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Food Regulation in Europe Kelompok 1 : Rohana Udur10406019 Karisa Pepitasari10406018 Eli Komalawati10406028 Raisa10406025 Chantika Cessarani10406026 Nur.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Food Regulation in Europe Kelompok 1 : Rohana Udur10406019 Karisa Pepitasari10406018 Eli Komalawati10406028 Raisa10406025 Chantika Cessarani10406026 Nur."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Food Regulation in Europe Kelompok 1 : Rohana Udur Karisa Pepitasari Eli Komalawati Raisa Chantika Cessarani Nur Asni S Ivi Intan H Wulan Nur M Chandra Kurniawan

2 International Requirements WTO requires food controls to be established on the basis of risk assessment

3 General Food Law Regulation 178/2002 Laying down general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food SafetY Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.

4 Food Hygiene Controls Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific rules for the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption

5 Official Control Regulation Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules

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9 FISH & FISHERY PRODUCTS

10 FISHERY PRODUCTS ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS  Harus mempunyai karakteristik organoleptik yang segar dan tidak boleh mengandung substansi-substansi yang membahayakan  Mempunyai respon yang cepat dan tepat terhadap rangsangan  jika organisme masih hidup  Ketentuan substansi-substansi yang terdapat di dalam tubuh organisme yang boleh dikonsumsi co: moluska  Organisme laut yang boleh dikonsumsi harus yang masih dalam keadaan fit

11 Biotoxin groupsMaximum level/kg of mollusks flesh Saxitoxin (STX) group≤0.8 milligrams (2HCL) of saxitoxin equivalent Okadaic acid (OA) group≤0.16 milligrams of okadaic equivalent Domoic acid (DA) group≤20 milligrams domoic acid Brevetoxin (BTX) group≤200 mouse units or equivalent Azaspiracid (AZP) group≤0.16 milligrams

12 Acceptable Organisms  Fish  Scallops  Mollusks  dll

13 Hygiene & Handling  Penanganannya harus sesuai dengan kriteria mikrobiologi yang telah ditetapkan dalam Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods  Jika tidak sesuai dengan standar mikrobiologi yang telah ditetapkan  dilakukan tindakan pencegahan terhadap hazard yang kemungkinan akan timbul

14 Storage Instructions  Harus terdapat label yang menjelaskan kondisi, temperatur penyimpanan, dan masa kadaluarsa yang dapat menjaga keamanan dan karakteristik makanan selama transportasi, penyimpanan, dan distribusi

15 Procedurs 4 Thawing  Frozen product : dicairkan dengan cara dimasukkan ke plastik khusus (film type bag) lalu disiram dengan air bertemperatur kamar (<35 °C) Foreign Matter  Tidak mengancam kesehatan manusia  Dapat diketahui tanpa magnifikasi/perbesaran  Berada pada kadar yang telah ditentukan

16 Odor & Taste  Unacceptable Odor: busuk, tengik, anyir, perat, berbau tajam Taste: pahit, asam, mettalic Appearance Berwarna kepucatan Fish sauce  adanya sedimen di dasar botol

17 Sensory & Physical Examination  Pemeriksaan packaging external: memeriksa adanya cacat, bocor, atau ketidaklengkapan unit packaging  Pemeriksaan substansi-substansi yang terkandung di dalam tubuh organisme  Uji organoleptik oleh orang yang sudah terlatih

18 Daging segar dan produk daging Undang-undang Uni Eropa yang baru tentang makanan memberi penekanan pada pengendalian proses – disepanjang rantai makanan, dimulai dari ladang hingga ke meja makan.

19 Fruit and Vegetables

20 BUAH DAN SAYURAN Syarat dan Kualitas buah - produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded - clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter - practically free of pests affecting the general appearance of the produce - practically free of damage caused by pests - free of abnormal external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage - free of any foreign smell and/or taste - free of damage caused by low and/or high temperatures; - free of damage caused by frost - free of signs of internal shrivelling - practically free of bruising and/or extensive healed-over cuts.

21 BUAH DAN SAYURAN - to withstand transport and handling -to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination Persyaratan kematangan buah - Colouring - Minimum juice content, calculated in relation to the total weight of the fruit and after extraction of the juice by means of a hand press.

