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ET2080 JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI Tutun Juhana – Program Studi Teknik Telekomunikasi STEI - ITB.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ET2080 JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI Tutun Juhana – Program Studi Teknik Telekomunikasi STEI - ITB."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ET2080 JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI Tutun Juhana – Program Studi Teknik Telekomunikasi STEI - ITB

2 Definition  The IEEE defines signaling as the exchange of information specifically concerned with the establishment and control of connections and the transfer of user-to-user and management information in a telecommunication network  Conventional signaling has evolved with the telephone network ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 2

3  With telephony, signaling is broken down in three functional areas:  Supervisory  Address  Call progress: audible-visual  Another signaling breakdown is  Subscriber signaling  Interswitch (interregister) signaling ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 3

4 Supervisory Signaling  Supervisory signaling provides information on line or circuit condition  It informs a switch whether a circuit (internal to the switch) or a trunk (external to the switch) is busy or idle, when a called party is off-hook or on-hook, and when a calling party is on-hook or off-hook ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 4

5 Address Signaling  Address signaling directs and routes a telephone call to the called subscriber  It originates as dialed digits or activated push-buttons from a calling subscriber  The local switch accepts these digits and, by using the information contained in the digits, directs the call to the called subscriber  If more than one switch is involved in the call setup, signaling is required between switches (both address and supervisory)  Address signaling between switches is called interregister signaling ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 5

6 Call Progress: Audible-Visual  This type of signaling we categorize in the forward direction and in the backward direction  In the forward direction there is alerting  This provides some sort of audible-visual means of informing the called subscriber that there is a telephone call waiting  This is often done by ringing a telephone’s bell  A buzzer, chime, or light may also be used for alerting. ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 6

7  In the backward direction, among these are audible tones or voice announcements that will inform the calling subscriber the following:  Ringback This tells the calling subscriber that the distant telephone is ringing.  Busyback This tells the calling subscriber that the called line is busy  ATB-All Trunks Busy There is congestion on the routing. Sometimes a recorded voice announcement is used here.  Loud Warble on Telephone Instrument—Timeout  This occurs when a telephone instrument has been left off-hook unintentionally ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 7

8 Signalling Subscriber - exchangeExchange - exchange Channel associatedCommon channel Klasifikasi Signaling 8 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

9 Areas of Signaling  There are mainly three areas of signaling during a telephone call :  between subscribers and exchanges.  within exchanges.  between exchanges. ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 9 Exchange AExchange B between Subscriber and exchange within exchange between exchanges

10 Subscriber – Exchange Signaling Dari pelanggan ke sentral –Informasi kondisi off-hook –Informasi nomor B (nomor tujuan) –Informasi jumlah uang yang dimasukkan (khusus untuk payphone) –Informasi kondisi on-hook ketika panggilan usai Dari sentral ke pelanggan A (nomor pemanggil) –Informasi bahwa sentral siap menerima nomor B –Informasi mengenai status B (busy atau tidak) –Informasi kongesti atau interception –Sinyal charging (khusus untuk payphone) Dari sentral ke pelanggan B –Sinyal ringing untuk menarik perhatian pelanggan B 10 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

11 Pelanggan A mengangkat telepon, hal ini dapat berarti –A ingin menghubungi seseorang –Pesawat A berbunyi lalu menjawab Sentral dapat mendeteksi keadaan telepon apakah merupakan panggilan atau jawaban Sentral menanggapi panggilan dengan mengirimkan dial tone A mengirimkan digit nomor B (B number) Sentral menganalisa digit lalu mencek apakah B ada dan tidak busy. Ringing tone dikirimkan ke A sedangkan sinyal ringing ke B B mengangkat handset, sentral mendeteksinya sebagai jawaban Ketika A dan B menyimpan handset, sentral mendeteksi sebagai sinyal clear lalu koneksi diputuskan B sentral Off-hook Dialling tone conversation A N O M O R Ringing toneRinging signal ~425Hz ~90V, 20-25 Hz answer Clear forward Clear back 11 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

12 Off-Hook Signaling (Analog)  Loop Start (almost all telephones)  Seizure is detected when current flows through local loop, due to off-hook  Ground Start (antar PBX (Private Branch Exchange) atau antara PBX dengan Sentral Lokal)  Seizure (upaya pendudukan kanal komunikasi) is detected when one wire is grounded  Seizure can be initiated in both directions  Untuk mengindikasikan status on/off-hook ke sentral lokal Ground Start Source: Cisco Interactive Mentor 12 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

13 SwitchSwitch Loop Start Ground Start 13 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

14 Exchange – exchange Signaling  Channel Associated Signalling (CAS)  Common Channel Signalling (CCS) 14 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

15 Channel Associated Signaling Signaling dilakukan menggunakan kanal yang juga digunakan untuk mentransfer informasi 15 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

16 Channel Asociated Signalling Informasi speech dan informasi signalling mengalir melalui jalur yang sama Beberapa macam CAS –Signalling dilakukan secara bersama pada kanal untuk speech (DC signalling, inband) –Signalling dilakukan pada kanal yang sama dengan speech tetapi menggunakan frekuensi yang berbeda (out-band) Contoh: Signalling dilakukan melalui timeslot 16 (PCM signalling) 16 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

