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We must always tell what we see. Above all, and this is more difficult, we must always see what we see. Charles Peguy. perception-joice c siagian 1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "We must always tell what we see. Above all, and this is more difficult, we must always see what we see. Charles Peguy. perception-joice c siagian 1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 We must always tell what we see. Above all, and this is more difficult, we must always see what we see. Charles Peguy. perception-joice c siagian 1

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4 PROCESS BY WHICH YOU BECOME AWARE AT OBJECTS, EVENTS, AND ESPECIALLY PEOPLE THROUGH YOUR SENSES: sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. perception-joice c siagian4

5  AN ACTIVE NOT A PASSIVE PROCESS. perception-joice c siagian5

6  Persepsi terjadi dalam benak individu yang mempersepsi, bukan dalam obyek dan selalu merupakan pengetahuan tentang penampakan. perception-joice c siagian6

7  Persepsi bersifat kompleks.  Tidak ada hubungan satu lawan satu antara pesan yang terjadi di "luar sana" dengan pesan yang akhirnya memasuki otak kita.  Apa yang terjadi di dunia luar dapat sangat berbeda dengan apa yang mencapai otak kita.  Persepsi ditentukan oleh karakteristik orang memberi respon pada stimuli, bukan pada stimuli. perception-joice c siagian7

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9  Perception is “ the process by which a individual selects, evaluates and organizes stimuli from external world”.  In other words, perception is an internal process whereby we convert the physical energies of our environment into meaningful experience. (Larry A. Samovar)  Your perceptions result from what exists in the outside world and from your experiences, desires, needs and wants, loves and hatreds perception-joice c siagian9

10  Perception is so important in communication is that influences your communication choices  The messages you send and listen to will depend on how you see the world, on how you size up specific situation, on what you think of people with whom you interact perception-joice c siagian10

11  SENSASI DAN STIMULI  Sensasi : proses menangkap stimuli melalui alat indra  Persepsi : memberi makna pada sensasi sehingga manusia dapat pengetahuan baru  Alat pengindraan mengubungkan organisasi dengan lingkungan perception-joice c siagian11

12  Perception is a continuous series of processes that blend into one another.  Five stages:  You sense some kind of stimulation  You organize the stimuli in some way  You interpret and evaluate what you perceive  You store it in memory  You retrieve it when you needed perception-joice c siagian12

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14  Perception and communication influence each other  Perceptions shapes our understanding of other communication and the choices we make in our own communication.  Communication influences our perceptions of people and situation.  The language, non verbal behavior that other people use affect our perceptions of their intelligence, friendliness. perception-joice c siagian14

15  Stage One: STIMULATION  Stage Two: ORGANIZATION  Stage Three: INTERPRETATION – EVALUATION  Stage Four: MEMORY  Stage Five: RECALL perception-joice c siagian15

16  Your sense organs are stimulated  Naturally, you don’t perceive everything; rather, your engage in selective perception.  Through selective exposure you expose yourself to people or messages that will confirm your existing beliefs, contribute to your objectives, or prove satisfying in some way. perception-joice c siagian16

17  Selective exposure : the deliberate choices we make to experience to avoid particular stimuli  Selective attention : focusing on spesific stimuli while ignoring or downplaying other stimuli  Selective retention: processing, storing, and retrieving of information that we have already selected, organized & interpreted. perception-joice c siagian17

18  You organize the information your senses pick up.  Organization by Rules  Organization by Schemata  Organization by Scripts. perception-joice c siagian18

19  Organizations by rules : proximity, similarity, contrast, closure  Organizations by Schemata: mental templates or structures that help you organize the millions of items of information  Organization by Scripts: focuses action, event, or procedure perception-joice c siagian19

20 perception-joice c siagian20  Proximity : the grouping of two or more stimuli that are close to one another  Similarity : the grouping of stimuli that resemble one another in size, shape, color or other traits.  Where an object or figure has similar elements there is a tendency to group them together to produce a pattern. Similar shapes, colours and sizes tend to be grouped by the viewer

21 perception-joice c siagian21  contrast

22  Organize the information your senses pick up.  Sorting, organizing, or categorizing.  Categorizing of stimuli in our environment in order to make sense them. perception-joice c siagian22

23  Is inevitably subjective and is greatly influenced by your experiences, needs, wants, values, beliefs about the way things are should be, expectations, physical and emotional state and so on. perception-joice c siagian23

24  Based on past experience  Based on new situation  Based on opinions of others perception-joice c siagian24

25 perception-joice c siagian25  Each of us perceives that the world through our own set of lenses or filters. We can never see precisely the same river, tree, mountain, person or evet, or hear message in exactly the same way that others do. We are different from one another

26 perception-joice c siagian26 Illusi perceptual The diagonal lines A-B and B- C are equal in length.