22 BUAH DAN SAYURAN Khusus untuk buah jeruk, dibagi menjadi 3 kelas, yaitu 1.“Extra” Class Oranges in this class must be of superior quality. In shape, external appearance, development and colouring, they must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. They must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package

23 BUAH DAN SAYURAN 2.Class I Oranges in this class must be of good quality. They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package: - slight defect in shape - slight defect in colouring - slight skin defects occurring during the formation of the fruit, such as silver scurfs, russets,etc. - slight healed defects due to a mechanical cause such as hail damage, rubbing, damage from handling, etc.

24 BUAH DAN SAYURAN 3. Class II This class includes oranges which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements specified in Section 2.1 above. The following defects, however, may be allowed, provided the oranges retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation: - defect in shape - defect in colouring - skin defects occurring during the formation of the fruit, such as silver scurfs, russets, etc. - healed defects due to a mechanical cause such as hail damage, rubbing, damage from handling, etc. - rough skin - superficial healed skin alterations - slight and partial detachment of the pericarp.

25 BUAH DAN SAYURAN Kontaminasi Heavy Metal Oranges shall comply with those maximum levels for heavy metals established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. Pesticide residues Oranges shall comply with those maximum pesticide residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. Hygiene It is recommended that the produce covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP , Rev ), Code of Hygienic Practice for FreshFruits and Vegetables (CAC/RCP ), and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. The produce should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL ).

26 CODEX STANDARD FOR TOMATOES 1. DEFINITION OF PRODUCE This Standard applies to commercial varieties of tomatoes grown from Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, of the Solanaceae family, to be supplied fresh to the consumer, after preparation and packaging. Tomatoes may be classified into four commercial types: - “Round”; - “Ribbed”; - “Oblong” or “Elongated”; - “Cherry” tomatoes and “Cocktail” tomatoes.

27 2. PROVISIONS CONCERNING QUALITY 2.1 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the tomatoes must be: - whole; - sound, produce affected by rotting or deterioration; - clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter; - practically free of pests and damage caused by them affecting the general appearance of the produce; - free of abnormal external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage; - free of any foreign smell and/or taste. - fresh in appearance. In the case of trusses of tomatoes, the stalks must be fresh, healthy, clean and free of all leaves and any visible foreign matter The development and condition of the tomatoes must be such as to enable them: - to withstand transport and handling; and - to arrive in satisfactory condition at place of destination Maturity Requirements The tomatoes must be sufficiently developed and display satisfactory ripeness. The development and state of maturity of the tomatoes must be such as to enable them to continue their ripening process and to reach the appropriate degree of ripeness.

28 2.2 CLASSIFICATION Tomatoes are classified in three classes defined below: “Extra” Class Tomatoes in this class must be of superior quality. They must be uniform in terms of size. They must be free of greenbacks and other defects Class I Tomatoes in this class must be of good quality. They must be uniform in terms of size. They must be free of cracks and visible greenback Class II This class includes tomatoes which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements 3. PROVISIONS CONCERNING SIZING When sized by diameter, size is determined by the maximum diameter of the equatorial section. Sizing does not apply to trusses of tomatoes. Sizing is not compulsory for Class II.

29 4. PROVISIONS CONCERNING TOLERANCES Tolerances in respect of quality and size shall be allowed in each package for produce not satisfying the requirements of the class indicated. 5. PROVISIONS CONCERNING PRESENTATION 5.1 UNIFORMITY The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only tomatoes of the same origin, variety or commercial type, quality and size (if sized). The ripeness and colouring of tomatoes in “Extra” Class and Class I must be practically uniform. 5.2 PACKAGING Tomatoes must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly. The materials used inside the package must be new one, clean, and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications is allowed, provided the printing or labelling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue Description of Containers The containers shall meet the quality, hygiene, ventilation and resistance characteristics to ensure suitable handling, shipping and preserving of the tomatoes. Packages must be free of all foreign matter and smell.

