1 Praktek Pengelolaan Lahan LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES MK. MANAJEMEN SLPW disarikan oleh; Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS Maret 2013.
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1 Praktek Pengelolaan Lahan LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES MK. MANAJEMEN SLPW disarikan oleh; Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS Maret 2013
2 Land use and land management practices: Concepts, terms and classification principles Rob Lesslie, Bureau of Rural Sciences Land management practices information priorities, classification and mapping – towards an agreed national approach. Kamberra Winery, Canberra 11-12 May 2004
3 1. PENDAHULUAN The purpose of this paper is to: outline key concepts and terms associated with land use and land management practices; outline the principles underpinning the Australian Land Use and Management (ALUM) classification (the nationally agreed land use classification system for land use) that relate to land management practices; and address the relationship between the ALUM classification and land management practices information.
4 2. ISTILAH PENTING The term ‘land management practices’ is one of a number that describe aspects of landscape occupation, use and management. There is often confusion among these terms. For example, ‘land use’ and ‘land cover’ may be applied in the same context, perhaps because of the common use of remotely sensed satellite imagery or photography for mapping. The distinction between ‘land use’ and ‘land management practice’ is also not always well understood. The following definitions are offered:
TUTUPAN LAHAN Land cover Kondisi permukaan bumi, termasuk berbagai kombinasi tipe-tipe vegetasi, tanah, batuan yang tersingkap, dan badan perairan. Land evaluation: Kesesuaian agroekologi Land valuation: Kelayakan agroekonomi
6 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN Mencerminkan tujuan pemanfaatan lahan, termasuk produksi barang (seperti tanaman pertanian, tegakan kayu hutan dan manufactures) serta jasa-jasa (seperti pertahanan, rekreasi, biodiversity dan perlindungan sumberdaya alam). Beberapa tipe penggunaan lahan, seperti lahan pertanian, mempunyai pola tutupan lahan yang khas. Contoh: Tutupan lahan berupa hutan, maka penggunaan lahannya dapat berupa hutan tanaman kayu atau konservasi alam.
7 PRAKTEK PENGELOLAAN LAHAN Mencerminkan cara-cara yang dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan pengelolaan lahan - bagaimana penggunaan lahann (misalnya praktek pengolahan tanahnya berupa “minimum tillage” atau “direct drilling”, tanam benih langsung). Beberapa praktek pengelolaan lahan, seperti pembongkaran tonggak pohon, sistem rotasi dan pengolahan tanah, dibedakan oleh pola-pola tutupan lahan tertentu. Teknologi Mulsa Pengolahan Tanah Pergiliran Tanaman
8 KOMODITAS TANAMAN Usually refers to an agricultural or mining product that can be processed. Commodity information may relate to land use and land cover. Tebu harus diolah menjadi gula
9 PENGUASAAN LAHAN Land Tenure The form of an interest in land. Some forms of tenure (such as pastoral or mineral leases or nature conservation reserves) relate directly to land use and land management. Land tenurial system lahan sawah ditandai oleh pematang petakan lahan
10 KEMAMPUAN DAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN Land capability assesses the limitations to land use imposed by land characteristics and specifies management options. Land suitability (part of the process of land evaluation) is the fitness of a given type of land for a specified kind of land use.
11 KLASIFIKASI Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships. It entails ordering in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria.
12 Ideally, a classification system should incorporate characteristics that make it: Scale independent, meaning that the classes at all levels should be applicable at any scale or level of detail; Source independent, implying that it is independent of the means used to collect information, whether satellite imagery, aerial photography, field survey or some combination of them is used; comprehensive, scientifically sound and practically oriented;
13 capable of meeting the needs of a variety of users (neither single-project oriented nor taking a sectoral approach); users can use just a sub-set of the classification and develop from there according to their own specific needs; facilitate comparisons between classes derived from different classifications; able to describe the complete range of features with clear class boundary definition that are unambiguous and unique;
14 adapted to fully describe variation with the minimal set of classifiers necessary (the less classifiers used in the definition, the less the error expected and the less time and resources necessary for field validation); and based on a clear and systematic description of the class, where diagnostic criteria used to define a class must be clearly defined. (after Gregorio and Jansen 2000)
15 Classification systems are generally either hierarchical or non-hierarchical. Most systems are hierarchically structured because this accommodates different levels of information starting with structured broad-level classes allowing further subdivision into more detailed sub-classes. At each level defined classes are mutually exclusive.
16 Classification can be completed in two ways: An a priori classification is based upon the definition of classes before data collection takes place. This means all possible combinations of diagnostic criteria must be resolved beforehand by the classification. The main advantage is that classes are standardized, independent of the area under investigation and methods employed. However, some identified objects may not be easily assigned to pre-defined classes.
17 A posteriori classification is based upon definition of classes after clustering, based on the similarity or dissimilarity of field samples. The advantage of this type of classification is flexibility, adaptability and minimal generalization. However, because this approach depends on the specific characteristics of area under investigation, it is unable to define standardized classes.
