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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Analisis Sistem Informasi – 2 REQUIREMENTS DETERMINATION Analisa Desain Sistem Informasi STMIK AUB Surakarta

2 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Key Ideas Tujuan utama dari fase analisis adalah memahami dengan sebenar-benarnya requirement/kebutuhan dari sistem baru dan mengembangkan sistem berdasarkan kebutuhan tadi Penentuan kebutuhan (Requirement Determination) merupakan langkah yang paling kritis pada keseluruhan tahapan SDLC

3 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Pernyataan yang berisi apa yang harus dilakukan system Pernyataan yang berisi karakteristik dari sistem baru Fokus pada business need (System Request) pada tahapan sebelumnya Requirement bisa saja berubah pada tahapan-tahapan ANSI berikutnya apakah Requirement itu ?

4 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Functional Requirements Proses-proses yang harus dilakukan sistem Informasi-informasi yang harus ada dalam sistem Nonfunctional Requirements Behavioral properties the system must have Operational Performance Security Cultural and political Tipe Requirement

5 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Laporan definisi Requirement Text document listing requirements in outline form Priorities may be included Tujuan Utama adalah menentukan project scope: apa yang harus ada dan apa yang tidak Mendokumentasikan Requirement

6 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

7 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

8 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Contoh penentuan Requirement: Akan dikembangkan sebuah software pengolah kata “Wordku software”, suatu pengolah kata yang mirip dengan MS word, buatlah system requirementnya!

9 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT Printing User bisa melihat preview dari file sebelum di cetak User bisa mengganti margin, paper size dan orientasi dari page. User bisa memilih halaman yang akan diprint

10 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Spell Checking User bisa mengecek kesalahan ejaan, yang beroperasi pada 2 mode Mode 1: Manual: user akan mengaktifkan spell checker dan akan mencari kata-kata yang salah eja Mode 2: Otomatis: saat user menulis jika ada kesalahan ejaan maka langsung dikoreksi dll....

11 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Non Functional Requirement Operational Requirement Sistem akan beroperasi pada sistem operasi Windows Sistem bisa membaca dan menulis ke dalam format Word Document, RTF dan HTML sistem harus bisa mengimpor file GIF, JPEG, dan BMP performance requirement Response time harus kurang dari 7 detik untuk print

12 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Security Requirement Tidak ada Cultural and Plitical Requirement Tidak ada

13 CONTOH SYSTEM REQUIREMENT : Berikut ini contoh sebuah dokumen kebutuhan sistem untuk pengembangan sistem informasi perpustakaan berbasis komputer : PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

14 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

15 Sistem harus dapat melakukan entri buku yang berhubungan dengan pendataan buku: User bisa memasukkan berbagai jenis buku beserta dengan kode buku, kategori buku, judul buku, penerbit, pengarang, jumlah halaman, ISBN buku dan lain-lain User bisa menambahkan koleksi buku baru yang akan keluarkan User bisa menghitung berapa jumlah koleksi buku yang ada secara keseluruhan PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

16 User dapat menampilkan berapa jenis atau kategori koleksi buku yang ada beserta dengan jumlahnya User dapat menampilkan jenis buku berdasarkan ketegori tertentu beserta jumlah bukunya User dapat mencari koleksi buku berdasarkan pengarang, penerbit, judul, dan lain-lain User dapat menampilkan nama buku yang paling sering di pinjam PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

17 System harus dapat melakukan pendataan anggota User dapat memasukkan data anggota baru dengan memasukkan kode anggota, nama, alamat, nomor telepon User dapat menampilkan biaya pendaftaran anggota yang harus di bayarkan User dapat menampilkan print kartu anggota baru User dapat menampilkan menghitung berapa jumlah anggota yang ada secara keseluruhan PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

18 User bisa menambahkan data anggota baru User bisa merubah data anggota apabila alamat atau nomor telepon anggota berubah User dapat menampilkan anggota yang paling sering meminjam serta kategori buku yang di pinjam User dapat menampilkan data peningkatan atau penurunan anggota baru setiap tahunnya PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

19 Sistem harus dapat melakukan transaksi peminjaman: User dapat mencatat semua transaksi peminjaman User dapat memasukan data-data dari anggota baik nama, alamat, nomor telepon dan lain-lain User dapat memasukkan jumlah buku yang di pinjam PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

20 User dapat memasukkan judul buku, nama pengarang, dan nama penerbit User dapat menampilkan tanggal kembali buku yang di pinjam User dapat mengetahui apakah anggota sudah mengembalikan buku yang di pinjam PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

21 User dapat menampilkan anggota yang paling sering meminjam PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

22 Sistem harus dapat melakukan transaksi pengembalian: User dapat mencatat semua transaksi pengembalian User dapat manampilkan judul buku, nama pengarang, nama penerbit dari buku yang di kembalikan User dapat menampilkan denda yang harus dibayar oleh peminjam buku (denda 1 buku Rp.100/perhari) PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

23 User dapat mengetahui total keseluruhan buku yang di pinjam User dapat menampilkan tanggal pengembalian buku User dapat menampilkan judul buku, nama pengarang, dan nama penerbit dari buku apabila peminjam menghilangkan buku yang di pinjam PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

24 User dapat menampilkan harga buku yang harus diganti oleh anggota apabila buku tersebut hilang User dapat mengetahui nama buku yang belum di kembalikan oleh peminjam/anggota PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

25 User dapat mengetahui nama anggota beserta alamat anggota yang belum mengembalikan buku beserta tanggal buku tersebut harus di kembalikan PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

26 NONFUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

27 Operasional Digunakan pada system operasi Microsoft Windows XP®, Microsoft Windows® NT, Microsoft Windows®2000 Spesifikasi computer minimum Pentium III- Kebutuhan memori 128 MB – 256 MB RAM PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

