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MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN “Quantitative measure of crop yield in given measured area of field”. Bahan Kajian MK. STELA – smno.fpub.juni2013.

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Presentasi berjudul: "MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN “Quantitative measure of crop yield in given measured area of field”. Bahan Kajian MK. STELA – smno.fpub.juni2013."— Transcript presentasi:

1 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN “Quantitative measure of crop yield in given measured area of field”. Bahan Kajian MK. STELA – smno.fpub.juni2013

2 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: Pertumbuhan tanaman berhubungan dengan faktor- faktor yg mempengaruhinya. G = f (X 1, X 2, X Xn) G = measure of growth Xi = growth factors The factors that affect plant growth can be classified as genetic or environmental. Waktu. time Pertumbuhan

3 Mathematical Growth Functions Sumber: Ekspresi CROP Growth Analysis (CGA) biasanya menunjukkan seperangkat metode kuantitatif untuk mendeskripsikan dan menginterpretasikan perilaku sistem tanaman pada kondisi alamiah, semi-natural atau dalam lingkungan terkendali.

4 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: Liebig (1860, German) (Linear): Y = mX + b dimana: Y = Hasil tanaman. m = slope - i.e. rate of yield increase. It is a function of the environment and nutrient. X = Jumlah hara (pupuk) yang ditambahkan. b = minimum yield, one would get this yield with no nutrient additions.

5 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: Mitscherlich (1910, German) (Law of Diminishing Returns) (1) ….. dy/dx = (A-Y)C Kalau persamaan (1) diintegralkan maka diperoleh: (2) ….. log (A-Y) = log(A) – cX dimana: A = maximum possible yield theoretical). Y = actual yield. dy/dx = slope - i.e. rate of yield increase. It is a function of the environment, the nutrient, and amount of nutrient already present. This value gets smaller as nutrient amount increases. x = Jumlah hara (pupuk) yang ditambahkan nutrient added. c = Konstante.

6 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: Bray (1920, U. Illinois)... (soil interactions) Pengembangan Model dasar Mitscherlich menjadi: log (A-Y) = log(A) - c1B – cX dimana: A = Hasil maksimum yang mungkin (teoretis). Y = Hasil aktual. dy/dx = slope - i.e. rate of yield increase. It is a function of the environment, the nutrient, and amount of nutrient already present. This value gets smaller as nutrient amount increases. X = amount of nutrient added. c1 = constant that is for B. c = constant. B = value explaining behavior of ‘immobile’ nutrients (e.g. K, P, Ca, Mg). The c1B term takes into account the reality that nutrients interact with soil and not all nutrients behave identically.

7 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: Practically, this equation says when one Baule Unit of a nutrient is added, then yield increases 50% of the difference between current yield and possible yield. If a second Baule Unit is added, then yield increase will be 1/2-way closer to the maximum possible yield, so 2 Baule Unites would result in 75% of the maximum possible yield increase. If a third Baule Unit of a nutrient is added, move 1/2-way closer to the maximum possible yield, or 87.5% of the maximum possible yield would result. Baule (c. 1920, German mathematician, worked with Mitscherlich) (nutrient interactions) Baule developed idea of “half-way points.” Using the identical relationship as Mitscherlich, Baule concluded that Y = A - A(1/2) # Baule Units dimana: A = Hasil maksimum yg mungkin (teoretis). Y = Hasil tanaman aktual. # Baule Unit = the amount of nutrient that when added results in moving Y (yield) one-half way closer to A (maximum possible yield).

8 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: KURVA RESPON PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN THE "LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS“ When all growth factors except one are adequately supplied, adding increments of the limiting growth factor will increase yields. One of the best known attempts to express growth curves mathematically was that of Mitscherlich. His equation predicts that each succeeding increment of growth factor (a plant nutrient, for example) will produce a smaller increment of growth than the preceding increment. The Mitscherlich yield response curve is an example of a well-known concept in economic theory-the law of diminishing returns. The equation has the form dy/ dx = (A-y)C where dy is yield increase from an increment of growth factor dx, A is maximum yield attainable as the result of adding an unlimited amount of growth factor, y is the yield obtained after any given quantity of the factor x has been applied, and C is a proportionality constant. Actual yield response curves always pass through a maximum; and, excess nutrient depresses yield. Sometimes initial increments of added nutrient are so immobilized by the soil or utilized by soil organisms or weeds that they increase growth less than later increments.

9 KURVA RESPON TANAMAN Sumber: ILLUSTRATED CONCEPTS IN TROPICAL AGRICULTURE A series prepared by the Department ofAgronomy and Soil Science College of Tropical Agriculture University ofHawaii GROWTH RESPONSE CURVES-THE "LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS“ DOSIS PUPUK HASIL TANAMAN

10 Crop Forecasting by using Crop-Yield Weather Regression Model M. Rezaul Karim Talukder & M. Sayedur Rahman. Sumber: MODEL REGRESI TANAMAN-IKLIM Regression analysis is a statistical technique for investigating and modelling the relationship between variables. Applications of regression are numerous and occur in almost every field, including food management, engineering, the physical sciences, economics, life and biological sciences, and the social sciences. In fact, regression analysis may be the most widely used statistical technique. Model regresi yg melibatkan lebih dari satu variabel bebas disebut “multiple regression model”.

11 Crop Forecasting by using Crop-Yield Weather Regression Model M. Rezaul Karim Talukder & M. Sayedur Rahman. Sumber: Model regresi tanaman-iklim: m n Y i =  i +   ij W j +  ik I k + u i j=1 k=1 Where Y i is the yield of the ith crop, W j is the j th agro-climatic variable in the production of the i th crop, I k is the k th input variable in the production of the i th crop,  j and  k are the coefficient of the relevant variable,  o is the constant and ui is the disturbance term. For a particular crop, the explicit form of the equation will be determined by the variables relevant for the crop. In the present exercise, the full model contained ten regressors, which were to explain the yield of Boro rice for the season.

12 Crop Forecasting by using Crop-Yield Weather Regression Model M. Rezaul Karim Talukder & M. Sayedur Rahman. Sumber: Formula model regresi linear berganda: Y =  o +  1 MXT +  2 MNT +  3 AVT +  4 DTR +  5 TRF +  6 CRF +  7 NSR +  PR +  FERT +  TIME + e dimana: Y= Yield of Boro rice (Mt/ha). MXT= Maximum temperature (0c); MNT= Minimum temperature (0c); AVT= Average temperature (0c); DTR= Diurnal temperature range (0c); TRF= Total rainfall of the week (mm); CRF= Cumulative rainfall for the season up to the week (mm); NSR= Net solar radiation (cal/cm 2 /day); PR = Price value (Tk. per quintal) ; FERT = Fertilizer (‘000 Mt.); TIME= Year; e= Stochastic term/ residual term / error term.

