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Monopoli dan Kebijakan Harga Mikroekonomi. Pasar Monopoli Karakteristik pasar monopoli 1.Satu penjual – banyak pembeli 2.Satu jenis produk (tidak ada.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Monopoli dan Kebijakan Harga Mikroekonomi. Pasar Monopoli Karakteristik pasar monopoli 1.Satu penjual – banyak pembeli 2.Satu jenis produk (tidak ada."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Monopoli dan Kebijakan Harga Mikroekonomi

2 Pasar Monopoli Karakteristik pasar monopoli 1.Satu penjual – banyak pembeli 2.Satu jenis produk (tidak ada substitusi) 3.Ada kendala untuk keluar/masuk industri kendala teknis dan legal 4.Monopoli biasanya menciptakan kendala untuk mencegah perusahaan baru masuk Caranya dengan : Patent, copyrights, licenses, economies of scale 5.Pembentuk/penentu harga

3 Rata-rata dan Tambahan/marjinal Pendapatan (AR dan MR) Kurva MR diturunkan dari kurva permintaan pasar Monopoli menentukan Q dan P dengan menggunakan kurva permintaan pasar. Misal: Kurva permintaan pasar untuk monopoli: P = 6 - Q

4 Grafik kurva MR dan AR Output Rp per unit of output AR (Demand) MR

5 Lost profit P1P1 Q1Q1 Lost profit MC AC Q-units Rp per unit of output D = AR MR P* Q* Keputusan produksi P2P2 Q2Q2

6 keseimbangan di pasar monopoli

7 Keseimbangan di pasar monopoli

8 Q-units Rp R 10 Profits r r' c c’ Profit Maximisasi C Profit maksimal ketika slope of rr’ dan slope cc’ sama: MR=MC

9 Profit AR MR MC AC Contoh: profit maximisasi Q-units P=30 Rp per unit AC=15 Profit = (P - AC) x Q = ( )(10) = 150

10 Penetapan Harga di Pasar Monopoli Menambah satu unit produksi akan meningkatkan pendapatan (revenue) = P Dgn kurva permintaan yang menurun, kalau menambah produksi akan menurunkan harga (  P/  Q<0) –Berarti ada penurunan total pendapatan (R)

11 Penetapan Harga di Pasar Monopoli


13 Harga di pasar monopoli dan harga di pasar competitif Monopoli P > MC Price is larger than MC by an amount that depends inversely on the elasticity of demand Perfect Competition P = MC Demand is perfectly elastic so P=MC

14 Pasar Monopoli dan sifat permintaan pasar Kalau permintaan pasar sangat elastis maka sedikit keuntungan untuk perusahaan monopoli. The larger the elasticity, the closer to a perfectly competitive market Notice a monopolist will never produce a quantity in the inelastic portion of demand curve –In inelastic portion, can increase revenue by decreasing quantity and increasing price

15 Shifts in Demand In perfect competition, the market supply curve is determined by marginal cost. For a monopoly, output is determined by marginal cost and the shape of the demand curve. – There is no supply curve for monopolistic market

16 D2D2 MR 2 D1D1 MR 1 Shifts in Demand Quantity MC $/Q P2P2 P1P1 Q 1 = Q 2 Shift in demand leads to change in price but same quantity

17 D1D1 MR 1 Shifts in Demand MC $/Q MR 2 D2D2 P 1 = P 2 Q1Q1 Q2Q2 Quantity Shift in demand leads to change in quantity but same price

18 The Effect of a Tax In competitive market, a per-unit tax causes price to rise by less than tax: burden shared by producers and consumers Under monopoly, price can sometimes rise by more than the amount of the tax. To determine the impact of a tax: –t = specific tax –MC = MC + t

19 Effect of Excise Tax on Monopolist Quantity $/Q MC D = AR MR Q0Q0 P0P0 MC + tax t Increase in P: P 0 to P 1 > tax Q1Q1 P1P1

20 Effect of Excise Tax on Monopolist The amount the price increases with implementation of a tax depends on elasticity of demand Price may or may not increase by more than the tax In a competitive market, the price cannot increase by more than tax Profits for monopolist will fall with a tax

21 Measuring Monopoly Power Could measure monopoly power by the extent to which price is greater than MC for each firm Lerner’s Index of Monopoly Power –L = (P - MC)/P The larger the value of L (between 0 and 1) the greater the monopoly power. –L is expressed in terms of E d L = (P - MC)/P = -1/E d E d is elasticity of demand for a firm, not the market

22 Monopoly Power Monopoly power, however, does not guarantee profits. Profit depends on average cost relative to price. One firm may have more monopoly power, but lower profits due to high average costs

