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10-1 Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Referensi Kelompok & Keluarga.

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Presentasi berjudul: "10-1 Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Referensi Kelompok & Keluarga."— Transcript presentasi:

1 10-1 Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1 Referensi Kelompok & Keluarga

2 10-2 Setiap manusia cenderung akan selalu berinteraksi dengan orang lain  kelompok/family Bagaimana kelompok dan anggota kelompok mempengaruhi proses pengambilan keputusan pembelian Bagaimana kegiatan belanjanya Bagaimana pola konsumsi aktualnya

3 10-3 What is a Group? Two or more people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals A membership group is one to which a person either belongs or would qualify for membership (Keanggotaan dalam kelompok basket)

4 10-4 What is a Group? A symbolic group is one in which an individual is not likely to receive membership despite acting like a member (seseorang pemain tenis amatir memakai barang-barang yang dipergunakan oleh pemain tenis profesional)

5 10-5 Reference Group A person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behavior.

6 10-6 Broad Categories of Reference Groups Normative Reference Groups  penting dalam pembentukkan nilai-nilai yang dianut kelompok/klg Misal : makanan yang sehat bagi keluarga

7 10-7 Broad Categories of Reference Groups Comparative Reference Groups  bersifat benchmarking Misal : tetangga meniru tetangga lain untuk mengkonsumsi suatu produk

8 10-8 Perkembangan Reference Groups Dulu : kelompok referensi dimaknai sebagai suatu kelompok yang berhubungan langsung (direct): keluarga, teman dekat Sekarang : kelompok referensi juga terkait dengan interaksi yang tidak bersifat langsung (indirect)  tidak bersifat face to face : bintang film, orang-orang yang berpenampilan baik/elegant

9 10-9 Indirect Reference Groups Individuals or groups with whom a person identifies but does not have direct face-to-face contact, such as movie stars, sports heroes, political leaders, or TV personalities.

10 10-10 Major Consumer Reference Groups Reference Groups

11 10-11 Marketer (terutama market leader) memahami bahwa kelompok referensi mempunyai kemampuan untuk merubah perilaku konsumen dengan cara encouraging conformity  consumer conformity

12 10-12 Factors Encouraging Conformity: A Reference Group Must... Inform or make the individual aware of a specific product or brand Provide the individual with the opportunity to compare his or her own thinking with the attitudes and behavior of the group Influence the individual to adopt attitudes and behavior that are consistent with the norms of the group Legitimize the decision to use the same products as the group

13 10-13 Selected Consumer-Related Reference Groups Friendship groups Shopping groups Work groups Virtual groups or communities Consumer-action groups

14 10-14 Kelompok referensi Friendship groups : o Informal groups o Individu cenderung menjaga pertemanan ini, berdiskusi, dll o Opini dan saran dari teman  dalam memilih produk/brand Shopping groups : o Purchase pals  primary social motives, mengurangi resiko pembelian produk yang penting o Consumer gatherings : Tupperware

15 10-15 Kelompok referensi Work groups : o Formal work groups o Informal friendship groups (pernah bekerja bersama) Virtual groups/communities o Internet communities: chat room (on line) o Marketer : niche market  particular interest o Consumer : sharing experience dengan yang lain

16 10-16 Consumer-action groups Adalah sebuah kelompok konsumen yang bersifat consumerist movement o Memperjuangkan hak-hak konsumen o Membantu konsumen dalam pembelian yang baik dan benar o Membantu konsumen dalam mengkonsumsi produk/service yang sehat dan dengan cara- cara yang sehat, dll

17 10-17 Celebrity & other reference groups appeals Adalah sangat efektif oleh marketer untuk berkomunikasi dengan pasar Celebrity akan menguatkan pembelian akan suatu produk, mempergunakan produk, dll Konsumen cenderung untuk mengidentifikasikan dirinya sesuai dengan celebrity yang disukainya

18 10-18 Reference Group Appeals Celebrities The expert The “common man” The executive and employee spokesperson Trade or spokes-characters Other reference group appeals Ann Taylor uses a Celebrity Appeal: Christy Turlington

19 10-19 Types of Celebrity Appeals TYPEDEFINITIONEXAMPLE TestimonialBased on personal usage, a celebrity attests to the quality of the product or service Pat Riley for 1-Day Accuvue® disposable contact lenses EndorsementCelebrity lends his name and appears on behalf of a product or service with which he/she may not be an expert Senior pro golfer Larry Laoretti for TE-AMO cigars ActorCelebrity presents a product or service as part of a character endorsement Jason Alexader for Rold Gold pretzels SpokespersonCelebrity represents the brand or company over an extended period of time Lee Trevino for Motorola telecommunications products

20 10-20 Customers Providing Testimonials

21 10-21 Family (keluarga) Tidak terlalu mudah bicara tentang konsep keluarga (berbagai komposisi dan struktur) Tradisional : dua orang atau lebih karena sedarah, karena perkawinan atau adopsi Sekarang : dapat pula keluarga dikarenakan sebagai keanggotaan dalam kelompok sosial yang hidup bersama dan berinterkasi dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan bersama

22 10-22 Households Family Households: Married couple, Nuclear family, Extended family Non-Family Households: Unmarried couples, Friends/ Roommates, Boarders