13 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: FAKTOR GENETIK 1. Field crops - Yield potential is determined by genes of the plant. A large part of the increase in yield over the years has been due to hybrids and improved varieties. Other characteristics such as quality, disease resistance, drought hardiness are determined by the genetic makeup. Corn hybrids are an example of a dramatic yiel incease resulting from genetics. Genetic engineering is now becoming an important tool in changing a plants potential. 2.Nursery crops and turf - not interested in total growth as much as appearance. Ex. is Bermudagrass 3.Variety and Plant Nutrient needs-Hybrid corn producing 200 bu/ac requires more plant nutrients than a hybrid producing 100 bu/ac. As potential crop yields are increased, the plant nutrients required are increased. Current research in the Soil Science and Genetics department is concerned with developing corn hybrids that use nitrogen more efficiently - Produce more grain per pound of N - fertilizer. 4. A producer has control over the genetic factor by his choice of variety. Field crops - highest yielding, disease resistant, etc. Nursery - Best appearance - dwarf vs larger shrubs

14 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN All external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an organism. The following are regarded as the most important environmental factors 1.Temperatur 2.Suplai Air 3.Energi radiasi matahari 4.Komposisi atmosfir 5.Soil aeration and soil structure 6.Kemasaman tanah = Soil reaction 7.Faktor biotik 8.Supply of mineral nutrients 9.Absence of growth-restricting substances

15 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: Temperature A measure of the intensity of heat. Plant growth occurs in a fairly narrow range degrees F 1. Temperatur Secara langsung mempengaruji: 1.FOTOSINTESIS 2.RESPIRASI 3.TRANSPIRASI - loss of water 4.PENYERAPAN AIR DAN HARA DARI TANAH. 2. The rate of these processes increases with an increase in temperature responses are different with different crops cotton vs collards or potatoes fescue vs bermuda grass. These generalizations hold within a crops range of adaptation 3. Temperature also affects soil organisms nitrifying bacteria inhibited by low temperature. pH may decrease in summer due to activities of microorganisms 4. Temperatur tanah mempengaruhi penyerapan air dan hara

16 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: AERASI TANAH Compact soils of high bulk density and poor structure are aerated poorly. Pore space is occupied by air and water so the amount of air and water are inversely proportional to the amount of oxygen in the soil. On well drained soils, oxygen content is not likely to be limiting to plant growth. Plants vary widely in their sensitivity to soil oxygen. Paddy rice vs tobacco

17 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: KEMASAMAN TANAH = Soil reaction pH influences availability of certain nutrients ex phosphate availability low on acid soils. Al is toxic to plants diseases affected by pH Potato scab controlled by keeping pH below 5.5

18 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: SUPLAI AIR Plant growth restricted by low and high levels of soil moisture : 1. can be regulated with drainage and irrigation 2. good soil moisture improves nutrient uptake If moisture is a limiting factor fertilizer is not used efficiently.

19 Sumber: Hubungan antara stabilitas struktur (agregat) tanah dnegan hasil tanaman pd berbagai perlakuan olah tanah (TDD = triple disc drill ; SC/TDD = scarify and triple disc drill ; DDC = direct drill with combine ; DP = district practice - cultivate and seed with combine

20 Sumber: HUBUNGAN DOSIS PUPUK DG HASIL TANAMAN

21 Sumber: FAKTOR PEMBATAS HASIL TANAMAN

22 Sumber: DOSIS PUPUK untuk HASIL OPTIMUM-EKONOMIS A yield goal is the yield you hope to harvest. In order to be profitable, it is very important that you set a yield goal that is realistic and achievable and that you use the right tools and practices to achieve that goal. KERUGIAN KEUNTUNGAN

23 A Typical Nitrogen Response Curve Sumber: Maximum yield (C) is reached at a nitrogen rate greater than the on- farm economic optimum and this is never a target if farm profits are to be maximised. Application of nitrogen above point C does not increase yield, and with further applications yield falls and the need for agro-chemicals such as fungicides and growth regulators may increase. Hasil maksimum Dosis pupuk optimum ekonomis on-farm

24 Sumber: A typical N response curve (orange line) versus a response curve for a 'workhorse' hybrid (blue line). The response curve for a workhorse hybrid has a higher check plot yield (yield at 0 lb N/acre) and an above average response to 60 lb N/acre. KURVA RESPON PUPUK NITROGEN

25 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Penelitian DILAKUKAN untuk memprediksi hasil jagung dan kedelai sebagai indeks produktivitas tanah-tanah di Illinois, kedua tanaman ini meliputi 90% dari keseluruhan lahan pertanian yang ada. Model regresi berganda digunakan untuk evaluasi hubungan antara 16 sifat tanah yg terpilih dari 34 tipe tanah-utama dengan hasil jagung dan kedelai yang telah ditetapkan (data sekunder) periode 1970-an (1967±1976). Statistical models developed from major soils were tested internally by calculating the 10-year average corn and soybean yields for each of the 34 major soils. The coefcients generated from multiple regression were further tested using the soil property values for the additional 165 soils identi®ed in nine counties representing the crop reporting districts and weather districts in Illinois.

26 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Crop yields are the result of environmental factors such as soil, climate, and management inputs. The e€ect of technology and management on crop yield is determined, in part, by the type of soil. Consequently more specific information on the influence of soil properties on crop yields is required. Banyak pakar mencoba menemukan hubungan antara sifat-sifat tanah, iklim, hasil tanaman, dan tanah-tanah, kemudian membandingkannya. Banyak penelitian agronomis membuktikan bahwa “kedalaman tanah” sangat menentukan hasil tanaman, secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Banyak sifat-sifat tanah yg dianggap sangat mnenentukan hasil tanaman, ternyata berhubungan dengan kemampuan tanah menyimpan air (WHC - Water holding capacity).

27 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Perbedaan hasil tanaman dan produktivitas tanah dapat dicerminkan dalam bentuk Indeks Produktivitas. Productivity ratings are a good indicator of the suitability of soils for crop production. They are useful in determining optimum soil management and use. Accurate and reliable soil productivity information is desired for crop yield estimates and productivity indices of each soil type to complement land appraisal and use management. Data sekunder tentang produktivitas tanaman masa lalu dapat dikoreksi dengan penyesuaian numerik sesuai dnegan perkembangan teknologi tanaman.

