the MRS (of ice cream for frozen yogurt) is greater than the ratio of the price of ice cream to the price of frozen yogurt. Corner Solutions A Corner Solution Figure 3.15 ● corner solution Situation in which the marginal rate of substitution for one good in a chosen market basket is not equal to the slope of the budget line.

19 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 19 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. A College Trust Fund CONSUMER CHOICE 3.3 Jika ada dana perwalian yang harus dibelanjakan utk keperluan pendidikan, siswa akan bergerak dari A ke B (corner solution) Namun jika dpt dibelanjakan utk keperluan lain nya serta pendidikan makan siswa akan memilih C dg tingkat kepuasan lebih tinggi Figure 3.16

20 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 20 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. MARGINAL UTILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE 3.5 ● marginal utility (MU) Kepuasan tambahan yang diperoleh dari mengkonsumsi satu unit tambahan ● diminishing marginal utility Prinsip bahwa semakin banyak dikonsumsi, maka jumlah penambahan akan menghasilkan utilitas yang lebih kecil ● equal marginal principle Prinsip bahwa utilitas dimaksimalkan ketika konsumen telah menyamakan utilitas marjinal per dolar pengeluaran di semua barang.

21 Chapter 3: Consumer Behavior 21 of 37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Microeconomics Pindyck/Rubinfeld, 7e. Inefficiency of Gasoline Rationing MARGINAL UTILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE 3.5 Pembatasan bensin akan me ngurangi tingkat kenyamanan Tanpa pembatasan konsumen dpt membeli 20,000 gallons (at point B). The consumer chooses point C on indifference curve U 2, consuming 5000 gallons of gasoline. However, with a limit of 2000 gallons of gasoline under rationing (at point E), the consumer moves to D on the lower indifference curve U 1. Figure 3.21


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