17 Seizure acknowledgment Pelanggan A Pelanggan B sentral seizure B number answer conversation Clear forward Clear back B- hangs up A- hangs up 17 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

18 Forward and Reverse direction  Forward signal mengalir dari sentral telepon tempat A berada menuju sentral telepon tempat B berada  Backward signal mengalir pada arah yang berlawanan dengan forward signal 18 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

19 Common Channel Signaling Signaling menggunakan kanal yang terpisah dari kanal untuk mentransfer informasi  Terdapat jaringan signaling tersendiri 19 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

20 Signaling System Number 7 (SS #7) Signaling System NO. 7 20 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

21  Signaling System No. 7 (SS No. 7) was developed to meet the stringent signaling requirements of the all-digital network based on the 64-kbps channel  It is a data network entirely dedicated to interswitch signaling ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 21

22  SS No. 7 is described as an international standardized general-purpose common-channel signaling system that:  Is optimized for operation with digital networks where switches used stored-program control (SPC)  Can meet present and future requirements of information transfer for interprocessor transactions with digital communications networks for call control, remote control, network database access and management, and maintenance signaling  Provides a reliable means of information transfer in correct sequence without loss or duplication ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi 22

23 CCS7 Network Components  The CCS7 Network consists of the following Components :  SP -Signaling Point : The SP is the source or originating entity of the signaling message.  STP-Signaling Transit Point : These entities transfer the signaling message to another SP or STP without processing the signaling message.  SRP – Signaling Relay Point : These are STPs with ability tp process the signaling message.  SEP – Signaling End Point : The SEP is defined to be the terminating point of the signaling message 23 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

24 CCS7 Network Architecture  A typical SS7 network is a mixture of various SPs STPs SRPs and SEPs, As shown below : SP (SPC=100) SRP (SPC=400) STP (SPC=300 ) STP (SPC=200) SEP (SPC=500) 24 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

25 CCS7 Terminologies  SPC : SPC is defined as signaling point code which uniquely identifies each element within the SS7 network.  Signaling Links : The signaling links transmit signaling messages between the communicating entities.  Signaling Link Set : A signaling link set is a collection of signaling links between two signaling entities.  Signaling Route : A signaling route is defined to be the path through which signaling messages are exchanged between two entities. There can be multiple signaling routes between two SPCs, wherein there will be one primary route and several alternate routes. 25 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

26 SS7 Routing Modes  Associated Mode : In the associated mode, the signaling link is routed together with the circuit group belonging to the link. In other words, the signaling link is directly connected to signaling points which are also the terminal points of the circuit group. This mode of signaling is recommended when the capacity of the traffic relation between the signaling points A and B is heavily utilized. Associated Mode of Signaling 26 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

27 SS7 Routing Modes  Quasi associated mode : In the quasi-associated mode of signaling, the signaling link and the circuit group run along different routes, the circuit group connecting the signaling point. A is directly connected with the signaling point B. For this mode the signaling, the circuit group is carried out via one or more defined signaling transfer points. This signaling mode is favorable for traffic relations with low capacity utilization, as the various signaling links can be used for several destinations. 27 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

28 SS7 Network Structure SPC=100 SPC=200 SPC=300 SPC=100 SPC=400 SPC=500 SPC=600 SPC=400 SPC=900 SPC=800 SPC=700 SPC=800 SPC=100 SPC=300 SPC=200 INAT 0 NAT 0 NAT 1 28 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

29 SS7 Protocol Structure  SS7 protocol stack can be broadly divided into two main categories :  A ) MTP – Message Transfer Part : The message transfer part has three levels, namely MTP Layer 1, Layer 2 and Layer 3. The message transfer part (MTP) represents a user-neutral means of transport for messages between the users.  B ) User Parts (UP) : Each user part (UP) encompasses the functions, protocols and coding for the signaling via SS7 for a specific user type (e.g. data service, ISDN). In this way, the user parts control the set-up and release of circuit connections, the processing of facilities as well as administration and maintenance functions for the circuits. 29 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

30 SS7 Protocol Structure MTP Layer 3 (Network Management) MTP Layer 1 (Signaling Data Link) MTP Layer 2 (Signaling Link) SCCP BSSAPBSSAP ISUPISUP TCAP TCAP Users SS7 Users MUPMUP Other User Parts 30 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

31 Contoh signaling CCS#7 IAM: Paket pertama yang membawa informasi nomor B Sisa nomor berikutnya dibawa oleh SAM ACM: Paket yang berisi konfirmasi dari sentral B bahwa seluruh digit sudah diterima; selain itu paket ini berisi pula informasi apakah panggilan dapat di-charge atau tidak juga apakah pelanggan tujuan sibuk atau tidak Ketika pelanggan B off- hook, sentral B mengirimkan sinyal ACN untuk mengaktifkan charging 31 ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

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