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Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Proses Pembelajaran Konsumen (Consumer Learning)

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Presentasi berjudul: "Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Proses Pembelajaran Konsumen (Consumer Learning)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Proses Pembelajaran Konsumen (Consumer Learning)

2 Consumer Learning Crest (50 thn yang lalu)  ‘first introduced product’ toothpaste with fluoride  kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pasta gigi dengan berbagai varian Upaya marketing : menjadikan Crest sbg superior produk  brand loyalty Konsumen selalu mengasosiakan produk- produk yang berasal dari merek yang sama merupakan produk yang superior pula

3 Consumer Learning Adalah sangat penting bagi marketer Marketer harus memberi pembelajaran kepada konsumen : dimana konsumen dapat membeli produk tsb, bagaimana mereka mempergunakan produk tsb, dan dilain pihak marketer juga harus belajar kenapa pula konsumen tidak mau mempergunakan produk tsb ?

4 Consumer Learning Bagaimana kita (marketer) dapat mempengaruhi dan memelihara konsumen agar mau membeli (loyal),.. kenapa konsumen lebih menyukai produk tsb dibandingkan dengan produk pesaing,dll ? Bagaimana kita (marketer) berstrategi untuk dapat menggapai konsumen baik secara langsung (adv ) dan secara tidak langsung (packaging,price, distribution,etc)?

5 Importance of Learning Marketers must teach consumers: –where to buy –how to use –how to maintain –how to dispose of products

6 Theories of Consumer Learning Tidak ada teori yang universal tentang teori pembelajaran konsumen Namun ada ada 2 teori yang berkaitan dengan proses pembelajaran konsumen yaitu : 1.Behavioral Theories 2.Cognitive Theories

7 Learning Theories Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory. (Pembelajaran diperoleh berdasarkan perilaku yang terlihat, sbg akibat dari terpaan /stimuli) Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving. (Pembelajaran diperoleh dari proses mental)

8 Consumer Learning (marketing prespective) A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.

9 Ada beberapa kritik thd konsep ini, yaitu...a/l : 1. Pembelajaran konsumen merupakan sebuah proses,oleh karena itu dimungkinkan adanya perubahan disebabkan adanya knowledge yang baru pula (karena membaca, diskusi, observasi, pemikiran, dll) atau berdasarkan pengalaman yang dialami konsumen

10 Lanjutan : 2. Baik knowledge maupun experience baru tsb menghasilkan sebuah feedback bagi konsumen tsb dan memberikan future behavioral yang baru pula pada situasi yang mirip 3. Experience dalam pembelajaran tidak berarti bahwa semua pembelajaran melalui pertimbangan yang matang

11 Learning Processes Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effort Misal : konsumen membeli produk dikarenakan familiar brand name, namun dihari lain membeli dikarenakan adanya adv...

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13 Elements of Learning Theories Motivation (based on needs & goals) Cues : the stimuli that give direction Response : how they behave (reaction) Reinforcement : a specific response will occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli

14 Reinforceme nt A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus.

15 1. Behavioral Learning Theories Disebut juga sebagai stimulus-response theories Behavioral theory tidak terlalu banyak membahas tentang input dan outcomes dari proses pembelajaran,mereka lebih memfokuskan pada stimuli-stimuli yang diperoleh konsumen dari lingkungannya

16 Behavioral Learning Theories 1) Classical Conditioning 2) Instrumental Conditioning 3) Modeling or Observational Learning

17 1) Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Theory) A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.

18 Classical Conditioning Teori ini mengasumsikan bahwa semua organisms (manusia/binatang) adalah entiti yang pasif dan dapat diajar melalui repetition (conditioning) sehingga suatu saat menjadi perilaku yang otomatik.

