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7-1. 7-2 B A B 7 KAS DAN PIUTANG Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield.

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Presentasi berjudul: "7-1. 7-2 B A B 7 KAS DAN PIUTANG Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield."— Transcript presentasi:

1 7-1

2 7-2 B A B 7 KAS DAN PIUTANG Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

3 7-3 1.Mengidentifikasi kas. 2.Menunjukkan cara melaporkan kas dan item terkait 2.Menunjukkan cara melaporkan kas dan item terkait. 3.Mendefinisikan piutang dan mengidentifikasi jenis piutang. 4.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan pengakuan piutang 4.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan pengakuan piutang. 5.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian piutang 5.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian piutang. 6.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi terkait dengan pengakuan wesel tagih. 7.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian wesel tagih 7.Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian wesel tagih. 8.Memahami Informasi khusus yang berkaitan dengan piutang 8.Memahami Informasi khusus yang berkaitan dengan piutang. 9.Menjelaskan bagaimana melaporkan dan menganalisa piutang 9.Menjelaskan bagaimana melaporkan dan menganalisa piutang. Tujuan Pembelajaran

4 7-4 Pengakuan Penilaian Proses evaluasi kerugian KasPiutang Piutang Wesel Masalah Khusus Apa itu Kas? Pelaporan kas Ringkasan pos- pos terkait kas Pengakuan Penilaian Opsi nilai wajar Penghentian pengakuan atas piutang Penyajian dan analisis Cash and Receivables

5 7-5 Sebuah aset—merupakan suatu instrumen keuangan. Instrumen keuangan - Setiap kontrak yang menimbulkan aset keuangan dari satu entitas dan kewajiban keuangan atau kepentingan ekuitas entitas lain. CashCash LO 1 Identify items considered cash. What is cash? Illustration 7-1 Types of Assets

6 7-6 ► Aset yang paling likuid, tergolong aset lancar ► Alat pembayaran. ► Dasar untuk mengukur dan sebagai laporan bagi seluruh pos lainnya. CashCash LO 1 Identify items considered cash. What is cash? Examples: mata uang, dana yang tersedia pada deposito di bank, money order, cek bersertifikat, cek kontan, cek pribadi, bank draft dan tabungan.

7 7-7 Investasi jangka pendek (≤ 3 bulan), investasi yang sangat likuid CashCash LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items. Reporting Cash (a)dapat segera dikonversikan menjadi kas, dan (b)So near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in interest rates. Examples: Treasury bills, commercial paper, dan reksa dana pasar uang. Cash equivalent

8 7-8 When material in amount: Dipisahkan dari rekening kas Aktiva lancar dan aktiva tidak lancar CashCash LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items. Restrictied cash Examples, dibatasi untuk: (1) perluasan pabrik, (2) masa jatuh tempo dari utang jangka panjang, dan (3) saldo kompensasi.

9 7-9 Ketika sebuah perusahaan menulis cek melebihi jumlah kas yang ada di rekening bank. CashCash LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items. Bank Overdrafts Umumnya dilaporkan sebagai kewajiban lancar (utang usaha) Dikompensasikan ke rekening kas hanya ketika kas yang tersedia hadir dalam account lain di bank yang sama di mana pinjaman rekening koran (overdrafts) terjadi.

10 7-10 CashCash LO 2 Illustration 7-3 Summary of Cash-Related Items

11 7-11 Accounts Receivable LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables. Perjanjian tertulis dari pembeli/pelanggan untuk membayar sejumlah uang pada tanggal tertentu di masa depan Piutang adalah klaim kepada pihak lain atas uang, barang atau jasa Perjanjian secara lisan dari pembeli/pelanggan untuk membayar barang atau jasa yang dijual PiutangPiutang Piutang Wesel

12 7-12 Piutang non-usaha 1.Uang Muka kepada petugas dan karyawan. 2.Uang muka kepada anak perusahaan. 3.Deposit untuk menutupi kerusakan atau kerugian potensial. 4.Deposito sebagai jaminan kinerja atau pembayaran. 5.Dividen dan piutang bunga. 6.Klaim atas: a)Perusahaan asuransi. b)Defendants under suit. c)Badan pemerintah atas pengembalian pajak. d)Jasa angkutan atas barang yang rusak atau hilang. e)Kreditor atas pengembalian barang, barang yang rusak dan hilang. f)Pelanggan atas barang-barang yang dikembalikan. Accounts Receivable LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables.