30 6. MARKING OR LABELLING with non-toxic ink or glue. 7. CONTAMINANTS 7.1 PESTICIDE RESIDUES & OTHER CONTAMINANTS Tomatoes shall comply with those maximum pesticide residue limits established by Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. 8. HYGIENE 8.1 It is recommended that the produce covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP ), Code of Hygienic Practice for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (CAC/RCP ), and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. 8.2 The produce should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL ).

31 MINUMAN

32 Susu dan Produk Susu The proposed amendment should accommodate this new category of products without re-opening already agreed provisions in the Standard. Fermented milk drinks can be manufactured by the addition of potable water and a variety of other ingredients, including sugars, flavours, fruit juices,etc to fermented milk. Their essential part should be fermented milk and the non-milk constituents should not take the place of any milk constituent. The non dairy constituents add additional characteristics to the product, such as palatability, drinkability, flavouring and sweetness.

33 Minuman Susu Fermentasi Fermented Milk Drinks are composite milk products, as defined in Section 2.3 of the Codex General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms (CODEX STAN ), obtained by mixing Fermented Milk,potable water [and/or whey] and/or non-dairy ingredients, and/or flavours. Fermented Milk Drinks contain a minimum of [40%(m/m) dairy ingredients].

34 Permitted ingradient Starter cultures of harmless microorganisms including those specified Sodium chloride; and Non-dairy ingredients (Flavoured Fermented Milks). Potable water in products covered Gelatine and starch in: - fermented milks heat-treated after fermentation; - flavoured fermented milk, fermented milk drinks; and - plain fermented milks if permitted by national legislation in the country of sale to the final consumer;provided they are added only in amounts functionally necessary as governed by Good Manufacturing Practice. These substances may be added either before or after adding the non-dairy ingredients.

35 Composition In Flavoured fermented milks and fermented milk drinks the above criteria apply to the fermented milk part. The microbiological criteria (based on the proportion of fermented milk product) are valid up to the date of minimum durability. This requirement does not apply to products heat-treated after fermentation Food additives Additives authorized in fermented milk drinks (plain), heat treated fermented milk drinks (plain),fermented milk drinks (flavoured) and heat-treated fermented milk drinks (flavoured) are those authorized in fermented milks (plain), heat treated fermented milks (plain), fermented milks (flavoured) and heat treated fermented milks (flavoured), respectively, in the above table

36 Air Minum Air minum, harus memenuhi beberapa kriteria : a. sumber air jelas dan harus terlindungi dari ancaman polusi lingkungan dan semua faktor yang dapat mengubah komposisi fisik – kimia dari air tersebut. b. air harus diambil dengan pengontrolan mikrobiologi dan komposisi fisika kimia nya.

37 c. secara mikrobiologi, jumlah mikroorganisme dalam air harus kurang dari standar yang telah ditetapkan sehingga tidak menimbulkan efek pada kesehatan manusia. d. sumber air juga harus terlindung dari kontaminasi e. perawatan air tidak boleh mengubah komposisi fisika kimia dari air tersebut.

38 Air Mineral Yang dimaksud air mineral di sini adalah air dari sumber air alami / buatan yang : a. Mempunyai kandungan tertentu yang berguna untuk kesehatan b. dalam 1 kg, sedikitnya mengandung 1000 mg garam terlarut atai 250 mg gas karbon bebas Pengakuan air sebagai air mineral alami diatur oleh negara masing – masing

39 Syarat pelabelan air minum - Nama produk dari air minum botol harus dicantumkan - kandungan mineral dicantumkan. - European Community menganjurkan kandungan maksimum fluoride adalah 1,5 mg / l. Kandungan kimia maksimal ada pada tabel di bawah ini.

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41 Fruit Juices CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF PATULIN CONTAMINATION IN APPLE JUICE AND APPLE JUICE INGREDIENTS IN OTHER BEVERAGES Patulin  metabolit sekunder yang diproduksi oleh beberapa spesies fungi dalam genus Penicillium, Aspergillus dan Byssochlamys. Patulin ditemukan sebagai kontaminan pada banyak buah-buahan berjamur, sayuran, cereal dan makanan lain. Sumber utama pengontaminasi apel dan produk apel. Penelitian pada cider apel  Ascorbic acid dilaporkan menyebabkan ketidakberadaan patulin dari jus apel meskipun kondisi optimal untuk inaktivasi tidak sepenuhnya terpenuhi. Patulin relatif pada suhu stabil, sebagian pada pH asam. Perlakuan temperatur tinggi (150 o C) dengan jangka waktu pendek dilaporkan dapat mereduksi patulin kira-kira 20%. Proses thermal ini sendiri tidak cukup menjamin produk bebas dari patulin.