18 KLASIFIKASI PRAKTEK PENGELOLAAN LAHAN As yet, no formal classification system for land management practices has been developed; a difficult objective given the range of phenomena that can be considered land management practice (from mechanical cultivation practices, to farming systems and business management methods). Pengelolaan lahan sawah mempunyai ciri spesifik, berbeda dengan lahan kering Sumber: foto smn 2010
19 The classification is designed to provide for users who are interested in both processes (eg land management practices) and outputs (eg commodities)
20 Among other difficulties associated with the classification of land management practices is that a wide range of practices may apply concurrently at any given point in the landscape – this means that they are not amenable to dichotomous classification and mapping. They may also vary over very short time frames (which may or may not accurately reflect long-term management intent). Aksesibilitas transportasi menjadi penentu dinamika konversi lahan. Foto smn 2011. Foto smn 2011
21 Sustainability goals of the land manegement are identified as: Cultural heritage, financial return, greenhouse and air quality, nature conservation, quality of life, soil health, water quantity and quality. Konversi lahan sawah menjadi perumahan terjadi karena tekanan ekonomi pasar.
22 EMPAT THEMA UTAMA PRAKTEK PENGELOLAAN PERTANIAN : 1. SISTEM PRODUKSI PERTANIAN Practices relating to the system that produces the relevant commodity, including the management of soils, plants and animals (eg tactical grazing, or opportunity cropping). Pengelolaan usahatani biasanya dimulai dengan pengolahan lahan usaha. Foto : smn 2010
2. PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN Practices relating to the management of the natural environment and off-farm environmental issues, including dryland salinity, biodiversity and water quality (eg integrated pest management, retention, rehabilitation or restoration of native vegetation). Pengelolaan BONITA Hutan Jati ….. Pendekatan ekologi-ekonomi…. Foto:smno.hutanjati.jan2013
24 3. Business management. Practices that relate to the management of farm business and includes financial management, product marketing, benchmarking and monitoring and management of risk (eg annual budget and investment plans). Pola usahatani tanaman pertanian sangat ditentukan oleh pasar hasil panennya. Sumber; foto smn 2010 Agroekosistem sawah: Agroekologi - agroekonomi
4. Personal and community well-being. Practices that relate to the personal well- being of farming families and to their engagement in communities of common interest. (eg maintaining a commitment to family by balancing work, leisure, family time and community involvement). Foto:smno.sawah.febr2013 AGROEKOSISTEM SAWAH AGRO- EKONOMI
26 Sebanyak 24 kelas praktek pengelolaan lahan untuk pertanian lahan kering: 1. Agroforestry 2. Animal condition management 3. Breeding program 4. Business and financial planning 5. Chemical contamination avoidance 6. Commitment to family 7. Community and industry participation
8. Crop rotation: Pergiliran Tanaman 9. Effective management of labour and resources 10. Environmental monitoring and benchmarking 11. Identification and protective management of cultural heritage Foto:smno.agroekosistem.sawah.febr2013 Pola tanam di lahan sawah: Padi – bwmerah - jagung
12. Incorporation or retention of perennial species in AGRO- FORESTRY Agroforestry jati dan jagung: Kesesuaian agroekologis Kelayakan agroekonomi Akseptabilitas agrososiologi Foto:smno.agroforestry.htjati.febr2013
29 13. Integrated pest management = Pengendalian Hama Terpadu
14. Knowledge and skill development 15. Management according to land capability Foto:smno.klinikpertanian.sawah.agst2012
16. Managing for weather and climate variation 17. Nutrient budgeting – diagnosis status hara tanaman padi 18. Occupational health and safety 19. Quality assurance Foto:smno.klinikpertanian.sawah.agst2012
20. Retention and management of native vegetation 21. Soil conservation 22. Tactical grazing 23. Tillage and stubble management 24. Waterway and floodplain management, rainwater harvesting Foto:smno.klinikpertanian.embung.jan2013
OBSERVASI 1. ‘Land management practice’ is one of a number of related terms that describe aspects of land occupation, use and management. 2. Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria. Sumber: Foto smno.penanaman.bibit.okt2010
Praktek pengelolaan lahan sawah untuk budidaya padi: Dimulai dari panen tanaman, dilanjutkan dnegan mengolah tanah dengan cara membajak, hal ini dilakukan untuk menyiapkan kondisi tanah yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bibit padi Agroekoteknologi : Manajemen lahan sawah Foto:smno.klinikpertanian.sawah.febr2013
Klasifikasi Pengelolaan dan Penggunaan Lahan di Australia (Version 5 (November 2001)
References Barson, M.M. (1999). Workshop on Land Use Management Mapping. Report to the National Land and Water Resources Audit. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Baxter, J. T. and Russell, L. D. (1994). Land Use Mapping Requirements for Natural Resource Management in the Murray-Darling Basin. Project M305: Task 6. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria. Bureau of Rural Sciences (2002) Land use mapping at Catchment Scale: Principles, procedures and definitions. Edition 2. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Clifton, C. McGregor, C. Standen, R. and Fritsch S. (2004) Current recommended practice: a directory for dryland broadacre agriculture. MDBC Publication 01/04. Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Gregorio, A. and Jansen, L. (2000). Land cover classification system. FAO Land and Water Development Division. FAO. Sokal R. (1974). Classification: purposes, principles, progress, prospects. Science 185 (4157): pp. 1115-1123.