19 Conditioning : Certain condition through repetition (automatic) Pavlov : stimulus 1 (repeated)  stimulus 2 conditioned stimulus : unconditioned stimulus:

20 Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Meat paste Conditioned Stimulus Bell Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

21 Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Conditioned Stimulus 6 o’clock news Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 6 o’clock news Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

22 Consumer behavior ; Terkait dengan brand name/brand symbol sebagai unconditoned stimulus  Neutrogena Conditoned stimuli : muncul pada produk baru dari merek tsb, sehingga konsumen mau mencoba produk tsb (conditioned response) sebab mereka percaya pada brand symbol tsb

23 Cognitive Associative Learning (contemporary behavioral scientist—NEO PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONG) Classical conditioning is viewed as the learning of associations among events that allows the organism to anticipate and represent its environment. From this viewpoint, classical conditioning is not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new knowledge

24 Cognitive Associative Learning Asosiasi antara conditioned stimulus (bell) dengan unconditioned stimulus (meat) mempengaruhi harapan (dog) mempengaruhi perilakunya (salivation : mengeluarkan liur)

25 Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning untuk memahami perilaku konsumen Repetition (advertising wearout/‘over learning’  adv: change messages) Stimulus Generalization (namun ada kemungkinan konsumen tidak mampu membedakan stimulus yang berbeda hanya sedikit dgn pesaing- case :produk imitasi bisa sukses dipasar ) Stimulus Discrimination (positioning strategy : selection specific stimulus  unique stimulus)

26 Stimulus Discrimination The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences. Positioning Differentiation

27 2) Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning 2) Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.

28 Stimulus Generalization and Marketing Product Line, Form and Category Extensions Family Branding Licensing Generalizing Usage Situations

29 A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Stimulus Situation (Need good- looking jeans) Try Brand D Try Brand C Try Brand B Try Brand A Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Reward Perfect fit Repeat Behavior

30 Instrumental Conditioning Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors. A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.

31 Startegic Application Instrumental Conditioning (terkait dengan pemahaman perilaku konsumen) Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement) Selain adanya pembelajaran dari pemakaian produk, tapi bisa juga disebabkan oleh pembelajaran dari lingkungan (transaksi/service/add offer) Massed versus Distributed Learning Advertiser menggunakan massed schedule untuk memperoleh dampak segera, namun apabila ingin longterm repeat buying maka dipergunakan distributed schedule

32 Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response Exp: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior Exp: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream

33 3) Observational Learning A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.

34 Consumers Learn by Modeling

35 2. Cognitive Learning Theory Not all learning cause repeated (classical conditioning) & trial (instrumental conditioning) Learning as the result of consumer thinking & problem solving (Cognitive learning theory :based on mental activity)

36 Cognitive Learning Theory Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.

37 Information Processing A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved.

38 Berkaitan dengan kemampuan kognitif konsumen maupun kompleksitas informasi yang diolah Bagaimana consumers store, retain & retrieve information : o Sensory store o Short term store o Longterm store

39 Sensory store : tidak semua sense diterima secara utuh  informasi akan terfragmentasi  apabila informasi tidak segera diproses, dia akan cepat hilang sehingga tugas marketer adalah mampu membuat produk terimpresi lebih lama di konsumen (2 detik dalam benak konsumen) Short –term Store : adalah tahap dimana informasi tg produk benar-benar menjadi memory dalam benak konsumen (2-10 detik dalam benak konsumen)  informasi harus segera diproses & ditransfer (kemampuan otak hanya bisa menerima 4- 5 item produk saja) Long term Store : informasi dapat bertahan lama di benak konsumen

40 Information Processing and Memory Stores Sensory Store Working Memory (Short- term Store) Long- term Store Sensory Input RehearsalEncodingRetrieval Forgotten; lost Forgotten; lost Forgotten; unavailable

41 Models of Cognitive Learning AttentionCognitive ActionConativePurchase Postpurchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest EvaluationPersuasion Knowledge AwarenessAwareness Knowledge Interest Desire Sequential Stages of Processing Innovation Adoption Model Decision- Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model

42 3. Involvement Theory Research : hemispheral lateralization/split brain theory oLeft hemisphere : reading, speaking & attributional information processing (verbal information)  rational, active & realistic oRight hemisphere : non verbal, timeless, pictorial & holistic information  emotional, impulsive & intuitive

43 Involvemen t Theory A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.

44 Split Brain Theory Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in certain functions Figure 7.14


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