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1 AGROEKOSISTEM SAYURAN: Pengelolaan Tanah yang Ramah Lingkungan MALANG, FPUB, SOEMARNO-2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 AGROEKOSISTEM SAYURAN: Pengelolaan Tanah yang Ramah Lingkungan MALANG, FPUB, SOEMARNO-2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 AGROEKOSISTEM SAYURAN: Pengelolaan Tanah yang Ramah Lingkungan MALANG, FPUB, SOEMARNO-2012

2 2 PRODUKSI TANAMAN 1. Bertumpu pada unsur hara yang tersedia dalam tanah 2. Penambahan unsur hara melalui pemupukan dan praktek pengelolaan lainnya Kemampuan tanah menyediakan unsur hara sangat beragam dan berfluktuasi Teknik Diagnosis/Pendugaan: 1. Identifikasi gejala defisiensi hara 2. Uji Tanah 3. Analisis jaringan tanaman Kemampuan tanah menyediakan hara bagi tanaman Kebutuhan tanaman terhadap hara Pupuk

3 3 TEKNIK PENDUGAAN STATUS KESUBURAN TANAH Identifikasi Gejala Defisiensi Unsur Hara pada tanaman Analisis jaringan tanaman yg tumbuh pada tanah Uji Biologis: Ukuran tingkat kesuburan tanah adalah pertumbuhan tanaman atau mikroorganisme tertentu UJI TANAH SECARA KIMIA

4 4 SIFAT OLAH TANAH Pengelolaan tanah untuk memperbaiki sifat olah tanah dan pemupukan saling berkaitan, tetapi prosesnya berbeda. Misalnya, kompos atau pupuk kandang dapat diaplikasikan ke tanah sebagai bahan pembenah-tanah untuk memperbaiki sifat-olah tanah; akan tetapi aplikasi bahan tersebut juga akan menambah sejumlah hara ke tanah (pemupukan). A manufactured fertilizer may be added to supplement soil fertility levels, but it will not improve a soil’s tilth. For optimum yields and quality, gardeners need to pay attention to both soil management for improving tilth and soil fertilization. Tilth is a term related to the suitability of a soil to support plant growth. Technically speaking, tilth is “the physical condition of soil as related to its ease of tillage, fitness of seedbed, and impedance to seeding emergence and root penetration”.

5 Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(10), pp. 318–320, 25 October, 2011 Introductory trial on hybrid millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.) at different locations of District Karak, KPK, Pakistan Inayatullah Khattak, Mohammad Aqeel Khattak and Shahida Naveed An experiment was conducted on farmers’ fields to study the yield performance of hybrid millet “Badshah” at various locations of District Karak during Kharif The experiment was conducted in 6 union councils at 18 different locations of District Karak representing various micro agro climatic zones of the area. Data on days to flowering, days to maturity, plant population/m 2, plant height (cm) and grain yield kg/ha were recorded. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan lokasi berpengaruh terhadap semua parameter penelitian pada tingkat p = 0.05%.

6 Soil Amendment or Fertilizer PEMBENAH TANAH atau PUPUK The term soil amendment refers to any material mixed into a soil. By law, soil amendments make no legal claims about nutrient content or other helpful (or harmful) properties. Compost and manure are common soil amendments used to improve soil tilth. They may also supply nominal amounts of plant nutrients. Some of the nutrient effect seen from adding soil amendments is likely due to their effect on soil microorganisms. The organic material in soil amendments is a food source that allows microorganisms to multiply. The larger numbers increase the conversion of nutrients already in the soil to plant usable forms. Mulsa menunjuk pada material yang ditempatkan di permukaan tanah. Istilah “pupuk” atau “fertilizer” menyatakan suatu material yang dijamin kendungan minimumnya persentase hara (paling tidak persentase minimum nitrogen, phosphate, dan kalium). Pupuk organik berasal dari sumber-sumber alamiah dan dijamin kandungan persentase minimum nitrogen, fosfat, dan kalium.

7 PEMBENAH TANAH = Soil Amendments In the vegetable garden, the routine addition of organic soil amendments such as compost will optimize potential yields and quality. The goal in soil management is to increase the organic content to 4-5%, over a period of years. Common amendments include compost, manure, compost made with manure, fall leaves, straw, and peat moss. Home compost has the advantage that the gardener controls what goes into the compost, reducing problems with salts, weed seeds, and plant diseases. Another method to add organic matter is to replant the fall garden with a green manure crop such as winter rye or Austrian peas. Beberapa jenis tanaman penutup tanah mampu memfiksasi nitrogen melalui akar-akarnya dan akan dimasukkan ke dalam tanah dan tersedia bagi tanaman.

8 8 GEJALA DEFISIENSI UNSUR HARA PADA TANAMAN Pertumbuhan tanaman yg tidak normal dapat disebabkan oleh adanya defisiensi satu atau lebih unsur hara, gangguan dapat berupa gejala visual yang spesifik. Occurrence of symptoms: 1. Kegagalan pertumbuhan pd saat perkecambahan 2. Pertumbuhan tanaman sangat kerdil 3. Munculnya gejala spesifik pad daun, pd waktu tertentu 4. Internal abnormalities, misalnya penyumbatan jaringan pembuluh 5. Tertundanya kemasakan tanaman 6. Penurunan hasil tanaman 7. Kualitas tanaman: kandungan protein, minyak, pati, daya simpan 8. ….. Gejala defisiensi bersifat relatif, seringkali defisiensi satu unsur hara bersamaan dengan kelebihan unsur hara lainnya. Di lapangan tidak mudah membedakan gejala-gejala defisiensi. Tidak jarang gangguan hama dan penyakit menyerupai gejala defisiensi unsur hara mikro. Gejala dapat terjadi karena berbagai macam sebab

9 9 On clayey soil, organic matter (over a period of years) glues the tiny soil particles together into larger aggregates, increasing pore space. This increases soil oxygen levels and improves soil drainage, which in-turn increases the rooting depth allowing roots to readily reach a larger supply of water and nutrients. On sandy soils, organic matter holds over ten times more water and nutrients than sand. Bahan organik juga memacu aktivitas mikroba tanah dan membantu menyembuhkan pemadatan tanah. Bagaimana Bahan Pembenah Organik Memperbaiki Tanah?

10 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(6), pp. 167–174, June 2011 Effects of different sources of nitrogen on potato at Tigoni, Kenya Jane Muthoni and Jackson N. Kabira A field experiment was set up to investigate the effects of different sources of nitrogen on potato at Tigoni in Kenya. The treatments consisted of ten fertilizer materials and two potato Solanum tuberosum varieties, namely, ‘Tigoni’ and ‘Asante’. The experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons: October, 2008 to February, 2009 (first season) and April, 2009 to August, 2009, (second season). The experiment was a factorial laid in randomized complete block design with three replications. The potato yields were high with variety ‘Tigoni’ giving an average of 81.0 tons/ha in the first season and 86.8 tons/ ha in the second season. Variety ‘Asante‘yielded an average of 59.5 tons/ha in the first season and 62.1 tons/ha in the second season. Pupuk, varietas tanaman, dan interaksi antara pupuk dan varietas tanaman berpengaruh nyata (p = 0.05) selama dua musim pertumbuhan. The experiment need to be repeated on farmers’ fields where the masking effects of the residual fertilizers can be eliminated. In addition, the cost of different fertilizer combinations needs to be evaluated so as to make the most profitable recommendations to potato growers in Kenya.