23 10-23 The changing family/household Perubahan secara demographis Working & nonworking wives Perubahan dalam typical family/household Gen Xers (born ), Baby Boomers ( ), Pre Boomers( ), etc Pola konsumsi keluarga

24 10-24 The Typical Household? Canada: Nuclear family Thailand: Extended family USA: Not married, no children

25 10-25 Studi consumer socialization of children : adalah studi bagaimana anak mengembangkan ketrampilan mengkonsumsi Anak-anak belajar nilai-nilai dasar dari orangtuanya  prinsip-prinsip moral & perilaku, ketrampilan interpersonal, cara standard berpakaian dan berperilaku, dll (melalui observasi & experience) Marketer membutuhkan orangtua untuk meneruskan nilai-nilai tsb

26 10-26 Studi adult consumer socialization : Proses sosialisasi tidak berhenti hanya pada masa anak-anak saja, proses sosialisasi akan terus berlangsung sepanjang hidup seseorang. Misal : ketika seseorang baru saja menikah maka akan terjadi proses sosialisasi yang bersifat adjusting terhadap pasangannya

27 10-27 Studi Intergenerational socialization : sejumlah produk dan brand dipakai oleh dari satu generasi ke generasi berikutnya Ada kecenderungan generasi berikutnya takut memakai produk/brand berbeda dari generasi sebelumnya

28 10-28 Consumer Socialization The process by which children acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

29 10-29 A Simple Model of the Socialization Process Influence More Basic Values/Behavior Moral/religious principles Interpersonal skills Dress/grooming standards Manners and speech Educational motivation Occupational career goals Consumer behavior norms Influence More Basic Values/Behavior Moral/religious principles Interpersonal skills Dress/grooming standards Manners and speech Educational motivation Occupational career goals Consumer behavior norms Influence More Expressive Attitudes/Behavior Style Fashion Fads “In/Out” Acceptable consumer behavior Influence More Expressive Attitudes/Behavior Style Fashion Fads “In/Out” Acceptable consumer behavior Other Family Members Friends Young Person PreadolescentAdolescentTeensOlder

30 10-30 Other Functions of the Family Economic well-being Emotional support Suitable family lifestyles

31 10-31 Eight Roles in the Family Decision-Making ProcessROLEDESCRIPTION InfluencersFamily member(s) who provide information to other members about a product or service GatekeepersFamily member(s) who control the flow of information about a product or service into the family DecidersFamily member(s) with the power to determine unilaterally or jointly whether to shop for, purchase, use, consume, or dispose of a specific product or service BuyersFamily member(s) who make the actual purchase of a particular product or service PreparersFamily member(s) who transform the product into a form suitable for consumption by other family members UsersFamily member(s) who use or consume a particular product or service MaintainersFamily member(s) who service or repair the product so that it will provide continued satisfaction. DisposersFamily member(s) who initiate or carry out the disposal or discontinuation of a particular product or service

32 10-32 Dynamics of Husband-Wife Decision Making Husband-Dominated Wife-Dominated Joint –Equal –Syncratic Autonomic –Solitary –Unilateral

33 10-33 The Family Life Cycle Traditional Family Life Cycle –Stage I: Bachelorhood –Stage II: Honeymooners –Stage III: Parenthood –Stage IV: Postparenthood –Stage V: Dissolution Modifications - the Nontraditional FLC

34 10-34 An Extended Family Life Cycle Middle-Aged Divorced without Children Middle-Aged Married without Children Young Divorced without Children Young Single* Young Married without Children* Young Married with Children* Middle- Aged Married with Children* Middle- Aged Married without Dependent Children* Older Married* Older Unmarried* Middle- Aged Divorced with Children Middle- Aged Divorced without Children Young Divorced with Children* * Traditional Family Flow Recycled Flow Usual Flow

35 10-35 Noteworthy Nontraditional FLC Stages Family Households Childless couplesIt is increasingly acceptable for married couples to elect not to have children. Contributing forces are more career-oriented married women and delayed marriages. Couples who marry later in life (in their late 30s or later) More career-oriented men and women and greater occurrence of couples living together. Likely to have fewer or even no children. Couples who have first child later in life (in their late 30s or later) Likely to have fewer children. Stress quality lifestyle: “Only the best is good enough” Alternative FLC StagesDefinition/Commentary

36 10-36 continued Family Households Single parents IIYoung man or woman who has one or more children out of wedlock. Single parents IIIA single person who adopts one or more children. Extended familyYoung single-adult children who return home to avoid the expenses of living alone while establishing their careers. Divorced daughter or son and grandchild(ren) return home to parents. Frail elderly parents who move in with children. Newlyweds living with in-laws. Alternative FLC StagesDefinition/Commentary Single parents IHigh divorce rates (about 50%) contribute to a portion of single-parent households

37 10-37 continued Nonfamily Households Unmarried couplesIncreased acceptance of heterosexual and homosexual couples. Divorced persons (no children) High divorce rate contributes to dissolution of households before children are born. Single persons (most are young) Primarily a result of delaying first marriage; also, men and women who never marry. Alternative FLC StagesDefinition/Commentary Widowed persons (most are elderly) Longer life expectancy, especially for women; means more over-75 single-person households.


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