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Presentasi berjudul: "KEPEMIMPINAN SEKTOR PUBLIK (YANG BERSIH DAN BEBAS KKN)"— Transcript presentasi:

Prof. Dr. Sjamsiar Sjamsuddin Guru Besar Fakultas Imu Administrasi, Universitas Brawijaya

2 kepemimpinan dapat dilihat dari dimensi kajiannya, yaitu:
there is still no consensus on the definition of leadership Dorfman (1996) kepemimpinan dapat dilihat dari dimensi kajiannya, yaitu: Teori yang dipergunakan; Pendekatan yang dipergunakan; Gaya yang dipergunakan.

3 LEADERSHIP THEORY Great-manTheory. Trait Theory. Situational Theory.
Personal Situational Theory.

4 Leadership Traits Intelligence More intelligent than non-leaders
Scholarship Knowledge Being able to get things done Physical Doesn’t see to be correlated Personality Verbal facility Honesty Initiative Aggressive Self-confident Ambitious Originality Sociability Adaptability

5 Leadership Styles Delegating Low relationship/ low task Responsibility
Willing employees Participating High relationship/ low task Facilitate decisions Able but unwilling Selling High task/high relationship Explain decisions Willing but unable Telling High Task/Low relationship Provide instruction Closely supervise

6 New Leaders Take Note Challenges General Advice Need knowledge quickly
Establish new relationships Expectations Personal equilibrium General Advice Take advantage of the transition period Get advice and counsel Show empathy to predecessor Learn leadership

7 New Leader Traps Not learning quickly Captured by wrong people
Isolation Know-it-all Keeping existing team Taking on too much Captured by wrong people Successor syndrome

8 Charismatic Leadership
Self-confidence Vision Ability to articulate a vision Strong convictions Extraordinary behaviour Appearance as change agent Environmental sensitivity Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of the attribution theory in relation to perception and says that followers attribute extraordinary or heroic abilities to persons who exhibit the following behaviours: extremely high confidence, dominance, and strong convictions. Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanguno at McGill University conducted a comprehensive analysis of charismatic leadership qualities. They concluded that a charismatic leader has an idealized goal and a strong personal commitment to the goal. Moreover, this leader is unconventional, self-assured, assertive—an agent of radical change rather than a guardian of the status quo. The following characteristics appear to differentiate charismatic leaders from non-charismatic leaders: 1. Self-confidence. They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. 2. Vision. They have an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. 3. Ability to articulate the vision. They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. 4. Strong convictions about the vision. Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed and willing to take on high personal risk and to incur high costs to achieve their vision. 5. Behaviour that is out of the ordinary. Their behaviour is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. 6. Appearance as a change agent. They are perceived as agents of radical change rather than caretakers of the status quo. 7. Environmental sensitivity. They make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change. 16

9 Visionary Leadership Express Explain the Vision the Vision Extend
Visionary leadership expressing, explaining, and extending the vision. This vision almost “jump-starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.” A vision is not a dream. It is a reality that has not come to pass. Unlike a mission statement that conveys purpose but not direction, a vision offers means as well as ends. Vision taps into people’s emotions and energies, and properly articulated can create the enthusiasm people have for other ventures such as sporting events. Visions need to have inspirational possibilities that are value-centred, realizable, and have superior imagery. 17

10 Entrepreneurs and Visionary Leadership
Leader of a jazz ensemble Draws out the best of everyone Driving force through the early stages of the venture Today’s successful entrepreneur must be like the leader of a jazz ensemble that is known for its improvisation, innovation, and creativity. Max DePree, former head of Herman Miller, a well-known furniture manufacturer is known for his innovative leadership. One of the ways that an entrepreneur leads the ensemble is by drawing out the best of everyone through creating the vision. Often, this vision is the driving force through the early stages of the venture. The entrepreneur’s ability to articulate a coherent, inspiring and attractive future is the key test for his or her leadership.

11 LEADERSHIP APPROACH Psikoanalysis Approach Political Approach
Humanistic Approach Path Goal Theory Contingency Theory Leader Role Theory: Situasional Theory Harsey & Blanchards, Kepemimpinan Transaksional Kepemimpinan Transformasional.

12 Leadership in Public Administration
kepemimpinan (leadership) merupakan esensi dari manajemen (management). Sedangkan pengambilan keputusan (decision making) merupakan inti dari kegiatan seorang pemimpin. Dari sini ada perbedaan mendasar antara seorang pemimpin dengan manajer

13 Managers vs. Leaders Managers Focus on things Do things right Plan
Organize Direct Control Follows the rules Leaders Focus on people Do the right things Inspire Influence Motivate Build Shape entities

14 Managers Versus Leaders
May Have Managerial Authority and Influence Others Appointed and Have Formal Authority Managers Leaders

15 Types of Leaders Leader by the position achieved
Leader by personality, charisma Leader by moral example Leader by power held Intellectual leader Leader because of ability to accomplish things

Integrity (mengacu pada kejujuran dan kebenaran)