11 11 HIDDEN HUNGER = KELAPARAN TERSEMBUNYI “Situasi dimana tanaman memerlukan tambahan unsur hara tertentu meskipun belum ada gejala defisiensi yang spesifik” Kandungan hara dalam tanaman berada di atas zone defisiensi, namun masih berada di bawah batas optimal untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman Optimum fisiologis Top yield Hidden hunger Optimum ekonomis Symptoms dosis pemupukan Hasil analisis tanaman berguna untuk menyusun program pemupukan musim tanam mendatang. Hasil uji tanah berguna untuk membantu mengeliminir / mengatasi problematik hara musim tanam sekarang Kedua cara ini harus digunakan dengan hati-hati, terutama dikaitkan dengan sejarah pengelolaan tanah pada masa yang lalu Melacak hidden hunger Field trial Tissue test Plant analyses Feed value Morfologi Part analyses root absorption Soil tests air tanah, aerasi, suhu

12 Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(12), pp. 393–403, 22 December, 2011 Carbon accumulation and aggregate stability in an Acrisol under different fallow management in Ghana G. N. N. Dowuona, E. T. Adjetey 1, E. K. Nartey 1, T. A. Adjadeh 1, R. Heck Soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to aggregate stability, plant biomass accumulation and other properties of a Ferric Acrisol under different fallow management practices was determined to ascertain their potential for sequestering carbon. Three minor season fallow treatments replicated four times were natural and burning (T 1 ), natural and plough-in (T 2 ), pigeon pea (T 3 ), bare land (T 4 ), cowpea (T 5 ), mucuna (T 6 ) and natural and fertilized cropped (T 7 ).Inherent nutrient status of the soil was low. Generally, dry matter (DM) yield increased for all the treatments in the minor season of 2006 more than in A high DM yield for T 3 resulted from the shrubby and semi-woody nature of pigeon pea.Moisture stress from low rainfall decrease DM yield in In 2005, SOC contents of the treatment plots were lower than the initial amount although, T 3 produced relatively the highest SOC accumulation (20,293 ± 326 kg C ha -1 ). In 2006, the legume-amended treatments (T 3, T 5 and T 6 ) had similar SOC contents as the control (T 4 ); the lower SOC contents in the natural fallow plots confirmed the negative effect of burning, especially in T 1. Soil OC accumulation was greater in 2007 than in 2006 (except for T 4 ). Water dispersible silt fraction decreased with increasing SOC accumulation (r value = **). Dispersion ratios, more related to SOC (R 2 value of -0.95** in the natural fallows and * in the legume fallows), generally decreased from an average of 0.88 in 2006 to 0.50 in 2008 emphasizing the positive role of aggregate stability in SOC accumulation.

13 13 General application rates for compost or other organic soil amendments are based on the salt content of the materials and soil and on the depth to which it is cultivated into the soil. Ideally, cultivate the soil amendment into the top six to eight inches of the soil. On compacted/clayey soils, anything less can lead to a shallow rooting system with reduced plant growth, lower vigor, and lower stress tolerance. Table 1 gives standard application rate for compost. Compost made solely from plant residues (leaves and other yard wastes) is basically free of salt problems, and higher application rates are safe. APLIKASI KOMPOS

14 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(11), pp. 375–383, 29 November, 2011 Effect of Rice Mill Wastes Application on Selected Soil Physical Properties and Maize Yield (Zea mays l.) On an Ultisol in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria Njoku C., Mbah, C.N. and Okonkwo, C. I. An experiment was carried out in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (residual) cropping season at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki to determine the long term effect of burnt and unburnt rice mill wastes application on soil physical properties and maize yield. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Seven treatments were included in the study: burnt rice mill waste at 10 and 20 t ha -1 (BW 10 ) and (BW 20 ), unburnt rice mill waste at 10 and 20 t ha -1 (UW 10 ) and (UW 20 ), mixture of burnt + unburnt rice mill waste (1:1) at 10 and 20 t ha -1 (BUW 10 ) and (BUW 20 ), and a control (C). The results showed that rice mill wastes significantly (P BUW 20 > BUW 10 >UW 20 >BW 10 >UW 10 >C and BUW 20 >BUW 10 >BW 20 > UW 20 >BW 10 >UW 10 >C. Control recorded the lowest value of crop grain yield (0.12 t ha -1 ) in 2010 cropping season. At rate of 20 t ha -1 BW, BUW and UW recorded highest maize grain yield of 4.18, 4.06 and 1.70 t ha -1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons, respectively. Therefore, rice mill wastes at these rates studied (10 and 20 t ha -1 ) could be used as soil amendment since it improved soil physical properties and increased maize yield.

15 15 PENGARUH MUSIM Kekurangan hara dalam tanah diperparah oleh kondisi cuaca yang abnormal, misalnya kekeringan tanah atau kelebihan air yg menggenang, atau suhu tanah yang tdk normal. Pengaruh temperatur thd kandungan N-P-K daun tomat Umur Dry matter (%) tanaman12oC 20oC (hari)N P K N P K Sumber: Zurbicki, Pada kondisi temperatur rendah, tanaman tomat menyerap lebih sedikit nitrogen, fosfat dan kalium.

16 16 Table 1. Routine Application Rate for Compost 1 3 cubic yards (67 bushels) covers 1,000 square feet approximately 1 inch deep. 2 Cultivate compost into the top 6-8 inches of the soil. On compacted / clayey soils, anything less may result in a shallow rooting depth predisposing plants to reduced growth, low vigor and low stress tolerance. The 3-4” inch depth is shown as an illustration of how application rates need to adjust when the deep cultivate is not practiced. 3 Plant based composted are derived solely from plant materials (leaves, grass clippings, wood chips and other wards wastes). Use this application rate also for other compost known, by soil test, to be low in salts. 4 Use this application rate for any compost made with manure or biosolids unless the salt content is known, by soil test, to be low. Excessive salts are common in many commercially available products sold in Colorado.

17 17 Compost, which includes manure or biosolids as a component, has a potential for high salts. Excessive salt levels are common in many commercially available products sold in Colorado. On compost made with manure or biosolids, application rate is limited unless a soil test on that batch of product shows a low salt level. An amendment with up to 10 dS/m (10 mmhos/cm) total salt is acceptable if incorporated six to eight inches deep in a low-salt garden soil (less than 1 dS/m or 1 mmhos/cm). Any amendment with a salt level above 10 dS/m (10 mmhos/cm) is questionable. Note: dS/m or mmhos/cm is the unit used to measure salt content. It measures the electrical conductivity of the soil APLIKASI KOMPOS

18 18 PENGARUH stress AIR TANAH Stress air tanah mempengaruhi penyerapan unsur hara oleh tanaman jagung. Kandungan NPK daun jagung lebih rendah pada kondisi stress air tanah. Pemupukan dapat mereduksi efek stress air tanah Pengaruh pemupukan N-P-K dan stress air tanah thd kadar NPK daun jagung Dosis pupukKadar NPK N P K No stress daysMaximum stress ……… kg/ha ……………. ………………… % N …...…………… ………………… % P …...…………… ………………… % K …...…………… Sumber: Voss, 1970.

19 19 Compost needs to be thoroughly mixed into the upper six to eight inches of the soil profile. Do not leave compost in chunks, as this will interfere with root growth and soil water movement. As the soil organic content builds in a garden soil, the application rate should be reduced to prevent ground water contamination issues. A soil test is suggested every four to six years to establish a base line on soil organic matter content. If using a green manure cover crop, till the cover crop in before it reaches four inches in height. In the vegetable garden do not plow in woody materials such as bark or wood chips. They may interfere with seedbed preparation and may result in soil nitrogen depletion. APLIKASI KOMPOS

20 20 APLIKASI KOMPOS DAN PUPUK KANDANG Manure, compost made from manure, and bio-solids may be high in salts that will interfere with crop growth. Do not add more than one inch per season without conducting a soil test to evaluate potential salt build-up. Due to a health issue (E coli contamination), fresh manure additions should be made at least four months prior to the harvest of any edible crops. In other words, apply fresh manure only in the fall after crops are harvested. Fresh manure or unfinished compost products may be high in ammonia. Avoid application of products with an ammonia smell; they could burn roots and leaves. Manure and compost may be source of weed seeds.