28 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Hasil tanaman meningkat secara signifikan di daerah Illinois USA selama periode 1945 hingga Peningkatan hasil tanaman ini ternyata disebabkan oleh perbaikan teknologi tanaman (Swanson et al., 1977) yang meliputi: 1.Input kimia-biologis seperti jenis unggul, pupuk mineral, pestisida, dan populasi tanaman yang lebih tinggi. 2.Sumberdaya mekanik, ALSINTAN 3.Pengelolaan. Along with augmented crop yield trend, there were annual fluctuations from weather effects. 1.Swanson, E.R., Smith, D.G., Nyankori, J.C., Have corn and soybean yields reached a plateau? Series E, Agricultural Economics No 77, E-17.

29 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Trends in crop yields are important for economic decision makers, as well as for farm owners and operators because yield performance may influence determinations regarding agricultural inputs levels and adoption of new technologies. Additionally, past, present and future crop yield data could be used as a basis for land valuation (assessment), crop insurance, and other related farm business.

30 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Kecenderungan hasil tanaman menjadi salah satu issue penting dalam pembangunan pertanian. Berbagai kajian dilakukan untuk analisis kecenderungan hasil tanaman dan meramalkan prospek masa depannya. Many of these studies were focused at or within a state level. Greater yield increments were identified in the previous 5- year period compared to the latter period.

31 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 The overall objective of this study was to update the corn and soybean yields which serve as a productivity index for Illinois soils since these crops are grown on 90% of the cropland. An approach based on multiple regression was used to evaluate the relationship between 16 selected soil properties of major soils and established corn and soybean yields.

32 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Prosedur Analisis Tahapan analisisnya adalah: 1.To develop crop yield-soil property models by stepwise multiple regression with 1970s crop yields along with soil properties from 34 major (base and benchmark) soils; 2.To internally check by calculating average corn and soybean yields using the model generated coecients and the soil properties values for each of the 34 major soils; 3.To test coeficients generated from multiple regression using the soil property values for an additional 165 soils identified in nine counties representing the crop reporting districts and weather districts in Illinois; 4.Mengidentifikasi data “pencilan” hasil jagung dan kedelai (lebih dari 2 simpangan baku.)

33 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Prosedur Analisis 5.Menentukan alasan terjadinya pencilan data dan mengusulkan perbaikan model prediktif. 6.Menentukan besarnya perubahan hasil jagung dan kedelai yang dilaporkan petani selama periode waktu tertentu (1976 – 1995) di berbagai daerah sentra produksi; 7.To use the 20-year crop regional yield increases to predict 1990s crop yields for 199 soils in nine northern and southern Illinois counties; 8.To evaluate the model predicted plus 20-year trend increased crop yields and established plus 20-year trend increased crop yields for nine selected test counties by comparing with the 1990s farmer reported county crop production.

34 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 PEMILIHAN TIPE TANAH Thirty-four major soil types were chosen for a model development to determine crop yield estimates. These included nine base soils which were selected to represent the best producing soils under basic management which were assigned the highest basic productivity indices (Pis). Each of these soils have extensive acreage in Illinois. From various soil survey and soil conservation programs, it was determined that a list of 30 benchmark soils represented most of the major soil conditions in the state. Hasil penelitian menemukan lima tipe utama tanah dan disarankan digunakan sebagai dasar untuk mengembangkan model hubungan hasil tanaman dnegan sifat tanah.

35 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 PEMILIHAN TIPE TANAH Sejumlah sifat fisika dan kimia tanah yang mempengaruhi hasil tanaman dapat diidentifikasi dnegan bantuan model regresi linear berganda, yaitu: 1.Tebalnya lapisan permukaan (topsoil) (cm);11. % debu pada topsoil; 2.% BOT pada topsoil; 12. KTK pada topsoil; 3.Depth (cm) to redoxamorphic (wetness) features drainage class (relates to drainage class); 13. Subsoil thickness (cm); 4.Plant available water to a depth of 150 cm; 5.Rooting depth as a function of soil structure (cm); 6.Depth in cm to 2nd parent material (usually thickness of loess); 7.Permeability; 14. Nilai pH topsoil ; 8.Subsoil pH; 15. Nilai BI topsoil; 9.Nilai BI subsoil; 16. Kejenuhan Na topsoil; 10.% liat pada subsoil.

36 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Analisis Regresi Hasil Tanaman Stepwise multiple regression was implemented to establish the relationship between 10-year crop yield estimates and selected soil property values. Sifat-sifat tanah dinyatakan dalam bentuk “nilai numerik” untuk setiap karakteristik tanah. Hanya satu nilai ditetapkan oleh tipe tanah atau sifat tanah pada horison A, horison B atau profil tanah.

37 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Analisis korelasi digunakan nuntuk memberikan informasi ttg sifat peubah yg dipakai dlm model regresi berganda, dan untuk mengidentifikasi peubah-peubah mana yg korelasinya lebih kuat. Simple statistical data analyses were evaluated (stemleaf diagrams, box plot, and normal probability plot) in order to check the usual assumption in regression analysis. The diagrams for most of the predictor variables were acceptable bell- shaped curves. The variable exchangeable sodium was not a bell- shaped curve, since all but one of the soils had values of zero. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was applied to analyze the soil and yield data. The R-square option was utilized with emphasis on maximizing R for regression.

38 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Analisis regresi linear berganda dipakai untuk meng-estimasi hubungan antara hasil tanaman dan peubah-peubah sifat-tanah. Perhitungan dilakukan dnegan model: Yi = β0 + β1X1 + β 2X βiXi + εi (1) where Yi is the response or dependent variable, which represents the predicted crop yields. The explanatory factors X1, X2,... Xi are assumed to be independent. i is the error due to the fact that the postulated independent variables do not completely account for the variation in Y. The parameter b0, b1... bi are the population regression coecients for the soil effects.

39 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Model sifat tanah yg dikembangkan dari tanah-tanah utama, diuji dengan menghitung rataan hasil tanaman pada semua tanah pertanian di daerah sentra produksi tanaman. The predicted crop yields were compared to the established yield estimates for each crop, and to the farmer reported crop yields in IAS. The coeficients generated by multiple regression in the models were used with the soil property values for 165 additional soils found in the nine counties. These were not included in the original 34 major (base and benchmark) soils list. The sign and magnitude of the coeficients generated in the multiple regression models did not establish the absolute relationship between specific soil properties and crop yields since the variables were not completely independent and since multi-collinearity did not exist between some soil variables.