23 Elasticity of Demand and Price Markup P* MR D $/ Q Quantity MC Q* P*-MC The more elastic is demand, the less the markup. D MR $/ Q Quantity MC Q* P* P*-MC

24 The Social Costs of Monopoly Power Monopoly power results in higher prices and lower quantities. However, does monopoly power make consumers and producers in the aggregate better or worse off? We can compare producer and consumer surplus when in a competitive market and in a monopolistic market

25 The Social Costs of Monopoly Perfectly competitive firm will produce where MC = D  PC and QC Monopoly produces where MR = MC, getting their price from the demand curve  PM and QM There is a loss in consumer surplus when going from perfect competition to monopoly A deadweight loss is also created with monopoly

26 B A Lost Consumer Surplus Because of the higher price, consumers lose A+B and producer gains A-C. C Deadweight Loss from Monopoly Power Quantity AR=D MR MC QCQC PCPC PmPm QmQm $/Q Deadweight Loss

27 Capturing Consumer Surplus Quantity $/Q D MR P max MC PCPC The firm would like to charge higher price to those consumers willing to pay it - A P* Q* A P1P1 Firm would also like to sell to those in area B but without lowering price to all consumers B P2P2 Both ways will allow the firm to capture more consumer surplus

28 P* Q* Without price discrimination, output is Q* and price is P*. Variable profit is the area between the MC & MR (yellow). Perfect First-Degree Price Discrimination Quantity $/Q With perfect discrimination, firm will choose to produce Q** increasing variable profits to include purple area. Consumer surplus is the area above P* and between 0 and Q* output. P max D = AR MR MC Q** PCPC

29 First-Degree Price Discrimination in Practice Quantity D MR MC $/Q P2P2 P3P3 P1P1 P5P5 P6P6 Six prices exist resulting in higher profits. With a single price P* 4, there are fewer consumers. P* 4 Q* Discriminating up to P 6 (competitive price) will increase profits

30 Second-Degree Price Discrimination $/Q Without discrimination: P = P 0 and Q = Q 0. With second-degree discrimination there are three blocks with prices P 1, P 2, & P 3. Quantity D MR MC AC P0P0 Q0Q0 Q1Q1 P1P1 1st Block P2P2 Q2Q2 2nd Block P3P3 Q3Q3 3rd Block Different prices are charged for different quantities or “blocks” of same good

31 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Practice of dividing consumers into two or more groups with separate demand curves and charging different prices to each group 1.Divides the market into two-groups. 2.Each group has its own demand function.

32 Price Discrimination Third Degree Price Discrimination Most common type of price discrimination. –Examples: airlines, premium v. non-premium liquor, discounts to students and senior citizens, frozen v. canned vegetables.

33 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Some characteristic is used to divide the consumer groups Typically elasticities of demand differ for the groups –College students and senior citizens are not usually willing to pay as much as others because of lower incomes –These groups are easily distinguishable with ID’s

34 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Algebraically –P 1 : price first group –P 2 : price second group –C(Q T ) = total cost of producing output Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 –Profit:  = P 1 Q 1 + P 2 Q 2 - C(Q T )

35 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Firm should increase sales to each group until incremental profit from last unit sold is zero Set incremental  for sales to group 1 = 0

36 Third-Degree Price Discrimination First group of consumers: –MR 1 = MC Can do the same thing for the second group of consumers Second group of customers: –MR 2 = MC Combining these conclusions gives –MR 1 = MR 2 = MC

37 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Determining relative prices –Thinking of relative prices that should be charged to each group of consumers and relating them to price elasticities of demand may be easier.

38 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Determining relative prices –Equating MR 1 and MR 2 gives the following relationship that must hold for prices –The higher price will be charged to consumer with the lower demand elasticity

39 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Quantity D 2 = AR 2 MR 2 $/Q D 1 = AR 1 MR 1 Consumers are divided into two groups, with separate demand curves for each group. MR T MR T = MR 1 + MR 2

40 Third-Degree Price Discrimination Quantity D 2 = AR 2 MR 2 $/Q D 1 = AR 1 MR 1 MR T MC Q2Q2 P2P2 Q T : MC = MR T Group 1: more inelastic Group 2: more elastic MR 1 = MR 2 = MC T Q T control MC Q1Q1 P1P1 MC = MR 1 at Q 1 and P 1 QTQT MC T

41 The Two-Part Tariff Form of pricing in which consumers are charged both an entry and usage fee. A fee is charged upfront for right to use/buy the product An additional fee is charged for each unit the consumer wishes to consume Pricing decision is setting the entry fee (T) and the usage fee (P). Choosing the trade-off between free-entry and high-use prices or high-entry and zero-use prices.

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