21 21 ANALISIS TANAMAN (Plant Analyses) Dua macam analisis tanaman yg lazim adalah: 1. Tissue test, biasanya dilakukan pada jaringan segar tanaman di lapangan 2. Total analyses, dilakukan di laboratorium Analisis tanaman didasarkan pada premise bahwa: “ Jumlah unsur hara tertentu dalam tanaman merupakan indikasi dari ketersediaan unsur hara tersebut dalam tanah”. Karena kekurangan unsur hara tertentu akan membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman, maka kemungkinan unsur hara lain dalam tanaman menunjukkan konsentrasi tinggi. Tingkat kritis (critical level) unsur hara telah berhasil ditemukan pada berbagai jenis tanaman. Tingkat kritis adalah kandungan (content) suatu unsur hara dalam tanaman, di bawah mana hasil tanaman atau pertumbuhannya menurun di bawah optimum. Misalnya tingkat kritis P daun jagung pada masa pembungaan adalah 0.3% P. Ternyata besarnya tingkat kritis ini juga dipengaruhi oleh keseimbangan unsur hara lain dalam tubuh tanaman

22 22 TISSUE TEST Uji Jaringan Tanaman Dalam uji ini digunakan cairan sel dari jaringan tanaman segar untuk mengetahui jumlah unsur hara yg masih belum terasimilasi, seperti N, P, K, Mg dan Mn. Hasil uji ini dikategorikan menjadi Sangat Rendah, Rendah, Medium,atau Tinggi GENERAL METHOD 1. The Purdue Soil and Plant Test Kit: Bagian tanaman dihancurkan dan diekstraks dengan reagen khusus. Intensitas warna yang berkembang diabndingkan dengan standar 2. Metode Kertas Saring. Cairan sel dipindahkan ke dalam kertas saring, kemudian dilakukan uji unsur hara N, P, K dengan menggunakan reagen tertentu. PLANT PARTS TO BE TESTED Harus dipilih bagian tanaman yang dapt memberikan indikasi paling baik terhadap status hara tanaman.

23 23 Laju Pelepasan Hara dari Kompos dan Rabuk Kandang Gardeners need to understand that the nutrient release from compost and manure is slow, taking years. Adding compost or manure to improve soil tilth is not the same as fertilizing. The typical nitrogen release rates from manure is only 30% to 50% the first year (fresh manure), 15% to 25% the second year, 7% to 12% the third year, 3% to 6% the fourth year, and so on. With compost and composted manure, the release rate is even slower, 5% to 25% the first year, 3% to 12% the second year and 1% to 6% the third year. Since the nitrogen percentage of compost and manure products is typically only 2% to 4%, the amount of actual nitrogen release to support crop growth is very small. For soil with 4% to 5% organic matter, the mineralization (release) of nitrogen from soil organic matter will likely be sufficient for crop growth. For soils with 2% to 3% organic matter, the mineralization of nitrogen from soil organic matter will not likely be sufficient for heavy feeding vegetable crops. Supplement with 0.1 pound nitrogen fertilizer per 100 square feet. For the typical garden soil with 1% organic matter or less, the mineralization of nitrogen for soil organic matter will be minimal. Add 0.2 pounds of nitrogen fertilizer per 100 square feet.

24 24 WAKTU PENGUJIAN Tingkat kemasakan sangat penting dalam uji jaringan tanaman. Umumnya tanaman semusim mengalami perubahan status hara selama masa pertumbuhannya Umumnya periode kritis terjadi pada fase pembungaan atau antara pembungaan hingga awal pembuahan. Selama periode ini penggunaan unsur hara pada tingkat maksimum. Kandungan nitrat biasanya lebih tinggi pd pagi hari, sehingga uji jaringan tdk boleh pagi-pagi. Beberapa hal penting: 1. Hal yg ideal adalah mengikuti serapan hara selama musim pertumbuhan dg jalan uji lapangan sebanyak lima atau enam kali. Biasanya kandungan hara lebih tinggi pada awal musim pertumbuhan 2.Kebutuhan tanaman paling besar biasanya terjadi pd saat masa pembungaan dan awal pembentukan buah dan biji 3.Pembandingan tanaman di lapangan sangat berguna. Uji tanaman dari daerah defisien dibandingkan dg tanaman dari daerah normal 4.Ragam tanaman, jumlah sampel tanaman

25 25 PENGGUNAAN ANALISIS JARINGAN TANAMAN 1.Membantu menentukan kemampuan tanah untuk menyediakan unsur hara. Hasil uji jaringan ini dipadukan dengan hasil uji tanah dan sejarah pengelolaan lahan. 2.Membantu mengidentifikasi gejala defisiensi 3. Membantu menentukan pengaruh pemupukan thd suplai hara dlm tanaman. Hal ini sangat penting untuk mengukur pengaruh pupuk meskipun tidak ada respon hasil. Dalam banyak kasus, hara ppuk tidak dapat diserap tanaman karena penempatannya keliru, cuaca kering, pencucian, fiksasi oleh tanah, atau aerasi buruk 4.Mengkaji hubungan antara status hara tanaman dengan penampilan tanaman 5.Survei daerah yang luas 6. Menarik partisipasi banyak orang.

26 26 Soil fertilization is the addition of soil nutrients to support crop growth. While some soil amendments add small amounts of nutrients, amending the soil to improve soil tilth is not the same as amending the soil to provide nutrients. Manufactured fertilizers are popular with gardeners because they are readily available, inexpensive, easy to apply, and generally provide a quick release of nutrients for plant growth. Application rates for any fertilizer depend on the content and the amount of nutrient to be applied. In products containing multiple nutrients, the application rate is always based on the nitrogen content. PEMUPUKAN

27 27 Pemupukan Nitrogen Nitrogen is the nutrient needed in largest quantities by plants and the one most frequently applied as fertilizer. It is annually applied in the form of manufactured fertilizer, organic fertilizers, and/or organic soil amendments. Application rates are critical, because too much or too little directly impacts crop growth. The standard annual application rate for home vegetable gardens is 2 pounds actual nitrogen per 1,000 square feet (0.2 pound actual nitrogen per 100 square feet). When organic matter is supplied, adjust the rate accordingly to account for nitrogen released by the organic matter. Manufactured nitrogen fertilizer can be broadcast and watered in, or broadcast and tilled into the top few inches of soil. It can be banded 3-4” to the side of the seed or plant row. Do not place the fertilizer in the seed row or root injury will occur. Some fully soluble types are applied in the irrigation water. “Organic” nitrogen fertilizers are typically tilled in or some can be applied in irrigation water.

28 28 Table 2. Standard Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Rates for Gardens

29 29 Pupuk Dasar = Starter In setting out transplants, starter solutions often promote early growth. Because transplants have been hardened-off (growth slowed to prepare the plant for movement to the exposed, windy, outdoor environment), the nitrogen in the starter solution gives the signal to resume active growth. Since phosphorus is less available in cold soils, phosphate may also be helpful in spring and before soils have thoroughly warmed. A starter fertilizer is any water-soluble fertilizer added to the irrigation water. Common examples include MiracleGro, Peters, Schultz Plant Food, Fertilome Root Simulator and Plant Starter Solution, etc. They generally contain ammonium nitrate since it is readily usable by the plant. Some products claim that vitamins or hormones promote plant growth. These claims are not supported by research findings.

30 30 KALIBRASI UJI TANAH Hasil uji tanah harus dikalibrasikan dengan respon tanaman thd penambahan unsur hara (pupuk). Respon tanaman dapat diperoleh dari percobaan lapangan atau rumah kaca. Indeks kesuburan tanah = “relative sufficiency” yg dinyatakan sbg persentase dari jumlah yang diperlukan untuk mencapai hasil maksimum Indeks Kesuburan (%) Sangt Rendah Tinggi Rendah 60-70Sngt Tinggi Medium Ekstrem Tinggi > 410 Tingkat kritis = Indeks kesuburan 75 % Peluang respon pupuk S. Rdh Rndh Medium Tinggi Sgt Tinggi Tingkat kesuburan tanah

31 31 REKOMENDASI PUPUK 1.Interpretasi hasil uji tanah melibatkan evaluasi ekonomi terhadap hubungan antara nilai uji tanah dengan respon pupuk. 2.Potensial respon pupuk dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor tanah, agroklimat, dan pengelolaan oleh petani 3. Rekomendasi pemupukan nitrogen sangat dipengaruhi oleh tanaman musim sebelumnya dan sasaran hasil 4.Untuk sistem komersial, sasarannya adalah mempertahankan hara tanah pd tingkat untuk melestarikan “top profit” per hektar lahan. Unsur hara tdk boleh menjadi faktor pembatas selama pertumbuhan tanaman. Hasil tanaman D C Respon hasil thd pemupulan Tgt pd potensial hasil tanaman B A: terendah; D: tertinggi A Dosis pupuk

32 32 Nitrogen “Side Dressing” Plant need for nitrogen varies. Beans, peas, tomatoes, and vine crops (cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, and melons) are examples of vegetables with a lower need for nitrogen. High nitrogen promotes excessive growth of the plant at the expense of fruiting. Crops such as potatoes, corn, and cole crops (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and kale) use large amounts of nitrogen and need supplemental applications during the growing season (referred to as side dressing). For example, home garden potatoes often show nitrogen deficiency from August into fall. Symptoms start as a yellowing of lower leaves and progress into a general browning and dieback of the vine. When nitrogen stress hits, potatoes become more susceptible to diseases, including early blight and verticillium wilt. [Table 3] Fertilizers commonly used in the home garden for side dressing include ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and water-soluble fertilizers such as MiracleGro, Peters, etc. Phosphate and potash fertilizers are best added in the spring or fall, when they can be cultivated into the soil.