40 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Teknik regresi dipakai untuk meng-evaluasi hubungan antara tahun dan hasil jagung dan kedelai. Pendekatan pertama dipakai untuk analisis data hasil tanaman untuk semua lokasi, dan pendekatan ke dua untuk menganalisis dua jenis tanah di suatu daerah survei. Data hasil tanaman (data sekunder) dianalisis untuk dua periode waktu yang berbeda, misalnya periode , dan periode Yield trend was measured using the least squares method which employed the following trend equation: Y = a + bx where Y, predicted value of Y based on the selected year; a, estimated value of Y where X=0; b, average change in Y for each change in year.

41 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 KORELASI ANTARA HASIL TANAMAN DAN NILAI SIFAT-SIFAT TANAH Secara umum variabel (sifat tanah) bahan organik (OM), available water (AvW), bulk density horison AE (DbAE), dan bulk density horison B (DbB), Tebalnya horison AE (ThAE); Kapasitas tukar kation (KTK) dan pH horison AE (pHAE) secara signifikan berkorelasi dengan hasil jagung dan kedelai.

42 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Table 2. Simple statistics for response and predictor variables for major soils

43 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Korelasi paling kuat ditemukan antara kandungan BOT dan KTK tanah. Air tersedia, pH dan BI dari horison AE dan horison B juga berkorelasi dnegan kandungan BOT. Other significant correlations were observed between available water and thickness of AE horizons. High correlations between paired variables, such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity, silt of AE horizons and available water, explain, in part, why cation exchange capacity and available water were not selected in the reduced models.

44 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Seleksi Peubah dan Analisis Regresi Model sifat tanah yang diperoleh dalam penelitian biasanya berdasarkan pada respon hasil tanaman (jagung dan kedelai) terhadap karakteristik fisika dan kimia tanah. Most of these soil types occur in only the northern (including central) or southern region. Therefore, the influence of climate had been considered on a regional basis.

45 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Analisis Regresi Hasil Tanaman Model regresi digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi pentingnya sifat-sifat tanah yang terpilih untuk memprediksi hasil tanaman. Prosedurnya adalah sbb: Analisis regresi pendahuluan dilakukan dg mengadoksi prosedur pemilihan variabel Cp, untuk mengidentifikasi variabel yg paling mempengaruhi hasil tanaman, dan kemudian memilih tiga model regresi terbaik berdasarkan statistik Cp Mallow. Prosedur pemilihan Cp menghasilkan n perangkat model yg dianggap optimeum menurut kriteria Cp. Model-model ini kemudian diuji dengan memprediksi hasil tanaman berdasarkan sifat-sifat tanah dari 34 tipe tanah yg dipilih.

46 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Model regresi berganda yg terbaik antara sifat-sifat tanah dan koefisien-koefisiennya bagi setiap tanaman disajikan dalam Tabel 3. Persamaan ini mencerminkan model regresi berganda yg paling signifikan berdasarkan nilai koefisien determinasinya R2. Tanaman jagung dan kedelai dipengaruhi oleh beberapa sifat tanah yang menghasilkan persamaan model yang distingtif. Tabel 3. Model Regresi sifat-sifat tanah dengan hasil jagung dan kedelai pada kondisi tingkat pengelolaan rata-rata 1970-an (1967±1976)

47 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 BI horison B dan Na-tukar ternyata sangat berkorelasi dengan hasil tanaman, dan kedua peubah sifat-tanah ini muncul dalam model regresi hasil tanaman. Clay content of the B horizon was a non-significant correlated variable with crop yields, however, it was an important parameter in determining variations within both models. Kedalaman zone perakaran dan kedalaman bahan induk tanah tidak berkorelasi dengan hasil tanaman.

48 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Prediksi hasil tanaman dengan menggunakan model regresi sifat-sifat tanah mempunyai nilai R2 (koef determinasi) yg tinggi kalau dibandingkan (diuji) dengan nilai-nilai hasil tanaman dari data sekunder. Untuk tipe-tipe tanah yang dianalisis, ternyata persentase variasi hasil jagung dan kedelai yang dapat dijelaskan oleh model regresi sebesar 90% (Figs. 2 and 3).

49 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Nilai hasil jagung tahun 1970-an (1967±1976) dari data sekunder dan nilai prediksi hasil jagung (menggunakan model) untuk 34 tipe tanah di Illinois.

50 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Nilai hasil kedelai tahun 1970-an (1967±1976) dari data sekunder dan nilai prediksi hasil kedelai (menggunakan model) untuk 34 tipe tanah di Illinois.

51 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Prediksi hasil tanaman untuk 165 tipe tanah lainnya dilakukan di sembilan negara bagian di USA. Dua model hasil tanaman yang dikembangkan dari 34 tipe tanah diuji pada tipe-tipe tanah lainnya di smebilan negara bagian untuk mendapatkan prediksi hasil tanaman. Model-model tersebut juga digunakan untuk memprediksi hasil tanaman berdasarkan sifat-sifat tanah di daerah-daerah pertanian Illinois.

52 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Table 4. Number of observations with residuals greater than one and two standard deviations by (S.D.)crop.

53 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Hasil jagung yang telah ditetapkan untuk periode 1970s (1967±1976) (published in Circular 1156 Soil Productivity in Illinois) dan prediksi hasil jagung pada 165 tipe tanah di Illinois.

54 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Fig. 5. Hasil kedelai yang telah ditetapkan untuk periode 1970s (1967±1976) (published in Circular 1156 Soil Productivity in Illinois) dan prediksi hasil kedelai pada 165 tipe tanah di Illinois.

55 MENDUGA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Predicting corn and soybean productivity for Illinois soils. J.D. Garcia-Paredes, K.R. Olson, J.M. Lang. Agricultural Systems 64 (2000) 151±170 Nilai prediktif dari 16 sifat-sifat kimia dan fisika tanah diuji dengan menggunakan 34 tipe tanah- utama yg mewakili kondisi tanah pertanian di Illinois. Model regresi berganda untuk memprediksai hasil jagung dan kedelai, yg berfungsi sebagai indeks produktivitas tanah-tanah di Illinois, ternyata dapat bekerja dnegan baik dan dapat digunakan di daerah- daerah sekitarnya.

56 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Definisi ‘HASIL TANAMAN ' A measurement of the amount of a crop that was harvested per unit of land area. Crop yield is the measurement often used for a cereal, grain or legume and is normally measured in metric tons per hectare (or kilograms per hectare). “Hasil Tanaman” juga menunjukkan produksi benih (biji) dari tanaman. Misalnya, sebutir benih jagung menghasilkan tiga benih baru, maka hasil tanaman ini 1:3.

