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Sumber: Forest Ecology. 2004 Envirothon Training- November 6, 2004. Blackbird State Forest EKOLOGI HUTAN.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sumber: Forest Ecology. 2004 Envirothon Training- November 6, 2004. Blackbird State Forest EKOLOGI HUTAN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest EKOLOGI HUTAN

2 A forest is a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that cover a considerable area that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Apa HUTAN itu? Hutan Tanaman Industri (HTI) Jati. (smno.htjati.saradan.2012

3 Ecology adalah studi ilmiah tentang hubungan antara makhluk hidup dengan makhluk hidup lainnya dan dengan lingkungannya. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Apa Ekologi itu? Ekologi kampus sebagai tempat belajar

4 Forest Ecology is the study of the complex interactions between the organic and inorganic elements of a forest ecosystem. A forest ecosystem is the organisms, soil, air and water associated with the forest. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Apa EKOLOGI HUTAN itu?

5 Ekosistem Hutan adalah “Interdependent” 1.Setiap organisme tergantung pada organisme lainnya dan komponen abiotik dalam suatu sistem. 2.Living components of the forest = producers (able to make food), consumers (eats other producers and consumers), and decomposers (break down organic material). 3.Komponen abiotik = Tanah, Air, dan Iklim. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

6 Tumbuhan berkayu tahunan Tumbuh tegak dengan batang tunggal dan akarnya mencengkeram dalam tanah Must have the ability to reach at least 20ft or more in height The single trunk should be unbranched for at least several feet above the ground Specimen mempunyai tajuk tertentu yang terukur. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

7 Empat bagian POHON CROWN- where the tree increases each year in height and spread of branches by adding on a new growth of twigs. LEAVES- make up the crown and produce food for the tree (photosynthesis). TRUNK- supports the crown and produces the majority of the tree’s useful wood. ROOTS- mencengkeramkan pohon, menyerap dan menyimpan air dan hara. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

8 Pertumbuhan Pohon

9 Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Pertumbuhan Pohon

10 1.Heartwood- the supporting column of inactive (dead) gap- wood which gives the trunk strength and stiffness. 2.Sapwood (xylem)- new layers of wood that transports water and nutrients from roots to the leaves. 3.Cambium- microscopic layer of cells where growth takes place. 4.Inner bark (phloem)- carries food made in leaves down to the branches, trunk and roots. 5.Outer bark- hold in moisture and protects the tree from insects and disease, excessive heat and cold, and mechanical injury. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Pertumbuhan Pohon

11 1.All trees compete for the same basic requirement of life – light, water, essential elements, oxygen, and other necessities. 2.Spesies yang lebih mampu memenuhi semua kebutuhannya akan menang bersaing dnegan lainnya. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Kompetisi

12 1.Pohon berdaun lebar atau Pohon Kayu-keras (hardwood) lebih mampu bersaing dan tumbuh pada tanah-tanah yang lebih dalam, teksturnya lebih berat dan tanah yang lebih produktif. 2.Pohon berdaun jarum atau conifers mampu tumbuh lebih baik pada kondisi tanah miskin, teksturnya ringan. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Kompetisi

13 The only thing constant about a forest ecosystems is that they never stop changing! 1.Natural changes: fire, storms, drought, flood, death and disease 2.Man-made changes: harvesting, farming, trails, recreation and development Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Jembatan dan jalan raya dengan jalur hijaunya merupakan lingkungan binaan yang lazim di perkotaan

14 Suksesi These changes are known as disturbances and spark the process called succession. Succession is the gradual change in plants and animal communities over time. – Primary succession occurs in an area that has no true soil. Pioneer species are the first plants to grow at these barren sites. – Secondary succession occurs on landscapes where the natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil remains intact. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

15 What’s your tolerance? Tree species that first colonize an area are usually shade-intolerant species and must have full sunlight to do well. (pines, black locust, black cherry, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, blackgum, sassafrass, and sumac) Once they have developed some sun coverage the shade-tolerant species will begin to grow and eventually take over the canopy. ( oaks, hickories, and American beech) Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

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17 1. Succession ensures the continuation of the forest by allowing other species the chance to grow and helps to increase the forest’s biodiversity. 2. Biodiversity is the species richness or variability among species in a given ecosystem. When an area is rich in native species is encourages other native animals and insects to inhabit that area, this in turn makes the ecosystem stronger. 3. When forests are strong they are better able to withstand and recover from stress the outside environment imposes. Suksesi selalu terjadi Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

18 Pohon menempati semua lapisan hutan : formed by the branches and leaves from the tallest trees : the middle layer where shorter trees and shrubs grow. : is the third layer where trees begin as seedlings. Tree roots also make up this layer that hold onto to soil and organic matter so that grasses, ferns, fungi, decaying plants and logs, microorganisms and animals may flourish. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

19 1.Trees can be classified according to the position they occupy in the forest canopy or understory. Such as system measures how well a tree has grown relative to its closet competitors. (Trees that get the most sunlight generally grow fastest). 2.Ada lima kelas tajuk pohon. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Klasifikasi Pohon

20 1.Dominant – have tops that rise above the general canopy level. They receive full sunlight from above and all sides. 2.Co-dominant – These trees make up the canopy level. Their crowns get full sunlight from above, but dominant and other co-dominate trees restrict some side sunlight. 3.Intermediate – These trees also occupy the average canopy level, but receive sunlight only from above. 4.Suppressed – These are trees that receive no direct overhead or side sunlight. They are usually are slow growing and are weak. 5.Dead trees (snags) – These can be found in the canopy, understory or forest floor. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Kelas-kelas Tajuk Pohon

21 Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

22 If uninterrupted, succession will lead to the “climax" community. Climax Community- a point in succession where the overstory trees are replaced by younger trees of the same species and have reached equilibrium. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Komunitas Klimaks

23 1.Typically, climax forests are dominated by shade-tolerant species. 2.In the Northern Hardwood Forest, the climax community is made up of sugar maple, American beech, and hemlock. 3.In this example American Linden or Basswood precedes the climax stage and is said to be the “sub-climax” tree. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Hutan Klimaks

24 1.What would be the climax forest in any locations? 2.What would be the sub-climax species? Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest Tegakan jati sedang gugur daun di musim kemarau

25 Tipe-tipe Utama Hutan Ada beberapa tipe hutan di Indonesia : 1.Hutan alam : Tropical Rain Forest 2.Hutan Lindung dataran tinggi 3.Hutan Produksi (HTI) Tegakan Jati 4.Hutan Produksi (HTI) Tegakan Pinus 5.Hutan Produksi (HTI) Tegakan Mahoni 6.Hutan Rakyat (HR) Tegakan Sengon 7.Dll. Sumber: Forest Ecology Envirothon Training- November 6, Blackbird State Forest

26 Sumber: HTI Pinus di wilayah Pujon, rumput gajah sebagai penutup muka tanah. Smno.2012


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