28 Bisa dilengkapi barcode reader Printer untuk mencetak kartu anggota dan laporan keuangan maupun yang lain- lain PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

29 Security Dilengkapi password untuk sistem aplikasinya maupun databasenya Dilengkapi dengan kamera untuk mengawasi anggota yang membaca di ruang baca dan ruang penyimpanan tas yang tersambung kekomputer PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

30 Informasi Digunakan untuk menginformasikan apabila password yang di masukkan oleh user salah Digunakan untuk menampilkan prosedur pendaftaran anggota baru PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

31 Performance Waktu untuk transaksi peminjaman buku dibatasi 2 menit Waktu untuk transaksi pengembalian buku di batasi 1 menit PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

32 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved REQUIREMENTS- GATHERING TECHNIQUES

33 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Interviews Most commonly used technique Basic steps: Selecting Interviewees Designing Interview Questions Preparing for the Interview Conducting the Interview Post-Interview Follow-up

34 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Selecting Interviewees Based on information needs Best to get different perspectives Managers Users Ideally, all key stakeholders

35 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Types of Questions Examples Closed-Ended Questions* How many telephone orders are received per day? * How do customers place orders? * What additional information would you like the new system to provide? Open-Ended Questions* What do you think about the current system? * What are some of the problems you face on a daily basis? * How do you decide what types of marketing campaign to run? Probing Questions* Why? * Can you give me an example? * Can you explain that in a bit more detail?

36 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Organizing Interview Questions Unstructured interview useful early in information gathering Goal is broad, roughly defined information Structured interview useful later in process Goal is very specific information

37 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Structuring the Interview High Level: Very General Medium-Level: Moderately Specific Low-Level: Very Specific TOP DOWN BOTTOM UP EXAMPLES?

38 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Interview Preparation Steps Prepare general interview plan List of question Anticipated answers and follow-ups Confirm areas of knowledge Set priorities in case of time shortage Prepare the interviewee Schedule Inform of reason for interview Inform of areas of discussion

39 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Conducting the Interview Appear professional and unbiased Record all information Check on organizational policy regarding tape recording Be sure you understand all issues and terms Separate facts from opinions Give interviewee time to ask questions Be sure to thank the interviewee End on time

40 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Conducting the Interview Practical Tips Take time to build rapport Pay attention Summarize key points Be succinct Be honest Watch body language

41 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Post-Interview Follow-Up Prepare interview notes Prepare interview report Have interviewee review and confirm interview report Look for gaps and new questions

42 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Joint Application Development A structured group process focused on determining requirements Involves project team, users, and management working together May reduce scope creep by 50% Very useful technique

43 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved JAD Participants Facilitator Trained in JAD techniques Sets agenda and guides group processes Scribe(s) Record content of JAD sessions Users and managers from business area with broad and detailed knowledge

44 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved JAD Sessions Time commitment – ½ day to several weeks Strong management support is needed to release key participants from their usual responsibilities Careful planning is essential e-JAD can help alleviate some problems inherent with groups

45 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved JAD Meeting Room JPEG Figure 5-5 Goes Here

46 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved The JAD Session Formal agenda and ground rules Top-down structure most successful Facilitator activities Keep session on track Help with technical terms and jargon Record group input Stay neutral, but help resolve issues Post-session follow-up report

47 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Managing Problems in JAD Sessions Reducing domination Encouraging non-contributors Side discussions Agenda merry-go-round Violent agreement Unresolved conflict True conflict Use humor

48 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Questionnaires A set of written questions, often sent to a large number of people May be paper-based or electronic Select participants using samples of the population Design the questions for clarity and ease of analysis Administer the questionnaire and take steps to get a good response rate Questionnaire follow-up report

49 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Good Questionnaire Design Begin with non-threatening and interesting questions Group items into logically coherent sections Do not put important items at the very end of the questionnaire Do not crowd a page with too many items Avoid abbreviations Avoid biased or suggestive items or terms Number questions to avoid confusion Pretest the questionnaire to identify confusing questions Provide anonymity to respondents

50 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Document Analysis Study of existing material describing the current system Forms, reports, policy manuals, organization charts describe the formal system Look for the informal system in user additions to forms/report and unused form/report elements User changes to existing forms/reports or non-use of existing forms/reports suggest the system needs modification

51 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Observation Watch processes being performed Users/managers often don’t accurately recall everything they do Checks validity of information gathered other ways Be aware that behaviors change when people are watched Be unobtrusive Identify peak and lull periods

52 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Selecting the Appropriate Requirements-Gathering Techniques Type of information Depth of information Breadth of information Integration of information User involvement Cost Combining techniques

53 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Selecting the Appropriate Techniques Interviews JAD Questionnaires Document Observation Analysis Type of As-Is As-Is As-Is As-Is As-Is Information Improve. Improve. Improve. To-Be To-Be Depth of High High Medium Low Low Information Breadth of Low Medium High High Low Information Integration Low High Low Low Low of Info. User Medium High Low Low Low Involvement Cost Medium Low- Low Low Low- Medium Medium

54 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Summary The analysis process focuses on capturing the business requirements for the system Functional and non-functional business requirements tell what the system must do Three main requirements analysis techniques are BPA, BPI, and BPR These techniques vary in potential business value, but also in potential cost and risk

55 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Summary, continued There are five major requirements- gathering techniques that all systems analysts must be able to use: Interviews, JAD, Questionnaires, Document Analysis, and Observation. Systems analysts must also know how and when to use each as well as how to combine methods.

56 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2 nd Edition Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for redistribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


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