57 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. one wheat grain produces a stalk yielding three grain, or 1:3) Hasil tanaman biasanya diukur dengan satuan ton per hektar.

58 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN PERANAN TANAH DALAM PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN 1.Penunjang fisik..... roots anchor plant to maintain upright stature so leaves can intercept sunlight 2.Pori tanah menahan air dan udara yg tersedia bagi tanaman ….....both are essential to root growth 3.Hara tanaman … soils supply variable amounts of nutrients. Also, soils retain / release nutrients applied as fertilizers, manures, and other organic sources 4.Tekstur Tanah sangat menentukan WHC dan ketersediaan hara dalam tanah. Sumber:

59 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Crop yield predictions based on properties of soils in Sevilla, Spain. D. De La Rosa, F. Cardona, J. Almorza. Geoderma, Volume 25, Issues 3–4, May 1981, Pages 267–274Volume 25, Issues 3–4 Model estimasi hasil tanaman gandum, jagung, dan kapas biasanya berdasarkan pada sifat-sifat tanah tertentu. The procedure consisted of computing algebraic equations following analyses by multiple regression. Sifat-sifat tanah yang lazim digunakan : Kedalaman tanah, Kandungan liat, Kedalaman muka-air-tanah jenuh, Kandungan karbonat, Salinity, Kejenuhan Na dan KTK. The selected properties accounted for 78 to 84% in the general model and for 56 to 80% in the quadratic model of the variations in yields of the three crops. Estimates were also made of the optimum expressions of two properties, useful depth and depth to hydromorphic features, to maximize yields of the crops.

60 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: KUALITAS TANAH unt. PRODUKSI TANAMAN On the basis of soil parameters provided by HWSD seven key soil qualities important for crop production have been derived, namely: nutrient availability, nutrient retention capacity, rooting conditions, oxygen availability to roots, excess salts, toxicities, and workability. Soil qualities are related to the agricultural use of the soil and more specifically to specific crop requirements and tolerances. Untuk ilustrasi kualitas tanah, jagung dipilih sebagai tanaman referens karena distribusinya sangat luas dan nilai ekonominya tinggi.

61 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Kualitas Tanah dan Karakteristik Tanahnya KUALITAS TANAHKARAKTERISTIK TANAH SQ1Nutrient availabilitySoil texture, soil organic carbon, soil pH, total exchangeable bases SQ2Nutrient retention capacity Soil Organic carbon, Soil texture, base saturation, cation exchange capacity of soil and of clay fraction SQ3Rooting conditionsSoil textures, bulk density, coarse fragments, vertic soil properties and soil phases affecting root penetration and soil depth and soil volume SQ4Oxygen availability to roots Soil drainage and soil phases affecting soil drainage SQ5Excess salts.Soil salinity, soil sodicity and soil phases influencing salt conditions SQ6ToxicityCalcium carbonate and gypsum SQ7Workability (constraining field management) Soil texture, effective soil depth/volume, and soil phases constraining soil management (soil depth, rock outcrop, stoniness, gravel/concretions and hardpans)

62 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Hubungan antara sifat fisika tanah dnegan produksi tanaman

63 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber: Hubungan antara isfat alamiah tanah, agroteknologi, dan hasil tanaman

64 FUNGSI PRODUKSI TANAMAN Sumber: Crop production function – study. Tereza Suchánková, Radka Bezděkovská. Proceedings of 30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics. In general, the agricultural crops are significantly dependent on climate factors. Such variables could be not only the temperature and rainfall but also the soil moisture and the level of evaporation. Nevertheless the other factors have also an important role in the variability of crop production - classical production factors (capital, land and labor) or fertilizers and pesticides. The modeling of crop production is complex problem and needs the sophisticated approach. The aim of the paper is to study the most appropriate form of crop production function - the applied variables and mathematical form. Fungsi produksi CES (Constant elasticity of substitution) dan VES (Variable elasticity of substitution) menjadi alat bantu analisis yang mudah dilakukan.

65 FUNGSI PRODUKSI TANAMAN Sumber: Crop production function – study. Tereza Suchánková, Radka Bezděkovská. Proceedings of 30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics. Fungsi produksi dapat menjelaskan nilai output yang dihasilkan dari kombinasi faktor-faktor produksi pada tingkat teknologi yang ada. Penjelasan detail tentang fungsi produksi Cobb-Douglas production function (PFCD) banyak dibahas dalam pustaka ilmiah. The same literature explains the principles of the constant elasticity of substitution production function (PFCES), including well-known Kmenta’s approximations for two inputs. Detailed description can be found in literature. The variable elasticity of substitution production function (PFVES) can be found in literature.

66 FUNGSI PRODUKSI TANAMAN Sumber: Crop production function – study. Tereza Suchánková, Radka Bezděkovská. Proceedings of 30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics. FUNGSI PRODUKSI N Cobb-Douglas (PFCD) Persamaan berikut menunjukkan model PFCD dengan dua faktor produksi: dimana : Yit is a crop yield in the region i and in the time t, ai represents the level of achieved technology in the region i, g the non-objectified technological progress – the parameter for the proxy variable time t, Ait and Bit are the explanatory variables – production factors in the region i and in the time t. The coefficients α and β are the elasticities of output (harvest) with respect to the explanatory variables. The sum of these elasticities gives the information about the returns to scale. The uit is the stochastic disturbance term. For more information about the individual effects of each region, it is useful to log-transform the model in order to obtain the form linearized in parameters. Maka diperoleh bentuk persamaan: lnYit = ln ai + gt +α ln Ait +β lnBit + uit.

67 FUNGSI PRODUKSI TANAMAN Sumber: Crop production function – study. Tereza Suchánková, Radka Bezděkovská. Proceedings of 30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics. Pendekatan linear telah dilakukan oleh Kmenta [5]. Model dengan efek-efek individual adalah: : where αi is a deviation from the constant, representing the influence of each individual region i, β1 is common constant, g the non- objectified technological progress – the parameter for the proxy variable time t, β2 and β3 are the elasticity coefficients of the explanatory variables A and B and β4 expresses the elasticity of correction part of the model. Kmenta, J.: On estimation of the CES production Function. International Economic Review 8 (1967),80-89.