13 7-13 Non-trade Receivables Accounts Receivable LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables. Illustration 7-4 Receivables Statement of Financial Position Presentations

14 7-14 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Trade diskon Mengurangi harga Tidak diakui dalam catatan akuntansi Pelanggan ditagih sebesar harga jual setelah dikurangi diskon Trade diskon Mengurangi harga Tidak diakui dalam catatan akuntansi Pelanggan ditagih sebesar harga jual setelah dikurangi diskon 10 % Discount for new Retail Store Customers Pengakuan Piutang

15 7-15 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Cash Discounts (Sales Discounts) Sebagai insentif untuk segera dibayar Gross Method vs. Net Method Cash Discounts (Sales Discounts) Sebagai insentif untuk segera dibayar Gross Method vs. Net Method Payment terms are 2/10, n/30 Pengakuan Piutang

16 7-16 Sales 1,960 Accounts receivable 1,960June 3 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Cash (£2,000 x 98%) 1,960 Accounts receivable 1,960 June 12 E7-5: E7-5: On June 3, Bolton Company sold to Arquette Company merchandise having a sale price of £2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/60, f.o.b. shipping point. On June 12, the company received a check for the balance due from Arquette Company. Prepare the journal entries on Bolton Company books to record the sale assuming Bolton records sales using the net method.

17 7-17 E7-5: E7-5: On June 3, Bolton Company sold to Arquette Company merchandise having a sale price of £2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/60, f.o.b. shipping point. Prepare the journal entries on Bolton Company books to record the sale assuming Bolton records sales using the gross method, and Arquette did not remit payment until July 29. Sales 1,960 Accounts receivable 1,960June 3 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Cash 2,000 Accounts receivable 1,960 Sales discounts forfeited40 June 12

18 7-18 Sebuah perusahaan harus mengukur piutangnya dengan nilai saat ini (present value). Non-Recognition of Interest Element LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Accounts Receivable In practice, perusahaan mengabaikan pendapatan bunga yang terkait dengan piutang karena tidak material.

19 7-19 How are these accounts presented on the Statement of Financial Position? Account Receivable Allowance for doubtful acoounts Beg Beg. End End. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

20 7-20 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Accounts Receivable

21 7-21 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Accounts Receivable

22 7-22 Journal entry for credit sale of $100? Accounts receivable100 Sales 100 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

23 7-23 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale 100 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Journal entry for credit sale of $100? Accounts receivable100 Sales 100

24 7-24 Collected of $333 on account? Cash333 Accounts receivable333 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale 100 Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

25 7-25 Collected of $333 on account? Cash333 Accounts receivable333 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale Coll. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

26 7-26 Adjustment of $15 for estimated Bad-Debts? Bad debt expense15 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts15 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale Coll. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

27 7-27 Adjustment of $15 for estimated Bad-Debts? Bad debt expense15 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts15 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale Coll. 15 Est. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

28 7-28 Write-off of uncollectible accounts for $10? Allowance for Doubtful accounts10 Accounts receivable10 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale Coll. 15 Est. Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

29 7-29 Write-off of uncollectible accounts for $10? Allowance for Doubtful accounts10 Accounts receivable10 Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Beg Beg. End End. Sale Coll. 15 Est. W/O W/O Accounts Receivable LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.

30 7-30 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable. Accounts Receivable

31 7-31 Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Penilaian Piutang Klasifikasi Net realizable value Piutang tak tertagih Penjualan kredit meningkatkan piutang tak tertagih

32 7-32 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Valuation of Accounts Receivable Piutang tak tertagih adalah hilangnya potensi pendapatan,  Penurunan aset piutang and  penurunan terkait dengan pendapatan dan ekuitas. Piutang tak tertagih

33 7-33 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Penyisihan Menggunakan estimasi: Persentase dari penjualan Persentasi dari piutang Dianjurkan oleh IFRS Metode Akuntansi Piutang Tak Tertagih Penghapusan Langsung Secara teoritis tidak diinginkan: Tidak cocok Piutang tidak dinyatakan pada nilai realisasi kas Tidak dapat diterima untuk pelaporan keuangan Valuation of Accounts Receivable

34 7-34 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Emphasis on the Income Statement Emphasis on the Statement of Financial Position Illustration 7-7

35 7-35 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Pendekatan Percentage-of-Sales Persentase berdasarkan pengalaman masa lalu.. Biaya piutang tak tertagih berhubungan dengan akun penjualan. Saldo yang ada pada rekening penyisihan tidak dianggap.

36 7-36 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Illustration: Gonzalez Company estimates from past experience that about 1% of credit sales become uncollectible. If net credit sales are $800,000 in 2011, it records bad debt expense as follows. Bad Debt Expense 8,000 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 8,000 Percentage-of-Sales Approach Illustration 7-8

37 7-37 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Pendekatan Percentage-of-Receivables Piutang dilaporkan sebesar nilai kas yang dapat terealisasi. Companies may apply this method using ► Composite rate, or ► Aging schedule.