17 the leader inspires trust
Integrity. (mengacu pada kejujuran dan kebenaran) Competence. (mencakup kemampuan individu teknis dan interpersonal dan pengetahuan) Consistency. (berkaitan dengan keandalan seseorang, prediktabilitas, dan penilaian yang baik dalam menangani situasi). Loyalty. (kesediaan untuk melindungi dan menyelamatkan muka untuk orang lain). Openness. (mengandalkan orang untuk memberikan kebenaran yang penuh)

18 Trust as the Foundation of Leadership
Willing to be vulnerable Ability to gain knowledge and creative thinking In times of change and instability, people turn to personal relationships Empowering individuals and creating self-managed work teams has minimized traditional control mechanisms that were used to monitor employees. Therefore, employees have to trust management to treat them fairly; managers must trust workers to fulfill their responsibilities. In addition, expanding nonauthority relationships within and between organizations has widened the need for interpersonal trust. These situations do not allow managers to rely on their formal positions to enact compliance. Many of these relationships, in fact, are temporary. So, the ability to quickly develop trust may be crucial to the success of the relationship. 23

Jangan janji atau melakukan sesuatu kecuali Anda tahu bahwa Anda dapat menghormati komitmen Jangan menjanjikan kerahasiaan jika Anda tidak yakin apakah anda bisa atau harus menjaga informasi dari orang lain Akuilah kesalahan Anda. Jangan mencari orang lain untuk disalahkan Jadilah advokat untuk ide-ide lain, terutama teman-teman Anda Jangan melakukan sesuatu yang Anda tidak akan merasa nyaman untuk itu Jangan membicarakan orang lain di belakang punggung mereka, kecuali itu sesuatu yang positif. Jika Anda melakukannya, orang lain akan menganggap anda melakukan hal yang sama kepada mereka. Dan jika Anda mengatakan sesuatu yang positif, Anda dapat menganggap itu akan kembali kepada mereka

20 Dugaan adalah dasar untuk menggoyahkan kepercayaan.
Jika Anda meluangkan waktu untuk mengenal orang lain dan berbagi informasi tentang diri Anda, orang akan cenderung untuk mempertanyakan motif Anda dan akan memberikan manfaat dari keraguan Pastikan pesan Anda konsisten. Jangan mengatakan hal yang berbeda untuk audiens yang berbeda, dalam upaya untuk menyenangkan semua orang. Dan jika Anda berubah pikiran tentang sesuatu, jelaskan mengapa pendapat Anda telah berubah Ketika ditanya pertanyaan, berikan jawaban, lengkap langsung Jika Anda tidak memiliki jawabannya, jangan berpura-pura

21 sumber kejujuran bagi seseorang dilandasi oleh kebersihan.
Without integrity, leadership cannot flourish and our mission will suffer. sumber kejujuran bagi seseorang dilandasi oleh kebersihan. ciri kebersihan didasari oleh perbuatan yang tidak terikat pada kepentingan diri sendiri maupun lingkungan kelompoknya. Orientasi seorang pemimpin terkait langsung dengan kesejahteraan rakyat yang dipimpin, yang bermakna tidak membeda-bedakan antara kepemimpinan negara dengan kepemimpinan masyarakat, juga mengenai bentuk dan batasnya

22 Leadership Issues National culture Emotional intelligence
Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills Substitutes for leadership Let’s look at some other contemporary leadership issues. National culture affects leadership style in two ways. It shapes the preferences of leaders, and it defines what is acceptable to subordinates. Therefore, leaders cannot choose their style at will. They are constrained by the cultural conditions in which they have been socialized and that their subordinates expect. Remember that most leadership theories were developed in the United States. Therefore, they have an North American bias. Emotional intelligence refers to an assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. There are five dimensions: self-awareness; self-management; self motivation, empathy, social skills. The belief that some leadership style will always be effective, regardless of the situation, may not be true. In fact, leadership may not always be important. Certain individual, job, and organizational variables can substitute for formal leadership, negating the influence of the leader. For example, an employee’s experience, training, professionalism, or independence can neutralize the effect of leadership. These characteristics can replace the need for a leader’s support and negate his or her ability to create structure and reduce ambiguity. Similarly, jobs that are inherently unambiguous and routine or intrinsically satisfying may place fewer demands on the leadership variable. Organizational characteristics such as explicit formalized goals, rigid rules, or cohesive work groups can act in the place of leadership.

23 Lingkungan yang dihadapi Pemimpin di Pemerintah Daerah
Lingkungan masyarakat, lingkungan pemerintahan daerah, dan lingkungan politik. Kemampuan pemimpin di dalam memadukan tiga lingkungan tersebut sangat membutuhkan kearifan. Pengabaian satu di antara tiga lingkungan yang ada dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implementasi kebijakan pemerintah yang direncanakan. Pemahaman akan lingkungan kemasyarakatan terwujud pada visi kepemimpinan. Pemahaman akan lingkungan organisasi terwujud pada pemahaman akan iklim organisasi, Pemahaman akan lingkungan politik terwujud pada sinkronisasi kerja antara lembaga legislatif dan partai politik lokal


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