33 33 Table 3. Nitrogen Side Dressing of Vegetable Crops

34 34 Bagian tanaman yg digunakan untuk Uji Jaringan Tanaman Tanaman NitrogenFosfor Kalium JagungMain stem, Leaf midribs near ear Blade tissue, leaf midribs midrib near ear Kedelai-Petiole pd bagian atas tnm Petiole Biji-bijianMain stem Jar daun di dekat pusat tnm Sama dg Fosfor Kentang danMain stem, Petiole pd bag bawah tnm Petiole TomatPetiole Sumber: Ohlrogge, 1962.

35 35 A soil test is the best method to determine the need for phosphate and potash. With a fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphate and/or potash, the application rate is always based on the nitrogen percentage because nitrogen is most critical to plant growth. Phosphate and potash fertilizers are best applied in the spring or fall, when they can be tilled into the soil APLIKASI P DAN K

36 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(1), pp. 9–13, January 2011 Comparative study of different organic manures and NPK fertilizer for improvement of soil chemical properties and dry matter yield of maize in two different soils Adeniyan O. N.*, Ojo A. O., Akinbode, O. A. and Adediran J. A. A pot experiment was conducted to compare different organic manures with NPK fertilizer for improvement of chemical properties of acid soil from farmer’s field in coastal area of Epe and nutrient depleted soil from research field of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Maize was planted for 12 weeks and dry matter yield was determined. Results showed that application of 5 ton/ha of each of the evaluated organic manures and 100 kg/ha NPK fertilizer improved chemical properties of both acid and nutrient depleted soils compared with unfertilized soil. Application of different types of organic manures reduced the acidic levels of both the soils. Cow dung application resulted in the highest pH levels of 6.37 and 6.50 in acid soil and nutrient depleted soil respectively while NPK fertilizer gave lowest pH levels of 5.28 and 5.74 for both soils. Also, application of different types of organic manures enhanced soil organic C, total N, available P, exchangeable K and CEC better than NPK fertilizer in both soils. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rabuk organik dapat memperbaiki sifat-sifat kimia tanah. Hasil biomasa tanaman lebih banyak meningkat dengan aplikasi pupuk NPK dibandingkan dengan kompos, dan rabuk kandang ayam pada kedua jenis tanah. Pada tanah masam, aplikasi pupuk NPK menghasilkan biomasa tertinggi sebesar 4.77 g/plant sedangkan pada tanah-tanah miskin unsur hara aplikasi upupk NPK menghasilkan biomasa tanaman terbesar 5.58 g/plant.

37 37 INPERPRETASI TISSUE TEST & PLANT ANALYSES Interpretasi hasil uji dan analisis tanaman harus dikaitkan dengan proses fisiologi tanaman. Beberapa faktor penting yang harus dipertimbangkan adalah: 1.Performance dan vigor tanaman secara umum 2.Kandungan unsur hara lainnya dalam tanaman 3.Adanya gangguan hama dan penyakit 4.Kondisi tanah, seperti aerasi yg buruk, kemasaman tanah, suhu tanah 5.Kondisi air tanah, stress air, genangan air 6.Kondisi klimatik 7.Waktu dalam seharian: pagi, siang, sore, malam. 1.Umumnya kalau pada awal pertumbuhannya tanaman mempunyai kandungan N,P, atau K yang rendah hingga medium, maka hasil tanaman akan di bawah optimum 2.Pada saat pembungaan hasil uji medium hingga tinggi dianggap cukup untuk kebanyakan tanama n

38 38 ANALISIS TOTAL HARA Analisis Total dilakukan pada sluruh tanaman atau bagian-bagian tanaman. Bahan tanaman dikeringkan, dihaluskan dan diabukan. Bahan abu tanaman kemudian diekstraks dengan reagen kimia. 1. Kalau kadar K daun bagian bawah lebih rendah dari kadar K daun bagian atas, maka tanaman defisiensi kalium. 2. Peningkatan hasil dg peningkatan kadar hara 3. Keseimbangan hara 4. Time of sampling: Kadar hara tanaman menurun mulai dari awal hingga akhir masa pertumbuhannya 5. Crop Logging: Penggunaan analisis tanaman dalam operasi produksi tanaman 6. A-Value Technique: Teknik Analisis Radio-kimiawi Pemupukan N menurunkan kadar P dan K tanaman tebu umur 10 bulan Dosis pupuk N (lb/A) Internode 8-10 : Nitrogen (ppm)Fosfor (ppm)Kalium (ppm) Sumber: Burr, 1960.

39 39 Ketersediaan P dalam tanah-tanah pertanian sangat beragam. Deficiencies are most likely to occur in new gardens where the organic matter content is low and in soils with a high pH (7.8 to 8.3). Excessive phosphorus fertilizer can aggravate iron and zinc deficiencies and increase soil salt content. Routine application of compost or manure will supply the phosphorus needs in most garden soils in Colorado. Where phosphorus levels are believed to be low, the standard application rate without a soil test is ¼ to 1-pound triple super phosphate (0-46-0) or ammonium phosphate ( ) per 100 square feet Phosphorus

40 40 Hasil tanaman jagung (Y) Y = X r = 0.96 (Hanway, 1962) Kadar N daun jagung (X) Hasil tanaman jagung (Y) at tasseling (Loue, 1963) Kadar Ca atau Mg daun jagung (Y) (Loue, 1963) Ca Mg Kadar K petiole Dosis pupuk K = 400 kg/ha (Tyler et al., 1960) Kadar K daun jagung (X) Umur tanaman kentang

41 41 UJI BIOLOGIS UJI LAPANGAN. Percobaan lapangan melibatkan berbagai perlakuan pemupukan pada sebidang lahan. Biasanya digunakan Rancangan Percobaan tertentu Ukuran petakan contoh tgt jenis tanaman dan jatak tanamnya UJI PETIK DI LAHAN PETANI Sepetak lahan petani diperlakukan dengan “pemupukan” yang direkomendasikan berdasarkan hasil uji tanah dan/atau analisis tanaman. UJI LABORATORIUN DAN RUMAH-KACA 1. Mitscherlich Pot Culture 2. Neubauer Seedling Method 3. Sunflower Pot Culture technique for Boron METODE MIKROBIOLOGIS 1. Sackett & Stewart Technique 2. Aspergillus Niger 3. Mehlich Cunninghamella-Plaque Method for Phosphorus

42 42 Kandungan kalium dalam tanah beragam antar lokasi. Deficiencies occasionally occur in new gardens low in organic matter and in sandy soils low in organic matter. Excessive potash fertilizer can increase soil salt content. Aplikasi secara rutin kompos dan pupuk kandang akan mensuplai kebutuhan kalium bagi tanaman. Where potash levels are believed to be low, the standard application rate without a soil test is ¼ to ½ pound potassium chloride (0-0-60) or potassium sulfate (0-0-50) per 100 square feet. Potassium

43 43 Pengelolaan Pemadatan Tanah Pada tanah berliat, pemadatan tanah merupakan masalah penting yang berpotensi membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman. Tanah mengalami pemadatan selama proses budidaya pertanian. Menginjak-injak tanah basah, mengolah tanah basah, dan pukulan air hujan merupakan gaya-gaya yang dapat memadatkan tanah. Berikut ini tindakan untuk meminimumkan efek pemadatan tanah: Aplikasi bahan organik ke tanah-tanah liat. Avoid cultivating or working a clayey soil when wet. To evaluate, squeeze a handful of soil. Then try to crumble it. If it will crumble, it can be worked. If it will not crumble but stays in mud balls, it is too wet to be worked. Avoid cultivating other than to prepare a seed bed or till in organic matter and fertilizers. For weed control, use a mulch, hand removal, or shallow cultivation only. Use a raised bed with established walkways, and avoid walking on the growing bed. Mulsa di permukaan tanah sepanjang tahun, untuk meminimumkan gaya- gaya pemadatan tanah akibat air hujan dan irigasi semprot. Hal ini juga membantu mengendalikan gulma dan mengurangi penguapan air.