38 7-38 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Bad Debt Expense 37,650 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 37,650 What entry would Wilson make assuming that no balance existed in the allowance account? Illustration 7-9 Accounts Receivable Aging Schedule

39 7-39 Uncollectible Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Bad Debt Expense ($37,650 – $800)36,850 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 36,850 What entry would Wilson make assuming the allowance account had a credit balance of $800 before adjustment? Illustration 7-9 Accounts Receivable Aging Schedule

40 7-40 Recovery of Uncollectible Accounts LO 5 Illustration: Assume that the financial vice president of Brown Furniture authorizes a write-off of the $1,000 balance owed by Randall Co. on March 1, The entry to record the write-off is: Bad Debt Expense1,000 Accounts Receivable1,000 Assume that on July 1, Randall Co. pays the $1,000 amount that Brown had written off on March 1. These are the entries: Accounts Receivable1,000 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 1,000 Cash 1,000 Accounts Receivable1,000

41 7-41 Accounts Receivable LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable. Proses Evaluasi Penurunan Perusahaan menilai penurunan terhadap piutang di setiap periode pelaporan. Peristiwa yang memungkinkan terjadinya penurunan antara lain: 1.Masalah keuangan yang signifikan dari pelanggan. 2.Kegagalan pembayaran. 3.Negosiasi ulang persyaratan piutang karena kesulitan keuangan pelanggan. 4.Penurunan estimasi arus kas masa depan dari kelompok piutang sejak pengakuan awal, meskipun penurunannya belum dapat diidentifikasi dengan aset dalam kelompok perusahaan tersebut.

42 7-42 Accounts Receivable LO 5 Illustration: Hector Company has the following receivables classified into individually significant and all other receivables. Hector determines that Yaan’s receivable is impaired by $15,000, and Blanchard’s receivable is totally impaired. Both Randon’s and Fernando’s receivables are not considered impaired. Hector also determines that a composite rate of 2% is appropriate to measure impairment on all other receivables.

43 7-43 Accounts Receivable The total impairment is computed as follows. Illustration 7-10 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.

44 7-44 Didukung oleh promissory note Notes Receivable LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Instrumen yang dapat dinegosiasikan. Ditandatangani oleh pembuat (maker). Diklasifikasikan menjadi: Interest bearing notes Zero interest bearing notes

45 7-45 Illustration: Jeremiah Company receives a three-year, $10,000 zero-interest-bearing note. The market rate of interest for a note of similar risk is 9 percent. How does Jeremiah record the receipt of the note? Zero-Interest-Bearing Note LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable $0 $0 Interest$0 $10,000 Principal 4 i = 9% n = 3

46 7-46 $10,000 x = $7, PrincipalFactorPresent Value Zero-Interest-Bearing Note PV of Principal LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.

47 7-47 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Zero-Interest-Bearing Note Illustration 7-14

48 7-48 Journal Entries for Zero-Interest-Bearing note Present value of Principal $7, LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Zero-Interest-Bearing Note

49 7-49 Illustration: Morgan Corp. makes a loan to Marie Co. and receives in exchange a three-year, $10,000 note bearing interest at 10 percent annually. The market rate of interest for a note of similar risk is 12 percent. How does Morgan record the receipt of the note? Interest-Bearing Note LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable $1,000$1,000 Interest$1,000 $10,000 Principal 4 i = 12% n = 3

50 7-50 $1,000 x = $2,402 Interest ReceivedFactorPresent Value Interest-Bearing Note PV of Interest LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.

51 7-51 $10,000 x = $7,118 PrincipalFactorPresent Value Interest-Bearing Note PV of Principal LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.

52 7-52 Illustration: How does Morgan record the receipt of the note? Interest-Bearing Note LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Illustration 7-13 Notes Receivable 9,520 Cash 9,520

53 7-53 Illustration 7-14 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Interest-Bearing Note

54 7-54 Journal Entries for Interest-Bearing Note LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Interest-Bearing Note Cash 1,000 Notes receivable142 Interest revenue1,142

55 7-55 Notes Receivable LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Umumnya berasal dari: Pelanggan yang perlu untuk memperpanjang jangka waktu pembayaran atas piutang yang beredar. Beresiko tinggi atau pelanggan baru. Pinjaman untuk karyawan dan anak perusahaan. Penjualan properti, pabrik dan peralatan. Mayoritas berasal dari transaksi peminjaman

56 7-56 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable. Pengakuan Piutang Wesel Jangka PendekJangka Panjang Dicatat Nilai Nominal, Dikurangi penyisihan Dicatat Nilai sekarang Dari kas yang diperkirakan akan tertagih Suku Bunga Ditetapkan = Pasar Ditetapkan > Pasar Ditetapkan < Pasar Dijual pada: Nilai Nominal Premium Discount