42 Rekomendasi untuk mengurangi kontaminasi patulin pada jus apel dibagi dalam dua bagian : I) Recommended practices based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). II) Recommended practices based on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).

43 Hal-hal yang dilakukan untuk buah-buahan juice manufacturing :  Membuang buah-buahan yang busuk. Buah-buahan terpilih disimpan dalam kontainer.  Temperatur penyimpanan yang ideal untuk buah-buahan juice manufacturing adalah <5 o C  Fungi mungkin masih dapat memproduksi patulin bersama-sama dengan fungi dan yeast lain. Oleh karena itu penting sekali mencegah perkembangan mikroba yang merugikan selama transport dan penyimpanan untuk mencegah produk rusak dan produksi patulin.  Simpan jus pada temperatur <5 o C untuk mengurangi pertumbuhan mikroba.  Kebanyakan jus akan diproses dengan panas untuk memastikan rusaknya enzim dan mikroba merugikan. Umumnya dapat merusak spora fungi dan miselium vegetatif. Namun, proses ini tidak akan merusak patulin yang telah ada.

44 QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF JUICE (Penilaian Kualitas Jus) Spesifikasi untuk pembelian jus apel atau konsentrat jus apel sebaiknya memasukkan maximum limit patulin didasarkan pada metode analisis yang tepat. Melakukan sampling produk secara random untuk menjamin produk akhir. Pengusaha pengepak harus memuaskan dirinya sendiri bahwa supplier jus mampu mengontrol operasional miliknya dengan sebaik-baiknya. penilaian kualitas jus oleh “packer” akan memasukkan oBrix, keasaman, rasa, warna, turbiditas, dll. Kualitas secara mikrobiologi dipantau secara hati-hati sejak mengindikasikan resiko potensial adanya organisme penghasil patulin juga aspek higienisnya. Mengecek pada kemasan produk untuk memastikan bahwa tidak terjadi deteorasi selama proses pengepakan

45 Proses Pengalengan Makanan Di Eropa

46 Pengalengan Pengalengan merupakan cara pengawetan bahan pangan dalam wadah yang tertutup rapat (hermetis) dan disterilisasi dengan panas (proses termal).

47 Prinsip dasar pengalengan dengan proses termal Perambatan dan penetrasi panas serta sifat daya tahan panas mikroorganisme khususnya yang berbentuk spora.

48 Proses Penggunaan Panas pada pengalengan bahan makanan Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan adalah 1. Pemilihan bahan mentah (raw material) 2. Persiapan sebelum pengolahan  pencucian/pembuangan bagian-bagian yang tidak diperlukan/perendaman. 3. Pengolahan dan pengemasan  perlu diperhatikan sifat dari bahan makanan yang akan diawetkan, apakah berasam rendah atau tinggi  menjadi 4 golongan.

49 Berdasarkan derajat keasaman bahan pangan yang diolah digolongkan menjadi 4 golongan Bahan pangan alkalis  pH > 7  telur tua, soda, crackers, & bubur jagung Bahan pangan asam dengan pH 5-6,8  daging, ikan unggas, susu, & sayuran  mudah ditumbuhi C.botulinum  membutuhkan panas yang lebih tinggi Bahan pangan asam dengan pH antara 3,7 -4,5.  pir, jeruk, tomat, dan sayuran yang ditambahkan cuka sampai pH tsb.  mudah ditumbuhi khamir, kapang, bakteri asidurik Bahan pangan asam tinggi memiliki pH antara 2,3-3,7  buah beri, produk acar, jam,& jeli  mudah ditumbuhi khamir, kapang, bakteri asidurik

50 Faktor yang Perlu Diperhatikan dalam Penggunaan Panas 1. Jumlah panas yang diberikan harus cukup untuk mematikan mikroorganisme pembusuk dan patogen. 2. Jumlah panas yang digunakan tidak menyebabkan penurunan zat gizi dan cita rasa.