27  Your perception and their interpretations- evaluations are put into memory; they’re stored so that you may ultimately retrieve them at some later time. perception-joice c siagian27

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30  At some later date, you may want to recall or access the information you have stored in memory. perception-joice c siagian30

31 perception-joice c siagian31 Do you see an old woman or a young woman in this illustration? They are both present, but you will not be able to see both of them simultaneously. Once you perceive both figures, see if you can get them to fluctuate back and forth between the two interpretations.

32  Self-Fulfilling Prophecy  Implicit Personality Theory  Perceptual Accentuation  Primacy – Recency  Consistency  Attribution perception-joice c siagian32

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34  Your self- fulfilling prophecies may influence the behavior of others. perception-joice c siagian34

35  Allows you to conclude that certain characteristics go with certain other characteristics. perception-joice c siagian35

36  May lead you to perceive what you expect to perceive instead of what is really there. perception-joice c siagian36

37  Perception may be affected by primacy-recency.  Your tendency to give extra importance to what occurs first (a primacy effect) may lead you to see what conforms to this judgment and to distort or otherwise misperceive what contradicts it.  First impressions often serves as filters, as schemata, for more recent information.  In some cases, you may give extra weight to what occurs last (a recency effect) perception-joice c siagian37

38  The tendency to seek and expect consistency may influence you to see what is consistent ant to not see what is inconsistent. perception-joice c siagian38

39  Attribution of causality, the process through which you try to understand the behaviors of others (and your own behaviors, in self-attribution), particularly the reasons or motivations for these behaviors, are made on the basis of consensus, consistency, distinctiveness, and controllability.  Errors of attribution include the self-serving bias, overattribution, and the fundamental attribution error. perception-joice c siagian39

40  Analyze Perceptions  Check Perceptions  Reduce Uncertainty  Increase Cultural Sensitivity perception-joice c siagian40

41 perception-joice c siagian41  1. Persepsi sosial adalah persepsi berdasarkan pengalaman  Persepsi manusia terhadap seseorang, obyek atau kejadian dan reaksi mereka terhadap hal – hal tersebut adalah berdasarkan pengalaman dan pembelajaran masa lalu yg berkaitan dengan orang, obyek atau kejadian serupa.

42 perception-joice c siagian42 Prinsip – prinsip Persepsi Sosial  2 Persepsi bersifat selektif  Manusia diberi beragam rangsangan indrawi dan kita harus menafsirkan setiap rangsangan tersebut. Tetapi untuk mengatasi rangsangan yang begitu banyak dan rumit, manusia hanya memperhatikan sedikit saja rangsangan ini.  Atensi pada suatu rangsangan merupakan faktor utama yang menentukan selektivitas kita atas rangsangan tersebut.

43 perception-joice c siagian43 Prinsip – prinsip Persepsi Sosial  3. Persepsi bersifat dugaan  Data yang diperoleh mengenai obyek melalui pengindraan tidak pernah lengkap, persepsi merupakan loncatan langsung pada kesimpulan..  Proses persepsi yg bersifat dugaan memungkinkan individu menafsirkan suatu obyek dengan makna yang lebih lengkap dari suatu sudut pandang manapun.

44 perception-joice c siagian44  3. Persepsi bersifat dugaan  Informasi lengkap tidak pernah tersedia, diperlukan dugaan untuk untuk membuat kesimpulan berdasarkan informasi yg tidak lengkap.  Mengisi ruang yang kosong untuk melengkapi gambar dan menyediakan informasi yang hilang Prinsip – prinsip Persepsi Sosial

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