44 44 Ketersediaan dan keseimbangan hara dalam tanah SAMPLING: Tanah & Tanaman Analisis Laboratorium Korelasi antara hasil analisis & respon tanaman Interpretasi & Rekomendasi Implementasi

45 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(7), pp. 193–197, July 2011 Effects of cow-dung and rock phosphate on heavy metal content in soils and plants O. O. Awotoye, D. J. Oyedele and B. C. Anwadike Field trial was conducted with the view to determining the ideal rock phosphate (RP) and the level of cow dung fertilizer combination with respect to heavy metal contamination of soil and crops. Soils amended with Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) were subjected to 1-4 tha - 1 of cow dung on which maize (Zea mays (L)﴿ and okra (Abelmuscus esculentum) were planted. The amended soils were found to be enriched with heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) more than the unamended soil but were still within the tolerable level with the exception of Cd which had a high value of 5.30 mg g -1 above the critical value of 3mg g -1. The application of RP in combination with various levels of cow dung elevated the Pb, Zn and Cu content in the tissue of maize relative to the control. The Zn and Pb content of okra were not affected except for Cu and As in soil amended with RP and various levels of cow dung relative to the control. Transfer factor (TF) was higher in the treatment with RP supplemented with 2 t ha -1 of cow dung particularly for Pb and Zn for both crops relative to other treatments. Except for Cu and Zn, increasing the level of cow dung while RP did not increase the TF value of the heavy metals to the crops.

46 46 Contoh Tanah representatif : 1. Terdiri subsample dari zone perakaran: 0-20 cm 2. Sebidang lahan yg seragam slope, drainage, warna, dan sejarah pemupukannya 3. Area non-representatif: fence row, manure pile 4. Informasi pelengkap: petani, nomor lapangan, tanaman, praktek pemupukan 5. Waktu sampling 6. Sampel komposit: 500 g, ditumbuk, diayak 2 mm

47 47 TUJUAN UJI TANAH 1. Untuk mempertahankan status kesuburan sebidang lahan 2. Untuk meramalkan / menduga respon kapur dan pupuk yg menguntungkan 3. Untuk mendapatkan landasan bagi rekomendasi jumlah kapur dan pupuk 4. Untuk mengevaluasi status kesuburan tanah di suatu wilayah

48 48 SOIL TEST LEVEL Sumber Unsur Hara Sgt Tinggi Tinggi Medium Rendah Sgt Rendah Tanah Pupuk Unsur hara yg tersedia dari dlm tanah Unsur hara yg diperlukan dari pupuk

49 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 3(4), pp. 91–96, April 2012 Assessment of soil quality improvement under Teak and Albizia Ziblim Abukari Imoro*, Damian Tom-Dery and Kingsley Arnold Kwadwo This study was conducted to assess the quality of soil in terms of soil nutrients and other physico-chemical properties under Tectona grandis and Albizia lebbeck plantations. Systematic sampling was used to collect soil samples diagonally at eight spots in each plantation and their adjacent non-tree fields as controls. The samples were collected from soil depth of 0 to 20 cm in both plantations and controls and analyzed for pH, % of Organic carbon (O-C), % of Nitrogen (N), available Phosphorus (P) and Bulk density (Db). The study revealed that the mean levels of N, O-C and P under the T. grandis plantation were higher than its control plot. However, there was no significant difference in the level of N except for the O-C and P. Also, the pH and Db under the T. grandis were lower than its control plot but there was no significant difference between them. There was significant difference in the levels of N, O-C and P under the A. lebbeck plantation and its control plot. The N, O-C and P were higher under the A. lebbeck plantation compared to its control plot. The pH and Db were lower under the A. lebbeck plantation compared to its control plot. However, the differences were not significant. In general, A. lebbeck added more N and O-C to the soil compared to T. grandis. Also, the T. grandis added more P to the soil when compared to the A. lebbeck; however, the difference was not significant. It is therefore, recommended that A. lebbeck and T. grandis should be used for agro forestry practices particularly, where the soil needs some level of improvement in nitrogen and phosphorus respectively.

50 50 UJI TANAH SAMPLING THE SOIL 1. Contoh tanah harus dapat mewakili kondisi daerah / lahan 2. Seringkali digunakan contoh tanah komposit 3. Peralatan sampling tanah 4. Area sampling: satu contoh mewakili liasan lahan tertentu DEPTH OF SAMPLING 1. Untuk tanah-tanah pertanian, kedalaman sampling cm 2. Kedalaman ini biasanya merupakan lapisan olah tanah 3. Untuk keperluan deskripsi profil tanah, sampling dilakukan untuk setiap horison tanah TIME OF SAMPLING 1. Sampling dapat dilakukan setiap saat asalkan kondisi tanah memungkinkan 2.Rekomendasi umum adalah melakukan uji tanah setiap tiga tahun 3.Sampling tanah dapat dilakukan pada saat tanaman sedang tumbuh ANALYZING THE SOILS 1. Kation: NH 4 +, K+, Ca++, Mg++6. Belerang 2. Fosfor7. Sifat Fisika Tanah 3. Unsur mikro8. … N dan Bahan organik 5. Kemasaman tanah dan kebutuhan kapur

51 51 INTERPRETASI SOIL TEST Masalah penting dalam menginterpretasikan hasil uji tanah adalah kaitannya dengan “pemupukan” yang diperlukan. Beberapa faktor yg harus diperhatikan adalah: 1. Karakteristik tanah 2. Hasil yang diharapkan 3. Tindakan pengelolaan 4. Kondisi agroklimat Konsep hasil relatif (% hasil) didasarkan atas idea bahwa hasil yang diharapkan (yg dinyatakan sebagai persentasi hasil maksimum) diduga dari hasil uji tanah P dan K. Sejumlah pupuk perlu ditambahkan untuk mencapai hasil tanaman hingga 95% hasil maksimum. Kelemahan konsep ini adalah kalau ada efek interaksi antar unsur hara. Hasil Penelitian Barber (dari Purdue University) disajikan berikut: Populasi tanaman jagung dan respon pupuk Populasi jagung (tnm/A) Respon jagung (bu/A) thd pemupukan : Dosis 100 lb P2O5 Dosis 200 lb K2O Sumber: Barber, 19…

52 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(1), pp. 1–8, January 2011 The physical and chemical characteristics of soils of Northern Kenya Aridlands: Opportunity for sustainable agricultural production E. M. Muya 1 *, S. Obanyi 1, M. Ngutu 2, I. V. Sijali 1, M. Okoti 2, P. M. Maingi 1 and H. Bulle 2 Biophysical characterization was carried out in the mountain and oasis areas within the Northern Kenya Arid Lands with a view of identifying, soil constraints and opportunities for sustainable agricultural production in the area. The soil aspects were studied through desk-top analysis of the existing databases and collection of secondary data at regional scale, site evaluation surveys at site level and detailed soil survey at farm level. Based on biophysical data, the mountain and oasis area of the region was divided into three major eco-zones, namely (1) upper regions: mountains, hills and uplands, (2) middle level: footslopes and (3) low-lying areas: riverine, plains and bottomlands, which were found to occupy 20, 5 and 54% of the total land area of Kenya Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (KASALs) respectively. In these areas, soil structural degradation has taken place at varied rates through pulverization in the upper regions, compaction in the middle level and dispersion in the low-lying areas. The mean productivity index for the upper zone, middle slopes and the lowest zone was found to be 18.5, 19.6 and 1.3%, the most limiting factors being high acidity, increased compaction and high sodicity/salinity respectively. Sistem pertanian berkelanjutan dapat diwujudkan dengan jalan eliminasi kemasaman tanah, meningkatkan cadangan air untuk irigasi lahan di zone atas, memanen air limpasan permukaan dan memperbaiki daya simpan air tanah melalui “subsoiling” pada lereng bawah; dan orientasi pasar yang tepat dalam usahatani guna meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air di lahan zone bawah.