51 Tujuan Utama Proses Termal (Panas) Pada Pengalengan Kondisi pemanasan yang dirancang menghasilkan makanan kaleng yang ”steril komersial”  masih terdapat beberapa mikroorganisme yang masih dapat hidup setelah pemberian panas (steilisasi)  mikroorganisme tidak membusukkan produk di dalam kaleng.

52 Sterilisasi Komersial Untuk membunuh mikroorganisme patogen dan pembusuk makanan yang ada didalam kaleng, sehingga dapat mencegah terjadinya pembusukan selama penyimpanan dan bahan pangan tersebut tidak membahayakan kesehatan konsumen Bahan pangan yang diproses dengan sterilisasi komersial kebanyakan dikemas pada kondisi anaerobik  sebab spora mikroorganisme anaerobik biasanya mempunyai ketahanan panas lebih rendah dibandingkan spora aerobik sehingga suhu dan waktu proses sterilisasi dapat lebih rendah

53 Tahapan Proses Pengalengan Bahan makanan

54 Bakteri yang dapat membusukan makanan kaleng Clostridium botulinum  patogen  bakteri pembentuk spora yang dapat menghasilkan racun botulin yang mematikan. PA 3679 (Putrefactive Anaerob) dan Bacillus stearothermophilus (FS 1518)  nonpatogen  memiliki daya panas lebih tinggi dibandingkan C. botulinum  jika panas yang diberikan cukup untuk membunuh kedua bakteri tersebut, diharapkan C.botulinum dan bakteri-bakteri patogen lainnya akan mati.

55 CODEX STANDARD FOR CANNED SALMON Canned salmon is packed in hermetically sealed containers and shall have received a processing treatment sufficient to ensure commercial sterility. The product shall be prepared from sound fish of the species  (Oncorhynchus nerka, Oncorhynchus kisutch,Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Oncorhynchus keta,Oncorhynchus masou) and of a quality fit to be sold fresh for human consumption.

56 Final Product No additives are permitted in this product. The final product shall be free from any foreign material that poses a threat to human health. Product shall be free from microorganisms capable of development under normal conditions of storage

57 FINAL PRODUCT Product shall not contain any other substance derived from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health in accordance with standards established by the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission). Product shall be free from container integrity defects which may compromise the hermetic seal.

58 CODEX STANDARD FOR CANNED GREEN BEANS AND CANNED WAX BEANS Packed with water or other suitable liquid medium, nutritive sweeteners, seasoning, and other ingredients Processed by heat, in an appropriate manner, before or after being sealed in a container, so as to prevent spoilage

59 ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION Butter: if added, it must amount to not less than 3% m/m of the final product Salt Sucrose, invert sugar, dextrose, glucose syrup, dried glucose syrup Dill seeds, or dill flavourings, or similar seasonings, and vinegar; pieces of green or red peppers in mixtures of both and/or tomato not exceeding in total 15% m/m of the product Starches -natural (native), physically or enzymatically modified -only when butter is an ingredient

60 Quality Criteria Colour  Except for artificially coloured canned beans, the drained beans shall have normal colour characteristics for canned green beans or canned wax beans. Canned beans containing permitted ingredients and additives shall be considered to be of characteristic colour when there is no abnormal discolouration for the respective substances used.

61 Quality Criteria Flavour  Canned beans shall have a normal flavour and odour free from flavours or odours foreign to the product and canned beans with special ingredients shall have a flavour characteristic of that imparted by the beans and the other substances used.

62 Quality Criteria Texture  The beans shall not be fibrous and not more than 5% m/m of the units may possess tough strings.

63 FOOD ADDITIVES Monosodium glutamate Limited by GMP Vegetable gums Arabic gum Carrageenan Furcellaran Guar gum Alginates (Ca, K, Na, NH4) 1 Propylene glycol alginate }210 g/kg of the additives Modified starches

64 Final Product shall be free from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health shall be free from parasites which may represent a hazard to health; and shall not contain any substance originating from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health


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