68 Phosphorus Fertilization Modes Affect Crop Yield, Nutrient Uptake, and Soil Biological Properties in the Rice–Wheat Cropping System Guan Guan, Shuxin Tu, Hailan Li, Juncheng Yang, Jianfeng Zhang, Shilin Wen and Li Yang. Soil Science Society of America Journal. SSSAJ Vol. 77 No. 1, p Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/77/1/166 Field experiments were performed to investigate the effects of different P fertilizer application modes on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil enzyme activity, number of microbes (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and diversity of microbes in rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system. Pengurangan dosis pupuk P-anorganik sebesar 20% tidak menyebabkan penurunan hasil tanaman, serapan hara, aktivitas enzim tanah, atau jumlah mikroba tanah. In addition, both the 20% reduction in applied P and the mixed application of organic manure and chemical P fertilizer increased not only the activity of neutral phosphatase, sucrase, protease and urease, but also the number of soil microbes, as well as the Shannon’s microbial diversity index (H), although they had no impact on crop yield and nutrient uptake. Pengurangan aplikasi dosis pupuk P sebesar 20% dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi efek pencemaran pada lahan pertanian. Aplikasi kombinasi rabuk organik dengan pupuk P-anorganik disarankan untuk memperbaiki kualitas kesuburan tanah.

69 Correlation of Soil Tests for Available Phosphorus and Potassium with Crop Yield Responses to Fertilization O. H. Long and L. F. Seatz. SSSAJ. Vol. 17 No. 3, p Published: July, Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/17/3/SS Results are presented in graphic form showing soil-test values for P and K plotted against crop yields obtained without P or K expressed as percent of yields where phosphate or potash was applied. Two methods of approach are used in showing the degree of correlation. One method is concerned with “prediction accuracy” at only the lower values of soil P or K. The other method is concerned with the regression curves and correlation coefficients for the experiments as a whole. Responses of corn to phosphorus fertilization on loess-derived soils correlated least satisfactorily with the soil test where a predicted yield response was obtained in only 17% of the tests. Permanent pastures showed the best correlation; all experiments were on soils low in phosphate and responded to applications of P. The prediction accuracies obtained with other crops were as follows: corn, on limestone-derived soils, 64%; cotton, 54%; small grains, 70%; and legume hays, 63%. Responses of cotton to potassium fertilization indicated the best correlation with the soil test, the prediction accuracy being 60%. The prediction accuracies obtained with the other crops were: corn, 44%; small grains, 47%; legume hays, 33%; and permanent pastures, 57%. The correlation coefficient (r) was not significant with respect to P on any crop; it was significant with respect to K only on corn.

70 Phosphorus Soil Test Correlation to Sugarcane Grown on Histosols in the Everglades G. H. Korndörfer, D. L. Anderson, K. M. Portier and E. A. Hanlon. SSSAJ Vol. 59 No. 6, p Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/59/6/SS Metode ekstraksi P-tanah digunakan untuk menduga jumlah P-tersedia dalam tanah, dan hasil ekstraksinya dapat dikorelasikan dengan hasil tanaman. Hasil ekstraksi P-tanah dnegan mengekstraks air, asam asetat, dan Mehlich-1 dapat digunakan sebagai prediktor respon hasil tanaman terhadap pemupukan P. Acetic acid extractable P was more highly correlated to sugar and cane yields (r = 0.72* and 0.63**, respectively) than water-extractable P (r = 0.27** and 0.39**, respectively). Mehlich-1 extractable P was poorly correlated to sugar (r = 0.25*) and cane (r = 0.05 ns ) yields. P-terekstrak asam asetat terpilih menjadi indikator terbaik untuk menduga respon tanaman tebu terhadap pemupukan P. Kriteria P-terekstraks asam asetat dikembangkan untuk mendefinisikan kelompok tingkat hasil uji tanah yg berhubungan dnegan respon tanaman: Tingkat RENDAH berkisar mg L −1, MEDIUM berkisar mg L −1, dan TINGGI : lebih dari 39 mg P L −1.

71 Long-Term P and K Applications: I. Effect on Soil Test Incline and Decline Rates and Critical Soil Test Levels G. W. Randall, T. K. Iragavarapu and S. D. Evans. JPA doi: /jpa Vol. 10 No. 4, p Sumber: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jpa/abstracts/10/4/565 Kondisi awal hasil uji tanah P-Bray dan K-tukar adalah 22 dan 150 ppmuntuk tanah lempung liat Webster (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Qpic Endoaquolls) di lokasi Waseca, MN, 10 dan 228 ppm, untuk tanah lempung liat Aastad (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive Pachic Udic Haploboroll) di lokasi Morris, MN. Aplikasi sebar pupuk P dan K setiap tahun selama 12 tahun dengan dosis 0, 50, 100 lb P 2 O 5 /acre dan 0,50, 100 lb K 2 O/acre. For the Webster soil, STP increased by 0.42 and 1.92 ppm/yr with the 50- and 100-lb P 2 O 5 rates, respectively, and by 0.69 and 2.49 ppm/yr for the Aastad sol Decline rates of STP ranged from as high as 3.3 pp/yr at an initial STP of 40 ppm to 0.4 ppdyr at initial STP of ≤10 ppm. Corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Crycine mar (L.) Merr,] yields were not increased by broadcast applications of P when STP was >13 ppm on the Webster soil and >19 ppm on the Aastad soil. Year-to-year STK variability was very high and precluded calculation of incline or decline rates or the critical STK concentration. Uji P-tanah dapat dipertahankan pada tingkat ppm untuk profitabilitas optimum dengan aplikasi lb P 2 O 5 /acre /tahun.

72 SOIL TESTING FOR SITE SPECIFIC CROP MANAGEMENT: RESIN-EXTRACTABLE RATIOS AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTION Olness, Alan Gesch, Russell Barbour, Nancy Rinke, Jana. International Conference on Site Specific Agriculture. Proceedings. Publication Acceptance Date: July 19, 2000.Gesch, RussellBarbour, NancyRinke, Jana Sumber: Hasil tanaman meningkat sebesar 27% kalau rasio molar Mg : (Mg + Ca) ekstraks resin meningkat Seed yields of 9061 increased in 2 of 3 years as the Mg:(Mg + Ca) molar ratio increased. Seed yields of 704 increased as the resin extractable Mg:(Mg + Ca) molar ratio increased in both years in which it was grown. Hasil kedelai meningkat dengan adanya aplikasi MgPO4; hal ini mendukung temuan bahwa kandungan Mg ekstraks resin berhubungan erat dengan haisl kedelai.

