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Konsep & Perkembangan Jaringan Komputer Dr. Mohammad Iqbal.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Konsep & Perkembangan Jaringan Komputer Dr. Mohammad Iqbal."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Konsep & Perkembangan Jaringan Komputer Dr. Mohammad Iqbal

2 Outline  Konsep Dasar Jaringan  Tren dan Perkembangan Jaringan  Apa dan bagaimana selanjutnya ?

3 Zaman Batu sampai Zaman Jaringan Komputer  Penemuan Batu – besi -, …, - otomotif – listrik – telepon - pesawat jet -… Jaringan Komputer telah mengubah fundamental gaya hidup manusia. Tidak perlu keluar rumah, untuk : 1.Ke kantor 2.belanja 3.Entertainment 4.Pendidikan Virtual reality akan memuaskan kebutuhan kita untuk :  Games  Turisme  Sosialisasi

4 Mengapa Studi Jaringan Komputer itu penting?  Hampir semua area komputansi adalah network- based. Contoh : Distributed computing Distributed databases Distributed storage Robotics Distributed Games  Bidang yang perkembangannya sangat cepat  Kesempatan karir yang luas : Google, Facebook, eBay, Microsoft, Cisco, HP, Intel, dll.

5 Konsep Dasar Jaringan  Klasifikasi Perangkat Koneksi ke Jaringan Komputer End-user devices Network devices 1. End-user devices perangkat yang memberikan service langsung di sisi user : Komputer, printer, scanner, dll. 2. Network devices perangkat yang mengkoneksikan end- user devices satu sama lain untuk memungkinkan berkomunikasi.

6 A-Network Device  Network interface card  Sistem Pengkabelan  Sistem tanpa kabel

7 7 A-Network Device Basic Networking Device

8 8 A-Network Device Repeater A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal. Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does not perform intelligent routing.

9 9 A-Network Device Hub Hubs concentrate connections. In other words, they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. This is done passively, without any other effect on the data transmission. Active hubs not only concentrate hosts, but they also regenerate signals.

10 10 A-Network Device Bridge Bridges convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management. Bridges, as the name implies, provide connections between LANs. Not only do bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a check on the data to determine whether it should cross the bridge or not. This makes each part of the network more efficient.

11 11 A-Network Device Workgroup Switch Workgroup switches add more intelligence to data transfer management. Switches can determine whether data should remain on a LAN or not, and they can transfer the data to the connection that needs that data.

12 12 A-Network Device Router Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routers can regenerate signals, concentrate multiple connections, convert data transmission formats, and manage data transfers.They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect LANs that are separated by great distances.

13 13 A-Network Device “The Cloud” The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where the connection to the internet is. It also represents all of the devices on the internet.

14 14 B-Topologi Jaringan Network topology defines the structure of the network. 1.The physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media. 2.The logical topology, which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data.

15 15 1- Physical Topologies

16 Logical Tipologies - Sebaran Area Data Network (LAN, MAN, WAN,)

17 17 LAN (Local-area network )

18 18 Wireless LAN Organizations and Standards In cabled networks, IEEE is the prime issuer of standards for wireless networks. The standards have been created within the framework of the regulations created by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). A key technology contained within the standard is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).

19 19 Cellular Topology for Wireless

20 20 WAN (Wide-area networks)

21 21 SAN (Storage Area Network) A SAN is a dedicated, high-performance network used to move data between servers and storage resources. Because it is a separate, dedicated network, it avoids any traffic conflict between clients and servers.

22 22 Virtual Private Network A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet. Using VPN, a telecommuter can access the network of the company headquarters through the Internet by building a secure tunnel between the telecommuter’s PC and a VPN router in the headquarters.

23 23 C - Bandwidth

24 24 D - OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model To address the problem of networks increasing in size and in number, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched many network schemes and recognized that there was a need to create a network model that would help network builders implement networks that could communicate and work together and therefore, released the OSI reference model in 1984.

25 25 The OSI Reference Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical The OSI Model will be used throughout your entire networking career! Harus Ingat!!

26 26 Layer 7 - The Application Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer deal with networking applications. Examples:  Web browsers PDU - User Data

27 27 Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer is responsible for presenting the data in the required format which may include: Encryption Compression PDU - Formatted Data

28 28 Layer 5 - The Session Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. Example: Client Software ( Used for logging in) PDU - Formatted Data

29 29 Layer 4 - The Transport Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer breaks up the data from the sending host and then reassembles it in the receiver. It also is used to insure reliable data transport across the network. PDU - Segments

30 30 Layer 3 - The Network Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Sometimes referred to as the “Cisco Layer”. Makes “Best Path Determination” decisions based on logical addresses (usually IP addresses). PDU - Packets

31 31 Layer 2 - The Data Link Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. Makes decisions based on physical addresses (usually MAC addresses). PDU - Frames

32 32 Layer 1 - The Physical Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This is the physical media through which the data, represented as electronic signals, is sent from the source host to the destination host. Examples: CAT5 (what we have) Coaxial (like cable TV) Fiber optic PDU - Bits

33 Tren dan Perkembangan Jaringan Komputer 1. Network Security 2. Mobile Networking 3. Wireless Networking 4. Energy Efficient Networking 5. Multimedia Networking 6. Datacenter Networking 7. Next Generation Internet Topik ini berdasarkan aktivitas riset di industri seperti Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), dan Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE)

34 1 – Network Security  No authentication: DNS attack, contoh: seluruh YouTube traffic diarahkan ke “black hole” di Pakistan. [Domain Name System (DNS) is used to convert names like to Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses, e.g., ]  Phishing: memasukkan informasi personal di fake websites  Spam  Cyber warfare

35 Phishing  dari bank dan layanan financial diarahkan ke fake websites,seperti sesungguhnya dikirim ke  Layanan “free public wireless” dapat pula mengoleksi passwords user yang akses.