57 7-57 Notes Receivable LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable. Jangka Pendek  dicatat dan dilaporkan pada nilai realisasi bersihnya, yaitu pada jumlah nominalnya dikurangi semua penyisihan yang diperlukan. Jangka Panjang  tes penurunan nilai sering dilakukan secara penilaian individu. Rugi penurunan nilai diukur sebagai selisih antara nilai tercatat piutang dan nilai sekarang dari estimasi arus kas masa depan yang didiskontokan pada tingkat bunga efektif awal. Penilaian Piutang Wesel

58 7-58 Notes Receivable LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable. Illustration: Tesco Inc. has a note receivable with a carrying amount of $200,000. The debtor, Morganese Company, has indicated that it is experiencing financial difficulty. Tesco decides that Morganese’s note receivable is therefore impaired. Tesco computes the present value of the future cash flows discounted at its original effective-interest rate to be $175,000. The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows.

59 7-59 Notes Receivable LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable. The entry to record the impairment loss is as follows. The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows. Bad Debt Expense 25,000 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 25,000

60 7-60 Special Issued Terdapat 3 (tiga) isu khusus terkait akuntansi dan pelaporan piutang, yaitu: Terdapat 3 (tiga) isu khusus terkait akuntansi dan pelaporan piutang, yaitu: 1. Fair Value Option; 2. Derecognition of receivables; 3. Presentation and analysis.

61 7-61 Special Issued LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables. Fair Value Option Perusahaan memiliki pilihan untuk mencatat nilai wajar dalam rekening mereka untuk sebagian besar aset dan kewajiban, termasuk piutang. [6] The IASB percaya bahwa pengukuran nilai wajar untuk instrumen keuangan memberikan informasi yang lebih relevan dan mudah dipahami daripada biaya historis karena mencerminkan arus nilai setara kas dari instrumen keuangan. [6] International Accounting Standard 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (London, U.K.: International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation, 2003), paras. IN16 and 9.

62 7-62 Special Issued LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables. Pengukuran Nilai Wajar ►Piutang dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar. ►Keuntungan atau kerugian yang belum direalisasi dilaporkan sebagai bagian dari laba bersih. ►Jika perusahaan memilih nilai wajar untuk piutangnya, maka pilihan tersebut harus terus digunakan sampai perusahaan tidak memiliki piutang.

63 7-63 Special Issues Related To Receivables Illustration (Recording Fair Value Option): Assume that Escobar Company has notes receivable that have a fair value of $810,000 and a carrying amount of $620,000. Escobar decides on December 31, 2011, to use the fair value option for these receivables. This is the first valuation of these recently acquired receivables. At December 31, 2011, Escobar makes an adjusting entry to record the increase in value of Notes Receivable and to record the unrealized holding gain, as follows. Notes Receivable 190,000 Unrealized Holding Gain or Loss—Income 190,000 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.

64 7-64 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables. Perusahaan dapat mengalihkan (misalnya, menjual) piutang kepada perusahaan lain untuk memperoleh kas. Alasan-alasannya: Kompetisi. Menjual piutang karena kekurangan kas. Penagihan yang memakan waktu dan biaya yang mahal. Transfer dilakukan dengan: 1. Pinjaman yang dijaminkan 2. Penjualan piutang Special Issued Derecognition of receivables

65 7-65 Factor merupakan perusahaan keuangan atau bank yang membeli piutang dari perusahaan untuk mendapatkan fee. Penjualan Piutang Illustration 7-19 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.

66 7-66 Sales of Receivables Illustration: Crest Textiles, Inc. factors €500,000 of accounts receivable with Commercial Factors, Inc., on a non-guarantee (or without recourse) basis. Commercial Factors assesses a finance charge of 3 percent of the amount of accounts receivable and retains an amount equal to 5 percent of the accounts receivable (for probable adjustments). Crest Textiles and Commercial Factors make the following journal entries for the receivables transferred without recourse. Illustration 7-20 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.

67 7-67 Penjualan Piutang LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables. Assume Crest Textiles sold the receivables on a with guarantee basis. Illustration 7-21

68 7-68 Presentation: 1.Mengidentifikasi dalam laporan posisi keuangan atau dalam catatan setiap jenis utama piutang. 2.Melaporkan piutang jangka pendek di aset lancar. 3.Melaporkan nilai bruto piutang dan penyisihan piutang tak tertagih. 4.Melaporkan beban piutang tak tertagih dan beban imbalan jasa sebagai beban penjualan. 5.Melaporkan pendapatan bunga pada bagian lain-lain non operasional. Presentation and Analysis LO 9 Describe how to report and analyze receivables.

69 7-69 Analysis of Receivables Presentation and Analysis This Ratio used to: Menilai likuiditas piutang. Mengukur jumlah rata-rata perusahaan mengumpulkan piutang selama periode berjalan Illustration 7-24 LO 9 Describe how to report and analyze receivables.


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