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Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnh fpub Mei 2014 VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnh fpub Mei 2014 VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnh fpub Mei 2014 VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN

2 NILAI SEWA-EKONOMI LAHAN

3 LAND ECONOMIC RENT = Sewa-ekonomi Lahan Definition of 'Economic Rent' The amount of money an owner of a factor of production must receive in order for that owner to rent out that factor of production. Factors of production include labor, capital and land. Sewa-ekonomi “lahan” adalah bagian pembayaran atas “lahan” yang melebihi dari pendapatan yang diterima dari pilihan terbaik penggunaan lahan yang mungkin dilakukan; dalam hal ini “lahan” dipandang mempunyai beberapa macam kegunaan. Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2011.

4 . David Ricardo's Concept of Economic Rent … Economic rent on land is the value of the difference in productivity between a given piece of land and the poorest [and/or most distant], most costly piece of land producing the same goods (e.g. bushels of wheat) under the same conditions (of labour, capital, technology, etc.). Productivity is defined here in terms of both: 1.The natural fertility of the soil; and the productivity of the existing technology in utilizing currently available labour and capital; 2.The relative distance from the same market: 1.We are discussing this in terms of regional economics with one market. 2.This part of theorem, on the ‘distance from the market’, did not originate with Ricardo, but rather with a German economist: Johann Heinrich von Thünen ( ), who noted, some years after the publication of Ricardo’s Principles, that the closer a piece of land was to the urban core the higher was its market rent (reflecting economic rent). 3.You can readily appreciate the significance of this by noting that Toronto rents in the heart of the financial district on Bay or University are higher than those in, say, Orangeville or Bolton to the north of Toronto. 3. Thus productivity differences reflect the cost differences in supplying grain to that one market from that piece of land. Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2011.

5 SEWA LAHAN..… VON THUNEN Von Thünen mengembangkan teori dasar konsep marginal produktivitas secara matematis, dan menyusun rumus sewa lahan: R = Y(p − c) − YFm, dimana R=sewa LAHAN; Y=hasil per unit tanah; c=pengeluaran produksi per unit komoditas; p=harga pasar per unit komoditas; F=harga pengangkutan; m=jarak ke pasar. Model Von Thünen untuk lahan pertanian diciptakan dengan asumsi: 1.Kota terletak terpusat di dalam keadaan terisolir 2.Keadaan terisolir dikelilingi oleh alam liar. 3.Lahan benar-benar datar dan tidak memiliki sungai atau pegunungan. 4.Kualitas tanah (kesuburan tanah) dan iklim yang konsisten. 5.Petani di keadaan terisolir mengangkut barang mereka sendiri ke pasar melalui gerobak melewati tanah langsung ke pusat kota, tidak ada jalan. 6.Petani bersikap rasional untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011.

6 KESUBURAN TANAH - PRODUKTIVITAS… K suburan tanah merupakan “kualitas tanah” dalam hal kemampuannya untuk menyediakan unsur hara yang sesuai, dalam jumlah yang cukup, dalam keseimbangan yang tepat dan lingkungan yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi spesies tanaman. Kesuburan tanah merupakan manifestasi dari sifat dan kemampuan tanah. Produktivitas Tanah merupakan “kemampuan tanah” untuk memproduksi sesuatu spesies tanaman dengan sistem pengelolaan tertentu. Aspek pengelolaan yang dimaksud misalnya pengaturan jarak tanaman, pemupukan, pengairan, pemberantasan hama dan penyakit, dll. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011.

7 PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH Produktivitas tanah pada dasarnya adalah konsep ekonomi dan bukan sifat tanah, ada tiga hal yang terlibat: 1.Masukan (sistem pengeloalaan khusus), 2.Keluaran (hasil tanaman tertentu), 3.Tipe tanah. Dengan menetukan biaya dan haraga, keuntungan bersih dapat dihitung dan digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menentukan nilai lahan, yang penting dalam penaksiran NILAI SEWA-EKONOMI LAHAN. Ada dua segi penting produktivitas tanah, yaitu: 1.Tanah yang berbeda mempunyai kapasitas yang berbeda untuk menyerap masukan (INPUT) PRODUKSI untuk menghasilkan keuntungan tertinggi. 2.Tanaman yang berbeda mempunyai kapasitas yang berbeda untuk meyerap masukan (input) produksi untuk menghasilkan keuntungan tertinggi pada tipe tanah tertentu. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011.