73 Maize Yield as Affected by Water Availability, Soil Depth, and Crop Management P. A. Calviño, F. H. Andrade and V. O. Sadras. AJ doi: /agronj Vol. 95 No. 2, p Sumber: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/abstracts/95/2/275 1.Fungsi dasar dikembangkan untuk mengkuantifikasikan hubungan antara hasil tanaman dnegan ketersediaan air (W) selama periode pembentukan biji. 2.Fungsi dasar diuji dnegan seperangkat data independen. 3.Fungsi dasar digunakan untuk evaluasi efek kedalaman tanah dan praktek pengelolaan thdhasil tanaman. Yield varied between 4.2 and 10 t ha −1, and most of this variation (>84%) was accounted for by W during the period bracketing flowering. Shallow soils presented lower yield than deep soils at a given rainfall. Efek praktek pengelolaan thd produktivitas dapat dianalisis dengan fungsi hubungan antara hasil tanaman dengan ketersediaan air (W). Technology-related yield increases were (a) 2.3 t ha −1 from the late 1980s to the mid- 1990s, mainly explained by P fertilization, better and earlier weed control, and improved hybrids; (b) 0.9 t ha −1 from the mid-1990s to 1996–1998, related to no-till and higher plant density; and (c) 0.8 t ha −1 from 1996–1998 to 1999–2000, mainly explained by enhanced rates of N fertilization.

74 The probability of precipitation and the crop-yield, soil- depth function Angelos Pagoulatos. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July/August 1989 vol. 44 no Sumber: Kedalaman horison fragipan pada tanah lempung- debu Zanesville ternyata sangat mempengaruhi hasil tanaman. Semakin dalam lokasi horison fragipan, semakin tinggi hasil tanaman jagungnya; efek ini ternyata juga dipengaruhi oleh distribusi hujan selama periode pertumbuhan tanaman jagung.

75 Effect of soil type and depth on crop production J. W. S. Reith a1, R. H. E. Inkson a1, K. S. Caldwell a1, W. E. Simpson a1 and J. A. M. Ross The Journal of Agricultural ScienceThe Journal of Agricultural Science / Volume 103 / Issue 02 / October 1984, pp Sumber: Tanah bergambut mampu menghasilkan tanaman lebih baik daripada tanah mineral, diduga karena ia mampu melepaskan N lebih banyak. Topsoil yang dalam (tebal) menunjukkan hasil tanaman yg tertinggi. Topsoil dengan subsoil pasir menunjukkan hasil tanaman yang terendah. All the crops on the peaty soil had higher concentrations of P in the dry matter than those from the seven mineral soils. Crops and herbage on the Laurencekirk and Foud-land soils had consistently slightly higher P concentrations than those on the other five mineral soils. Compared with the amounts applied, the crops removed considerably more K but only 45–68% of the P. Berbagai serie-tanah menunjukkan proporsi P-residu yang terekstraks asam asetat dengan nilai yang berbeda-beda. Kedalaman topsoil sangat menentukan hasil tanaman, dan dapat dipakai sebagai faktor utama dalam Klasifikasi Kapabilitas Lahan pertanian.

76 Simulating the Effects of Soil Depth and Climatic Factors on Corn Yield J. B. Swan, M. J. Shaffer, W. H. Paulson and A. E. Peterson SSSAJ Vol. 51 No. 4, p Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/51/4/SS Model simulasi dipakai untuk meng-estimasi respon hasil tanaman terhadap kondisi iklim dan simpanan lengas tanah. Ada efek interaksi antara kondisi iklim dan WHC tanah terhadap hasil jagung. Pada 1983, 1984, dan 1985 hasil jagung meningkat kalau kedalaman tanah meningkat; pada tahun 1981 dan 1982 hasil jagung hanya sedikit berhubungan dengan kedalaman tanah. The observed differential effect of soil depth to residuum on corn yield under different years' climatic conditions necessitated the use of a simulation model to estimate corn yield accurately in a given year and to express the probability of obtaining a given yield level. Frequency distributions for grain yield were determined for specific soil depths to residuum. Hasil biji jagung ditentukan sebagai fungsi kedalaman tanah berdasarkan nilai-nilai simulasi faktor iklim harian di suatu lokasi, selama periode 100 tahun.

77 CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL SALINITY: EVALUATION OF FIELD DATA FROM INDIA BY SEGMENTED LINEAR REGRESSION WITH BREAKPOINT R.J. Oosterbaan, D.P. Sharma, K.N. Singh and K.V.G.K Rao. Proceedings of the Symposium on Land Drainage for Salinity Control in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, February 25th to March 2nd, 1990, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 3, Session V, p Sumber: Hubungan antara hasil gandum dengan salinitas tanah (ECe)

78 CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL SALINITY: EVALUATION OF FIELD DATA FROM INDIA BY SEGMENTED LINEAR REGRESSION WITH BREAKPOINT R.J. Oosterbaan, D.P. Sharma, K.N. Singh and K.V.G.K Rao. Proceedings of the Symposium on Land Drainage for Salinity Control in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, February 25th to March 2nd, 1990, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 3, Session V, p Salinitas tanah, Ec (dS/m) Hasil tanaman sawi (t/ha)

79 DEPTH OF SOIL CULTIVATION AS AN INFLUENCING FACTOR ON CROP YIELDS OF GREENHOUSE TOMATOES Dr. J. Skierkowski ISHS Acta Horticulturae 17: Symposium on Protected Growing of Vegetables Sumber: Pengolahan tanah secara-dalam menunjukkan efek yg bagus terhadap hasil buah tanaman tomat. Higher yields are obtained of spring tomatoes, even though in the case of autumn tomatoes significant differences in favour of the deep cultivation of soil were obtained.

80 . Soil Properties and Crop Yields along the Terraces and Toposequece of Anjeni Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia Tadele Amare, Aemro Terefe, Yihenew G. Selassie, Birru Yitaferu, Bettina Wolfgramm, Hans Hurni JAS. Vol 5, No 2 (2013). Vol 5, No 2 (2013) Sumber:http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jas/article/view/23934 Hasil-hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pH tanah, kation-tukar, P-tersedia, jumlah kation basa dan persen kejenuhan basa tidak berbeda antara “loss zone” dan “deposition zone”, sedangkan C-organik, dan N-total lebih tinggi pada lokasi “deposition zone”. For both testing crops, higher mean yields were found at deposition zones followed by the middle zones while the lowest value was obtained from the loss zones. Soil pH, exchangeable cations, available phosphorus, sum of exchangeable bases, percent base saturation, organic carbon and total nitrogen showed significant variation due to slope position differences. Toe slope position followed by crest slope position showed higher mean value of the parameters. Implementasi tindakan konservasi tanah di DAS Anjeni dapat mengurangi erosi tanah, memperbaiki kualitas tanah dan meningkatkan hasil tanaman.