53 53 TIPE REKOMEND ASI 1. BUILDUP / Basic Treatment Pemupukan bersifat korektif, untuk meningkatkan ketersediaan hara tanah hingga taraf yang diperlukan Uji tanah harus dilakukan setiap tahun untuk memperbaiki dosis pupuk untuk mengganti kehilangan karena dipanen, erosi, pencucian dan fiksasi. 2. ANNUAL APPLICATION Pupuk P dan K ditambahkan kepada setiap tanaman dalam rotasi untuk mempertahankan hasil uji tanah 3. ROTATION. Beberapa faktor yg harus diperhatikan: a. Pemupukan dilakukan sebelum tanaman yg paling responsif & profitable b. Row-application pupuk P untuk jagung c. Forage-crop menyerap banyak K, perlu pemupukan setiap tahun d. Kedelai punya respon lebih baik thd kesuburan tanah yg tinggi daripada pemupukan langsung e. Dalam sistem pergiliran tanaman dlm setahun, pemupukan dilakukan pd tanaman yg paling responsif 4. REPLACEMENT SYSTEM Dosis pupuk ditentukan berdasarkan jumlah hara yang diambil tanaman untuk menghasilkan tingkat-hasil tertentu. Beberapa faktor yg harus diperhatikan adalah: a.Kemampuan tanah menyediakan unsur hara, termasuk kemampuan fiksasi hara b.Tingkat kecukupan hara dalam tanah c.Kandungan hara dalam hasil panen d.Kemampuan tanaman menyerap hara tanah.

54 Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(10), pp. 292–298, 25 October, Effects of land use and long-term organic matter application on low-molecular-weight organic acids in an Andisol Yusuke Takata, Masayuki Tani, Taku Kato and Masanori Koike To clarify the effects of land use and long-term organic matter application on the dynamics of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs), soil samples were collected from an agricultural site under various organic matter managements and an adjacent Oak forest site. The agricultural site was composed of a chemical fertilizer plot, cattle manure applied plots, a crop residue incorporated plot, and both a cattle manure and crop residue incorporated plot. Formic acid was detected in the soils of all plots at the agricultural site; however, the effect of long-term application of organic matter was less clear. Malic acid was also detected in all soils of the arable lands, and the amount was larger in the organic matter-applied plots than in the chemical fertilizer plot. The amount of citric acid in the arable soils was extremely smaller than in the forest soils. No citric acid was detected in the soils without organic matter application. The total amounts of LOAs were considerably smaller in the arable soils than in the adjacent forest soils, except for the plot where both cattle manure and crop residues had been applied. The land use and long-term application of organic matter practically affected the contents of LOAs in an Andisol, and their effects on the dynamics of nutrients and other constituents should be the subject of future research.

55 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(5), pp. 142–146, May 2011 Assessment of impacts of charcoal production on soil properties in the derived savanna, Oyo state, Nigeria Ogundele A. T., Eludoyin O. S. and Oladapo O. S. This study evaluated the impacts of charcoal production on soil properties in the derived savanna zone of South Western, Nigeria. Ten soil samples were collected randomly at the depth of 0 to10 cm in each of the charcoal production sites (CPS) and adjacent field sites (AFS) which is the control site. All soil samples collected were subjected to laboratory analysis for soil pH, particle size composition, available phosphorus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, exchangeable potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, cation exchangeable capacity and base saturation. The mean of each of these soil properties was used for comparison and t-test was also used to determine the significant difference that exists in each soil property. The results of the analysis showed that the soils are texturally similar at both the CPS and AFS sites. The soil pH under CPS is 6.75 while it is 5.96 under AFS. The mean of the available phosphorous under CPS is ppm while it is 2.07 ppm under AFS. The analysis reveals a slight increase in exchangeable calcium, sodium, magnesium, total nitrogen, organic carbon and base saturation contents of the soil in CPS while the amount of cation exchange capacity decreases in CPS with the mean value of 2.32 meq/100 g than the AFS with the mean value of 2.37 me/100 g. It is therefore recommended among others that there should be awareness to consider the age of trees, species and biomass before trees are cut down for charcoal production.

56 56 1.Metode ini didasarkan pada gagasan bahwa tanaman dapat memanfaatkan sejumlah tertentu unsur hara yg terkandung dlm tanah, pupuk dan rabuk. 2.Kalau jumlah hara yang diperlukan untuk mencapai hasil tertentu dapat diketahui, maka jumlah tambahan pupuk dan rabuk dapat dihitung 3.Rekomendasi pupuk dipengaruhi oleh: sistem rotasi, tindakan pengelolaan, analisis tanah, dan tanaman yang akan ditanam 4. Contoh untuk tanaman jagung sbb: Estimasi persentase ketersediaan N, P, K dari tiga sumber: Persentase yg diperoleh selama satu musim: Sumber NitrogenFosforKalium Tanah (available) Rabuk (total) Pupuk (available) Sumber: Berger, 1954.

57 57 BEBERAPA PRINSIP PENTING Praktek pengapuran dan pemupukan yang tepat sangat tergantung pada kebutuhan tanaman, agroklimat, karakteristik tanah dan metode analisis defisiensi dlm tanah Pendekatan diagnostik dalam uji tanah dan analisis tanaman lebih utama untuk tindakan pencegahan Gejala defisiensi merupakan sarana yang sangat bermanfaat di daerah / lahan yang baru dilakukan pemupukan. Di daerah yang telah dikelola secara intensif, interpretasi gejala defisiensi sangat sulit karena adanya komplikasi dari berbagai faktor Tanaman mengintegrasikan semua faktor lingkungan tumbuhnya ke dalam kehidupannya, uji tanah dapat menjadi sangat bermanfaat. Analisis jaringan tanaman yg sedang tumbuh di lapangan sangat berguna, namun harus diinterpretasikan secara hati-hati. HIDDEN HUNGER merupakan bahaya tersembunyi, tetapi uji tanah & tanaman yang hati-hati dapat membantu menghindari bahaya ini

58 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(8), pp. 237–240, August 2011 Effects of farm yard manure on cadmium and lead accumulation in Amaranth (Amaranthus oleracea L.) M. Alamgir, M. G. Kibria 1 and M. Islam Two pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of farm yard manure (FYM) on Cd and Pb accumulation by Amaranth. Six levels of FYM (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha -1 ) were applied to Cd and Pb treated soil separately in the pot experiments. The weight of the shoot and root of Amaranth significantly increased following the application of FYM to both Cd and Pb treated soil. The application of FYM in soil significantly decreased Cd and Pb content in Amaranth. Cadmium content in the shoot and root gradually decreased with the increase in level of FYM up to 20 t ha -1. On the other hand, FYM at 10 t ha -1 and above drastically reduced the Pb content in both parts of Amaranth. The contents of both Cd and Pb in the shoot and root of Amaranth showed a significantly negative correlation (r = to -0.87) with the rates of FYM applied to the soil.

59 59 BEBERAPA PRINSIP PENTING Kalau unsur hara ditambahkan melalui pemupukan, kandungan hara dalam tanaman akan meningkat. Dalam kaitan ini penting untuk ditentukan suatu titik (kadar hara tanaman) dimana tidak terjadi lagi peningkatan hasil ekonomis tanaman Analisis tanaman sangat penting untuk mengetahui / menganalisis problematik unsur hara mikro di suatu area lahan. Keseimbangan di antara unsur hara dalam tubuh tanaman sama pentingnya dengan jumlah aktual masing-masing hara tsb. Misalnya hubungan di antara Ca-Mg-K-NH 4 ; Mn-Fe-Zn-P Ciri-ciri fisika tanah menjadi semakin penting kalau kondisinya telah mendekati “top profitable yield”; namun perlu diidentifikasi lebih lanjut ciri-ciri fisika mana yang “cocok” dan mana yang tidak cocok. Prinsip uji tanah adalah mencari nilai yg dapat digunakan untuk menduga jumlah unsur hara yang diperlukan untuk menambah ketersediaan dalam tanah. Hasil uji tanah ini harus dikalibrasikan dengan percobaan pemupukan di lapangan dan rumah kaca. Harus diingat bahwa kesuburan tanah hanyalah salah satu faktor yg mempengaruhi produksi tanaman