36 Spam  200 milliar messages/hari, 88-90% adalah .  81% spam tentang farmasi  Membebani bisnis sekitar $100 miliar pada tahun 2007  Dikirimkan via Botnets dari komputer yang terinfeksi.  Ref:

37 Cyber Warfare  Negara-negara melakukan penetrasi komputer satu sama lain.  Merupakan domain kelima dari modern warfare (setelah darat, laut, udara dan ruang angkasa) 2009, US set up pusat komando cyber command UK, China, Russia, Israel, North Korea memiliki pusat komando yg mirip US. Pentagon menghabiskan $100 juta di 6bulan pertama 2009 untuk memperbaiki kehancuran dari cyber attacks.  Ref: Contoh : Nov 2010, hackers yang mengaku sebagai “Indian Cyber Army” attacked Websites Pakistan. Des 2010, “Pakistan Cyber Army” menyerang Indian Central Bureau of Intelligence. Nov 2011, Iran menangkap 6 pesawat pengintai US

38 2 – Mobile Networking  Smart Phones (Blackberry, iPhone, Android Phones), Net book, Laptop  Mobile komputer  Mobility: tetap di dalam koneksi networking session dimanapun berada. Istilah kita : Online terus…  Mobile ≠ Wireless.  Wired mobility : Mulai download di kantor/kampus dan diteruskan saat di rumah  Network telpon selular didesain untuk mobility tapi Internet protocol belum. Slot data ≠ slot voice

39 3 - Wireless Networking  Wireless (WiFi) dapat tersebar dimanapun berada.  Lebih banyak Cell phones dari POTS. Proyeksi Rasionya akan menjadi 4-to- 1 pada  Sistem pengkabelan lebih mahal dari tanpa kabel  Wireless Access  Pengembangan Teknologi WIFI Saat ini : 4G: 1Gbps Metropolitan Area Networks (LTE-Advanced, WiMAX V2) Vehicular Networking (802.11p) Ad-hoc Wireless Networks TV Band (700 MHz) networking Audio/Video over Wi-Fi (802.11aa)

40 4 - Energy Efficient Networking  Internet didesain dgn asumsi semua host up setiap waktu tanpa henti.  Kita tidak bisa mematikan router kita.  Industri komputer menghasilkan green house gases sebanyak industri penerbangan  Satu komputer server sederhana = satu mobil SUV dengan konsumsi 15 mil/gallon (6km/liter)  Kita membutuhkan desain protokol yang mengizinkan nodes untuk dapat berhenti jika tidak bekerja.  Energy Efficient Ethernet: Mematikan sebagian besar sirkuit sampai bit data selanjutnya tiba Delay-Tolerant Networking: Router dapat menyimpan data jika next hop ditemukan sedang mati

41 5 - Multimedia Networking  Trend: Audio/Video over networks Entertainment on cellular phones Home Entertainment Movies on Demand YouTube, dailymotion - VoD, live  Isu: Timing and synchronization Peer to peer streaming Stream reservation Media caching

42 6 - Datacenter Networking 1. Cloud Computing: Application via Internet (Google Docs) Computing via Internet (Amazon EC3) Storage and backup via Internet 2. Isu: Inter-Cloud Provider Networking: High-speed links on demand Policy, Security, QoS issues (Multi- organizational ownership) 3. Data Center Networking: Optimalisasi Ethernet untuk data centers Congestion control pada Multi- Gigabit Speeds Micro-seconds transaction delays

43 7 – Internet Next Generation  Internet 1.0: Before Commercialization 20 tahun pertama ( ) No Security, Optimal routing, infrastruktur kepemilikan tunggal  Internet 2.0: After Commercialization Security, Policy based routing: ISP, infrastruktur kepemilikan banyak pihak, tidak ada pengetahuan tipologi & sumber daya internal tiap jaringan yang terhubung  Internet 3.0: 20 tahun selanjutnya Kepemilikan berdasarkan users, content (object oriented), dan host, kekuatan berbagi content dan Service Negotiation Mobility user dan distributed data (data mining system)

44 Trend Next generation Internet  Hampir semua top 50 Internet sites adalah berbasiskan services [Alexa]  Akses ke Smart Phones: BB, iPhone, Nokia, Android Apps  New globally distributed services, Games, application ; Apple store, android market, BB Application…  Clouds next generation, … Jaringan Komputer dibutuhkan untuk mendukung secara efisien terhadap Instalasi dan pengantaran/distribusi SERVICE Ref: Top 500 sites on the web,

45 7 Fitur Kunci Internet Service 1. Replication: Multiple datacenter tampil (seakan-akan) dalam satu database besar 2. Fault Tolerance: Connect ke B jika A sedang down

46 7 Fitur Kunci Internet Service 3. Load Balancing: 50% untuk A, 50% untuk B 4. Traffic Engineering: 80% pada Path A, 20% pada Path B 5. Server Mobility: Memindahkan service antar clouds, Dynamic Setup  Networking sebagai Service 6. User Mobility: Gaming/Video/audio… tidak berhenti saat user berpindah tempat. 7. Security: Menjaga aspek-aspek Provenance, Authentication, Privacy,...

47 Apa dan Bagaimana Kesempatan kita?  E-commerce : tidak hanya pada website, tapi juga jejaring sosial  Content provider  Application service provider : create, customize, maintenance  Internet service provider : wireless, ADSL,…  Security service provider : pengawasan…

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