81 THE EFFECT OF SOIL THICKNESS ON CROP YIELDS Richard Barnhisel 2, James Powell, and R. Brent Gray. Paper was presented at the 2005 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Breckenridge, CO, June, 19-23, Sumber: Ketebalan tanah pada lokasi lahan-reklamasi bekas tambang sangat berpengaruh terhadap hasil-hasil berbagai jenis tanaman. The soil thickness was most important for corn, followed by grain sorghum, soybeans, wheat, and alfalfa. Soil compaction also affected crop yields, especially for corn. Since the primary standard used to determine Phase III bond release in the mid-western states is based on corn yield, several studies were conducted on the effect of both soil depth and bulk density data as controlling factors in determining corn yield. Hasil kedelai dan gandum tidak terlalu terpengaruh oleh kedalaman tanah, dibandingkan dnegan hasil jagung. Hasil Alfalfa paling tidak-terpengaruhi oleh kedalaman tanah, dan tanaman ini membantu mengurangi pemadatan tanah. Hasil jagung lebih baik setelah lima tahun lahan digunakan untuk memproduksi alfalfa.

82 Relation between soil organic matter and yield levels of nonlegume crops in organic and conventional farming systems Christopher Brock, Andreas Fließbach, Hans-Rudolf Oberholzer, Franz Schulz, Klaus Wiesinger, Frank Reinicke, Wernfried Koch, Bernhard Pallutt, Bärbel Dittman, Jörg Zimmer, Kurt-Jürgen Hülsbergen, Günter Leithold. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. Volume 174, Issue 4, pages 568–575, August, 2011.Volume 174, Issue 4, Sumber: Bagaimana hubungan antara haisl tanaman dnegan kandungan BOT pada kondisi pertanian organik dan pertanian konvensional ?. Yield levels of nonlegume crops were positively correlated with SOM levels, but the correlation was significant only under conditions of organic farming, and not with conventional farming treatments. While absolute SOM levels had a positive impact on yield levels of nonlegumes, the yield levels of nonlegumes and SOM-level development over time correlated negatively. Semakin tinggi hasil tanaman non-legume, semakin banyak diperlukan suplai BO untuk mempertahankan kandungan BOT.

83 . Dryland Crop Yields and Soil Organic Matter as Influenced by Long-Term Tillage and Cropping Sequence Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-TonThat and Robert G. Evans AJ doi: /agronj xVol. 101 No. 2, p Sumber: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/abstracts/101/2/243?access=0&view=pdf Praktek budidaya tanaman yg lebih baik diperlukan untuk memperbaiki hasil tanaman lahan kering dan mempertahankan kandungan BOT. Spring wheat grain and biomass yields increased with crop growing season precipitation (GSP) and were greater in STW-F than in FSTCW and FSTW-B/P when GSP was <250 mm. Although mean grain and biomass yields were greater, annualized yields were lower in STW-F than in other treatments. In FSTW-B/P, barley and pea grain and biomass yields also increased with increased GSP. Kandungan C-organik dan N-total tanah berkorelasi linear dengan total residu biomasa yang dikembalikan ke tanah. Sistem pertanaman semusim dengan minimum atau tanpa olah tanah disarankan untuk melestarikan hasil tanaman lahan kering dan menjaga kandungan BOT.

84 . Soil Organic Matter Levels and Crop Yields in Puerto Rico M. A. Lugo-López, J. A. Bonnet, E. Hernández-Medina, P. Landrau and G. Samuels SSSAJ Vol. 18 No. 4, p Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/18/4/SS ?access=0&view=pdf No increases in organic-matter content were observed in some latosols of Puerto Rico with an open porous structure and low fertility level when treated with different quantities of velvetbean green manure, sugarcane trash, and filter-press cake. Peningkatan hasil jagung diperoleh dnegan perlakuan pupuk hijau “velvet-bean”, mungkin karena peningkatan suplai N-tersedia dalam tanah. Aplikasi bahan organik dapat meningkatkan kandungan BOT, tetapi tidak terlalu berdampak pada kondisi fisika tanah. Peningkatan hasil tebu dan nanas diduga ada hubungannya dengan perbaikan kondisi fisika tanah akibat peningkatan kandungan BOT.

85 Air dan Hasil Tanaman.. Respon hasil tanaman thd air : the original FAO water production function Sumber: FAO addressed the relationship between crop yield and water use in the late seventies proposing a simple equation where relative yield reduction is related to the corresponding relative reduction in evapotranspiration (ET). Specifically, the yield response to ET is expressed as: where Yx and Ya are the maximum and actual yields, ETx and ETa are the maximum and actual evapotranspiration, and Ky is a yield response factor representing the effect of a reduction in evapotranspiration on yield losses. Equation 1 is a water production function and can be applied to all agricultural crops, i.e. herbaceous, trees and vines.

86 Gradien Hasil-Irigasi dan Fungsi produksi tanaman- air Sumber:

87 Sumber: Contoh kurva respon nitrogen untuk tanaman gandum dari petani di Picardie (Northern France) Dosis pupuk N, kg/ha Hasil tanaman, t/ha

88 Penyesuaian kurva STICS dg memperhatikan kalibrasi model ekonomi berdasarkan hasil-referensi dan referensi biaya variabel. Sumber:

89 The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation Luz E. de-BashanLuz E. de-Bashan, Juan-Pablo Hernandez, Yoav Bashan Applied Soil Ecology. Volume 61, October 2012, Pages 171–189Volume 61 Sumber: Schematic representati on of uses of plant growth- promoting bacteria and AM fungi in bioremediat ion processes.

90 The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation Luz E. de-BashanLuz E. de-Bashan, Juan-Pablo Hernandez, Yoav Bashan Applied Soil Ecology. Volume 61, October 2012, Pages 171–189Volume 61 Sumber: Potential rehabilitation strategies to address desertificatio n of eroded land.

91 FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH Sumber: Ketersediaan hara tanaman menjadi faktor pembatas bagi pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Definition of growth - The progressive development of an organism. Usually expressed as dry weight (total of the part we're interested in such as grain), height, length, diameter Pertumbuhan tanaman merupakan fungsi waktu, berbentuk kurva S selama musimpertumbuhannya.

92 Sumber: foto smno.hutan jati.saradan.febr2013 Bagaimana menduga produktivitas tegakan hutan tanaman jati….. ?


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