60 60 BEBERAPA PRINSIP PENTING Rekomendasi yang disusun untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih tinggi seyogyanya ditujukan pada: to maintain foil fertility at a level for top profit yields. Ada empat macam pendekatan dalam menusun rekomendasi: 1. Build-up dengan dosis pemupukan yang tinggi 2. Annual application, pemupukan setiap musim tanaman dlm sistem rotasinya 3. Rotational fertilization 4. Replacement, mengganti unsur hara yang dipanen Hasil atau nilai hasil Tingkat pengelolaan yg baik Tingkat pengelolaan rata-rata Biaya pupuk A B Dosis pupuk

61 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(4), pp. 97–102, April 2011 Effect of pesticides on microbial transformation of sulphur in soil Pradip Kumar Giri 1 *, Mintu Saha 2, Murari Prasad Halder 2 and Debatosh Mukherjee A pot study was conducted in the laboratory of Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India in the year to investigate the effect of pesticides, on the microbial transformation of sulphur (S) in soil. Insecticide (Endosulfan), fungicide (Dithane M-45), herbicide (2,4-D) were added to the soil at their recommended doses, respectively and their effect on the proliferation and potentiality of thiosulphate oxiding bacteria, aryl sulphatase, available and total sulphur were investigated in soil. The results of the present investigation revealed that insecticide, endosulfan effectuated a significant detrimental effect on some microbiological, biochemical and chemical properties in soil whereas fungicide and dithane M- 45 caused a significant detrimental influence during the later stages in spite of stimulating influence at early stages incubation period. However, herbicide and 2,4-D, brought about a beneficial influence on the microbiological, biochemical and chemical properties in soil. Among the pesticides used in the study, the performance of the herbicide was favorable in all respect.

62 62 Jenis Pupuk, Dosis dan Waktu Pemupukan Pemilihan jenis pupuk ditentukan: - Jumlah & kandungan hara dalam pupuk - Sifat kimia dan kelarutan hara dlm pupuk - Biaya per unit hara - Pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik dan kualitas tanah - Pengaruhnya terhadap produksi dan kualitas tanaman -Kemudahan penyiapan, penyimpanan, dan aplikasinya Dosis pupuk yang sesuai dan tepat: - Penentuan kebutuhan pupuk dan rekomendasi pemupukan Waktu aplikasi pupuk: -Sifat tanaman, fase pertumbuhan, sifat tanah, sifat pupuk -Sebelum penanaman, saat penanaman, setelah tanaman tumbuh -Iklim, ketersediaan hara, hasil uji tanah

63 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(7), pp. 198–205, July 2011 Comparative effectiveness of long yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and organic and inorganic fertilizers in improving soil nutrient status and yield of maize in southwest Nigeria F. O. Adekayode The comparative effectiveness of long yam bean and organic and inorganic fertilizers for soil fertility improvement was carried out in an investigation conducted in Araromi Farms (latitude 7°16’N and longitude 5°17’E) in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria in 2007, 2008 and The experimental design was a randomized complete block consisting of four treatments replicated three times. The four treatments were organic compost at 2 t/ha, inorganic NPK fertilizer at 250 kg/ha, plots planted with long yam bean and a control without any inputs. Maize seeds obtained from Ondo State Agricultural Development Project were planted at 60 × 30 cm to give a plant population of 55,500 plants per hectare. Pre treatment and post treatment soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis for a comparison of the assessment of the cumulative effects of organic compost, inorganic fertilizer and long yam bean in improving soil fertility over a period of three years. The organic matter and nitrogen contents in the long yam bean and other manured plots were not significantly different. The soil nutrient status produced as a result of manure treatments reflected in the yield of maize. In 2007 significantly higher maize grain yield of 1.58 t/ha was obtained in NPK plot compared to other treatments while in 2008 and 2009, significantly higher maize grain yield of 1.76 and 1.86 t/ha respectively were obtained in organic compost plot with a comparable maize yield values between long yam bean and the NPK fertilizer plots in The profitable analysis showed a higher net revenue and benefit/cost ratio in long yam bean than in other treatment plots. The effectiveness of intercropping maize with long yam bean to maintain soil fertility and improve the yield of maize was comparable with the use of inorganic NPK fertilizers and organic compost.

64 64 METODE APLIKASI PUPUK Pupuk Padat: -Broadcast (tebar) -Placement (penempatan)/lapis bajak, bawah permukaan, lapisan subsoil -Localized-placement (penempatan lokal)/ jalur, titik, pelet Pupuk Cair: - Larutan starter, bersama benih atau bibit - Semprotan daun - Aplikasi langsung ke tanah -Pemupukan dilarutkan dalam air irigasi

65 65 LOKASI DAN METODE PENEMPATAN PUPUK Permukaan tanah: Tebar, strip, tebar jalur di samping barisan tanaman, bersama irigasi Bawah permukaan tanah: Tebar-bajak, tebar-campur tanah, tebar jalur samping dalam tanah, baris dengan biji, jalur terpisah dg biji, irigasi bawah permukaan Langsung pada tanaman: Penyemprotan langsung ke daun, injeksi pada batang

66 66 EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN Ukuran Efisiensi pemupukan Efisiensi penggunaan hara: hasil kg per ha/ hara dlm tnm kg per ha = kg kg-1 Efisiensi fisiologis: (kg hasil P1 - kg hasil P0)/(kg Serapan P1 – kg Serapan P0)=kg Rasio efisiensi hara: Unit hasil kg / unit hara dalam tanaman kg = kg kg-1 Efisiensi agronomis: {(kg per ha hasil P1 – kg per ha hasil P0)/ kg per ha hara yang diberikan} = kg kg-1

67 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(7), pp. 206–211, July 2011 Environmentally friendly superabsorbent polymers for water conservation in agricultural lands Fidelia Nnadi and Chris Brave Polymer complexes of crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and starch were synthesized to form superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and their performances as a water retaining aid for irrigation were assessed. The SAP was crosslinked with aluminum sulfate octadecahydrate for optimum water retention. Starch from vegetables and chemically modified cellulose fibers were used as the basis for the polymer structure because of their biodegradability and the sustainability of their sources. The starch vegetables include potatoes, yam, cassava, and corn. Radish seeds were planted in pots that contained soil amended with the SAPs (as well as soils control with no amendment). For the first two weeks the plants were given a healthy amount of water, then watering was reduced to observe how the plants responded to drought. The plants with no amendment to the soil stopped growing after the first two weeks and showed signs of dehydration. All the plants in the amended soil continued to grow after the first two weeks and they looked much healthier. Performance evaluation of the response to the four starch types suggests that potato based SAP performed the best with 73% water retention, while corn gave 56%. The study also suggests that lower dosage of 0.12% by weight of the potato based SAP performed better than 0.24% when used for soil amendment.

68 68 EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN Ukuran Efisiensi pemupukan Efisiensi serapan hara dari tanah: {(kg Serapan P1 – kg Serapan P0)/ kg hara yang digunakan}x 100% Efisiensi Agrofisiologis: {(kg gabah hasil P1 - kg gabah hasil P0)/(kg Serapan jerami dan gabah P1 – kg Serapan jerami dan gabah P0)} = kg kg-1 Efisiensi hara pupuk: % hara jaringan tanaman x Efisiensi penggunaan hara = (kg serapan hara / kg hara yg diberikan) x (kg hasil gabah per kg serapan hara tanaman)

69 69 Jumlah pupuk N yang benar dan tepat Musim tanam Jumlah pupuk sangat tergantung pada musim tanam (musim hujan dan musim kemarau). Pada musim hujan jumlah pupuk N yang kita aplikasikan lebih sedikit daripada musim kemarau. Hal ini disebabkan jumlah anakan yang banyak dengan tanaman yang tinggi sehingga sinar matahari tidak sampai ke pangkal batang (bagian bawah tanaman) dan mengurangi produksi makanan pada daun. Akibatnya tanaman tidak dapat menggunakan semua pupuk N yang diaplikasikan. Sedangkan pada musim kemarau penampilan tanaman cenderung lebih pendek dan mempunyai jumlah anakan yang sedikit sehingga perlu penambahan pupuk N untuk meningkatkan jumlah anakan dan rata-rata produksi makanan.