8 The Soil Productivity Index Model … Neill’s (1979) productivity index was modified by Pierce et al. (1983). The productivity index was based on the use of simple easily measurable soil properties to predict the effect of soil environment on root growth. This is expressed as follows: r PI ∑ = S (Ai x Bi x Ci x Di x Ei x Wfi) i=1 where: PI = productivity index; Ai = Sufficiency for available water capacity for the ith soil layer; Bi = Sufficiency for aeration for the ith soil layer; Ci = Sufficiency for pH for the ith soil layer; Di = Sufficiency for bulk density for the ith soil layer; Ei = Sufficiency for electrical conductivity for the ith soil layer; Wfi = Root weighting factor; r = Number of horizons in the rooting zone. Other parameters like nutrients, management, climate and genetic factors are presumed to be constant. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011.

9 The Soil Productivity Index Model …. Neill’s model (1979) did not take care of some soil parameters such as organic carbon, available phosphorus and exchangeable aluminium that exert key influence on the productivity of tropical soils. Consequently, a modifixation was carried out to include these three sufficiencies. The modified expressions are as follows: r P1Mi = ∑ (Ai x Ci x Di x Wfi). Where: P1Mi = Modified productivity index that involves the exclusion of sufficiencies for aeration and electrical conductivity. P1M2 = ∑ (Ai x Ci x Di x Ji x Ki x Li x Wfi). Where: P1M2 = Modified productivity index that involves the inclusion of sufficiencies for organic carbon, available phosphorus and exchangeable aluminium with simultaneous exclusion of sufficiencies for aeration and electrical conductivity; Ji = Sufficiency for organic carbon for the ith soil layer; Ki = Sufficiency for available phosphorus for the ith soil layer; Li = Sufficiency for exchangeable aluminium for the ith soil layer. The sufficiencies for available water capacity, bulk density, pH and root weighting factor for this modification were as established by Pierce et al. (1983), while other sufficiencies were established in this research. Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2011.

10 . Sufficiency for Organic Carbon Contents … A sufficiency of 1.0 was assigned for organic carbon content of 2.0 percent in the study area. It is presumed that soil productivity approaches zero at organic carbon content of 0.5 or less (Enwexor et al., 1981). Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011. The rating of organic carbon (Source: Enwezor et al.( 1981 ) Organic carbon content (%) Sufficiency and above 1.0 Source: Enwezor et al.( 1981 ) Enwezor, W.O. Udo, E.J. and Sobulo, R.A. (1981). Fertility Status and Productivity of acid sands. In: Acid of Southeastern Nigeria. Monograph No. 1 Soil Sci. Soc. of Nigeria 56-73pp.

11 . Sufficiency for Available Phosphorus Content … In this study, a sufficiency of 1.0 was assigned for the highest available phosphorus content of 50 Cmol kg-1 and it is assumed that soil productivity declines at available phosphorus of 15 cmol kg-1 or less (Landon, 1991). Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011. Sufficiency rating of available phosphorus Available phosphorus Sufficiency Landon, J.R. (eds). (1991). Booker tropical Soil Manuel: A Handbook for Soil Survey and Agricultural land Evaluation in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Third Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 474pp.

12 . Sufficiency for exchangeable Aluminium … The highest sufficiency of 1.0 was assigned for exchangeable aluminium concentration of 2.8 cmol kg-1. Soil productivity approaches zero at exchangeable aluminium concentration of 14.0 cmol kg-1 and above (Pratt, 1966; Mclean and Gilbert, 1927). Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011. Sufficiency rating of exchangeable aluminium 1.Mclean, F.T. and Gilbert, B.E. (1927). The relative aluminium tolerance of crop plants. Soil Sci. 24: Pratt, F.P. (1966) Aluminium. Department of Soil and Plant nutrition, University of California Div. Agric, Sci. 12pp.. Exchangeable aluminium concentration (cmol kg-1) Sufficiency and above 0.2

13 … 1.Bergstrom, J. C., B. L. Dillman, and J. R. Stoll “Public Environmental Amenity Benefits of Private Land: The Case of Prime Agricultural Land.” Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics 17(1): Bergstrom, J. C., J. R. Stoll, J. P. Titre, and V. L. Wright “Economic Value of Wetlands-Based Recreation.” Ecological Economics 2(2): Crocker, T. D “On the Value of the Condition of a Forest Stock.” Land Economics 61(3): Diamond, D. B., Jr., “The Relationship Between Amenities and Urban Land Prices.” Land Economics 56(1): Loomis, J., and Anderson, P “Idaho v. Southern Refrigerator.” In Natural Resource Damages: Law and Economics, Ward, K. M. and 6.Duffield, W. J. (ed.), Wiley Law Publications, New York, pp Palmquist, R. B., and L. E. Danielson “A Hedonic Study of the Effects of Erosion Control and Drainage on Farmland Values.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 71: Diunduh dari Sumber: 31/10/2011.

14 Diunduh dari Sumber: smno.rumahkampus.dau.jan2013.


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