Psikologi Kepribadian Kontemporer 2014 ROLLO REES MAY EXISTENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Background Hidup: 21 April 1909 – 22 Oktober 1994 Dasar teorinya : EXISTENTIALISM. Kiergegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger. Binswanger, Boss. Jaspers, Frankl. Sartre, Buber, Tillich. Penekanan pada keseimbangan antara FREEDOM and RESPONSIBILITY
Existentialism Existence over Essence Existence associated with growth and change; Essence signifies stagnation and finality Objective vs Subjective People are both subjective and objectoive and must search truth by living active and authentic lives People search for some meaning to their lives
Existentialism Each of us is responsible for who we are and what we become Existentialist are basically antitheoretical. Theories dehumanize people and render them as objects.
Basic Concept: Three modes of Being in The World Dasein = being-in-the-world = mengada-didunia. Dasein: The basic unity of person and environment Alienation in three areas: Umwelt : world of object and things Mitwelt: world of people Eigenwelt: one’s relationship with oneself
Basic Concept: Non Being Death is not the only avenue of nonbeing, but it is the most obvious one Other form of non being i.e. addiction to alcholo or drugs, promiscuous sexual activity, and other compulsive behavior why??? Because it’s a threat to exist, no possibility to growth and gain meaningful life
ANXIETY “is the subjective state of the individual’s becoming aware that his/her existence can be destroyed, that he/she can become nothing.” Anxiety and despair timbul karena alienasi. Alienasi terungkap dalam tiga area hidup : keterpisahan dari alam, hubungan antarmanusia yg dirasakan tidak bermakna, keterpisahan dari diri yang autentik.
ANXIETY NORMAL ANXIETY : juga disebut constructive anxiety, yang muncul karena perkembangan dan perubahan diri dan nilai-nilai diri. Definisi : “that which is proportionate to the threat, does not involve repression, and can be confronted constructively on the conscious level.”
ANXIETY NEUROTIC ANXIETY : “a reaction which is disproportionate to the threat, involves repression and other forms of intrapsychic conflict, and is managed by various kinds of blocking-off of activity and awareness.”
GUILT “arises when people deny their potential, fail to accurately perceive the needs of fellow humans, or remain oblivious to their dependence on the natural world.” Keterpisahan dari alam (Umwelt), sering dengan akibat perusakan alam, yang menimbulkan rasa salah ontologis atau rasa salah keterpisahan.
GUILT Ketidakmampuan untuk mempersepsi secara tepat dunia orang-orang lain (Mitwelt) menimbulkan rasa salah tipe kedua. Pengingkaran potensi-potensi diri kita sendiri atau kegagalan mengembangkan diri kita secara penuh menimbulkan rasa salah tipe ketiga (kesalahan terhadap Eigenwelt).
Forms of LOVE Sex (murni fungsi biologis, daya prokreasi, untuk kelangsungan umat manusia, sumber kenikmatan terdalam dan sekaligus kecemasan terdalam). Eros (“a psychological desire that seeks procreation or creation through an enduring union with a loved one. Eros is making love, sex is manipulating organs. Eros is the wish to establish a lasting union, sex is the desire to experience pleasure.”)
Eros “takes wings from human imagination and is forever transcending all technique, giving the laugh to all the ‘how to’ books by gaily swinging into orbit above our mechanical rules.” Forms of LOVE
Philia (eros, the salvation of sex, is built on the foundation of philia, that is, an intimate nonsexual friendship between two people. Philia cannot be rushed, it takes time to grow, to develop, to sink its roots. “Philia does not require that we do anything for the beloved except accept him, be with him, and enjoy him. It is friendship in the simplest, most direct terms.”) Forms of LOVE
Agape (Just as eros depends on philia, so philia needs agape. Agape is “esteem for the other, the concern for the other’s welfare beyond any gain that one can get out of it; disinterested love, typically the love of God for man.” It is altruistic love, spiritual love, it is undeserved and unconditional.) Forms of LOVE
PSYCHOTHERAPY “Psychotherapy should make people more human, that is, help them expand their consciousness so that they will be in a better position to make choices. These choices, then, lead to the simultaneous growth of freedom and responsibility.”
How does a therapist help patients become free, responsible human beings ? May did not offer many specific directions for the therapist to follow. Existential therapists have no special set of technique or method that can be applied to all patients. Sooo ?? PSYCHOTHERAPY
Instead, they have only themselves, their own humanity to offer. They must establish a one-to-one relationship (Mitwelt) that enables the patient to become more aware of themselves and to live more fully in their own world (Eigenwelt). It means challenging patients to confront their destiny, to experience despair, anxiety, and guilt. PSYCHOTHERAPY
But it also means establishing an I-thou encounter in which both therapist and patient are viewed as subjects rather than objects. In an I-thou relationship, the therapist has empathy for the patients’s experience and is open to the patients’s subjective world. Ψ PSYCHOTHERAPY
REFERENSI Feist,J., Feist,G.J. (2009), Theories of Personality, 7 th ed, Boston: McGraw Hill. Hall,C.S., Lindzey,G.,Loehlin,J.C., Manosevits,M.(1985), Introduction to Theories of Personality, New York: John Wiley & Sons.