70 Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 3(4), pp. 84–90, April 2012 Comparative studies of soil characteristics in Shea parklands of Ghana Abubakari A. H., Nyarko G., Yidana J. A., Mahunu G. K., Abagale F. K., Quainoo A., Chimsah F. and Avornyo V. An assessment of soil physical and chemical properties was carried out in Shea parklands of northern Ghana, selected along a North-south climatic gradient in The study sites were Paga, Nyankpala and Kawampe, which are located in the transitional and Guinea savannah zones of Ghana. For each site, 9 fallows and 9 cultivated fields were used, a total of 18 plots per site. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 30 cm and analysed for particle size distribution, pH, organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable bases, exchange acidity and effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC). The results revealed that the soils were strongly acid to neutral in reaction. The soils at Nyankpala parkland were comparatively more acidic (pH 80%) and deficiencies of basic cations were uncommon. Land use did not significantly influence the soil chemical properties. However, N values, were significantly higher in old fallows than in respect of new fallows and cultivated fields. Soil particle size distribution especially at Nyankpala was significantly influenced by land use, with fallow lands having more proportion of sand than that of cultivated fields. The extremely low P content (trace – 7.11 mg/Kg) of the soils might be due to P fixation which was commonly reported for soils in northern Ghana. However, if these soils were supplied with N fertilizers, seedling regeneration would be promoted due to the fact that increasing N levels and decreasing P levels in soil, results in significant increase in seedling dry weight as well as increasing uptake of total shoot N and C.

71 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(10), pp. 304–310, 25 October, 2011 Improving the productivity of lowland soils for rice cultivation in Ghana: The role of the ‘Sawah’ system Buri M. M. 1 *, Issaka R. N. 1, Wakatsuki T. 2 and Kawano N. Lowlands constitute one of the largest and appropriate environments suitable for rice cultivation in Ghana. However, environmental degradation and declining soil productivity, leading to low crop yields are major concerns. Some reasons leading to such concerns may be traced to lack of proper management of our soil resources and possible unsuitable crop production systems and practices. Effective nutrient and water management in addition to suitable land preparation options are key factors for the effective and sustainable utilization of these inland valley ecosystems. Proper and meaningful management strategies therefore need to be developed in a way as to enable and encourage farmers to accept and easily adopt them. Designing and implementation of comprehensive and integrated soil management programs that will not only improve and maintain soil fertility but also make maximum use of available water are necessary. While research has shown that these environments vary considerably in soil type, water holding capacity and nutrient retention, it has been further observed that soils of most valleys are dominant in low activity clay minerals which have low nutrient and water holding capacities. Adoption of the “Sawah” system will enhance and sustain production. The "Sawah" system is characterized by nutrient replenishing mechanisms with intrinsic resistance to erosion (better water control and nutrient management). Rice responds better to fertilizer (mineral and organic) under the "Sawah" system than the traditional system of rice production in Ghana. Rice cultivation under the “Sawah” system in inland valleys in Ghana has lead to significant improvement in soil and water management. There has been a gradual and significant increase in rice grain yield in the order: farmers practice < only bunded < bunded and puddled < bunded, puddle and leveled (“sawah”), across locations and varieties. An integration of available farm manures with mineral fertilizer resulted in significant increases in paddy grain yield across locations, thus reducing the over reliance of famers on mineral fertilizers to improve soil fertility. From a significant initial increase (from less than 1.0 t ha -1 to over 4.5 t ha -1 ), mean paddy grain yield under the “Sawah” system consistently and continuously increased annually and currently stands at over 6.0 t ha -1 among farmer groups. Mean net income generated per hector under the “sawah” system also ranged from US $1,500 to US $2,800 over the same period among farmer-groups. There was also a gradual build up of total carbon and exchangeable bases (K, Ca, Mg) leading to improved nutrient levels, even though there was a net loss of both total Nitrogen and available Phosphorus over the same period. Ghana (possibly West Africa) has the potential to increase local rice production by over 300% when the “Sawah” system is adopted.

72 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(10), pp. 311–317, 25 October, 2011 Effect of Sesbania sesban fallows on Striga infestation and maize yield in Tabora Region of Western Tanzania P.Z.Matata 1,* B.M. Gama 1, A. Mbwaga, M. Mpanda 3 and D.A. Byamungu The One of the major constraints to maize production in most farmers’ fields in Tabora region are is nitrogen deficiency and Striga infestation. Trials to investigate the effect of Sesbania sesban improved fallows on Striga infestation and maize yield were conducted on farmer’s fields in Tabora and Nzega districts for a period of three years ( ). Results showed that application of S. sesban green manure after a two year fallow led to a reduction of Striga infestation from 10.8 counts/8 m 2 of unfertized plots to 0.8 counts/8 m 2 of S. sesban plots as well as increase maize yield from 418 kg ha -1 in the unfertilized plots to 1366 kg ha -1 for the S. sesban plots. The S. sesban fallow reduced Striga incidences by 88% after incorporation of the leafy biomass into plots in the third year of the trial. The study on the effect of the fallows on reduction of Striga incidences has clearly demonstrated that application of Sesbania manure can reduce Striga infestation on sandy soils of Tabora.

73 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 2(11), pp. 362–369, 29 November, 2011 Effect of tillage practices on the soil carbon dioxide flux during fall and spring seasons in a Mediterranean Vertisol R. Moussadek, R. Mrabet, R. Dahan, A. Douaik, A. Verdoodt, E. Van Ranst and M. Corbeels In this study, we assessed the effect of conventional tillage (CT), reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) practices on the soil CO 2 flux of a Mediterranean Vertisol in semi-arid Morocco. The measurements focused on the short term (0 to 96 h) soil CO 2 fluxes measured directly after tillage during the fall and spring period. Soil temperature, moisture and soil strength were measured congruently to study their effect on the soil CO 2 flux magnitude. Immediately after fall tillage, the CT showed the highest CO 2 flux (4.9 g m -2 h -1 ); RT exhibited an intermediate value (2.1 g m -2 h -1 ) whereas the lowest flux (0.7 g m -2 h -1 ) was reported under NT. After spring tillage, similar but smaller impacts of the tillage practices on soil CO 2 flux were reported with fluxes ranging from 1.8 g CO 2 m -2 h -1 (CT) to less than 0.1 g CO 2 m -2 h -1 (NT). Soil strength was significantly correlated with soil CO 2 emission; whereas surface soil temperature and moisture were low correlated to the soil CO 2 flux. The intensity of rainfall events before fall and spring tillage practices could explain the seasonal CO 2 flux trends. The findings promote conservation tillage and more specifically no tillage practices to reduce CO 2 losses within these Mediterranean agro-ecosystems.

74 . Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 1 (1), pp.021–029, February 2010 Reducing compaction effort and incorporating air permeability in Proctor testing for design of urban green spaces on cohesive soils A. M. Ibrahim, N. Persaud, R. W. Zobel 3 and A. Hass It is well established that compaction negatively affects agronomic productivity, that air permeability is a sensitive measure of the degree of soil compaction and therefore a good indicator of soil productivity impairment from compaction. Cohesive soils in urban settings are often heavily compacted by the common engineering practice to compact sub-grades of urban construction sites to 95% or more of the optimum density obtained in standardized Proctor tests. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent reducing compaction effort would increase the air permeability of Proctor test specimens. Quantifying this relationship would permit more appropriate Proctor test specifications for the design of urban green spaces on cohesive soils. We designed a portable transient flow apparatus for rapidly measuring air permeability and used it to measure air permeability on Proctor test specimens of three cohesive sub-grade soil materials covering a range of USDA textures (loam, silt loam and silty clay) and Proctor compaction characteristics. We compacted test specimens at their Proctor optimum water content using efforts ranging from 100 to 25% (the lowest practicable value) of that used in the standardized Proctor test. Results confirmed that compaction severely reduces air permeability of the test specimens and indicated that the common practice of compaction to 95% or more of the optimum Proctor density is probably not appropriate for construction of urban green spaces. Reducing compaction effort from 100 to 25% of the standardized Proctor test value increased air permeability 30, 89 and 42 times respectively for the loam, silt loam and silty clay test specimens. More extensive studies are needed to correlate measured air permeability of Proctor test specimens to agronomic productivity of urban green spaces.


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