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1 Pertemuan 1 Pengenalan Komputer dan Algoritma Matakuliah: T0016/Algoritma dan Pemrograman Tahun: 2005 Versi: versi 2.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pertemuan 1 Pengenalan Komputer dan Algoritma Matakuliah: T0016/Algoritma dan Pemrograman Tahun: 2005 Versi: versi 2."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pertemuan 1 Pengenalan Komputer dan Algoritma Matakuliah: T0016/Algoritma dan Pemrograman Tahun: 2005 Versi: versi 2

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menjelaskan kegunaan komputer dan sejarah algoritma menjelaskan kegunaan dan tahapan algoritma

3  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 What is a Computer? Computer –Device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions –Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called computer programs Hardware –Various devices comprising a computer –Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CD-ROM, and processing units Software –Programs that run on a computer

4  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Computer Organization Six logical units in every computer: 1.Input unit Obtains information from input devices (keyboard, mouse) 2.Output unit Outputs information (to screen, to printer, to control other devices) 3.Memory unit Rapid access, low capacity, stores input information 4.Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Performs arithmetic calculations and logic decisions 5.Central processing unit (CPU) Supervises and coordinates the other sections of the computer 6.Secondary storage unit Cheap, long-term, high-capacity storage Stores inactive programs

5  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Evolution of Operating Systems Batch processing –Do only one job or task at a time Operating systems –Manage transitions between jobs –Increased throughput Amount of work computers process Multiprogramming –Computer resources are shared by many jobs or tasks Timesharing –Computer runs a small portion of one user’s job then moves on to service the next user

6  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Personal Computing, Distributed Computing, and Client/Server Computing Personal computers –Economical enough for individual Distributed computing –Computing distributed over networks Client/server computing –Sharing of information across computer networks between file servers and clients (personal computers)

7  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages Three types of programming languages 1.Machine languages Strings of numbers giving machine specific instructions Example: Assembly languages English-like abbreviations representing elementary computer operations (translated via assemblers) Example: LOAD BASEPAY ADD OVERPAY STORE GROSSPAY

8  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages 3.High-level languages Codes similar to everyday English Use mathematical notations (translated via compilers) Example: grossPay = basePay + overTimePay

9  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 History of C C –Evolved by Ritchie from two previous programming languages, BCPL and B –Used to develop UNIX –Used to write modern operating systems –Hardware independent (portable) –By late 1970's C had evolved to "Traditional C" Standardization –Many slight variations of C existed, and were incompatible –Committee formed to create a "unambiguous, machine- independent" definition –Standard created in 1989, updated in 1999

10  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 The C Standard Library C programs consist of pieces/modules called functions –A programmer can create his own functions Advantage: the programmer knows exactly how it works Disadvantage: time consuming –Programmers will often use the C library functions Use these as building blocks –Avoid re-inventing the wheel If a premade function exists, generally best to use it rather than write your own Library functions carefully written, efficient, and portable

11  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 The Key Software Trend: Object Technology Objects –Reusable software components that model items in the real world –Meaningful software units Date objects, time objects, paycheck objects, invoice objects, audio objects, video objects, file objects, record objects, etc. Any noun can be represented as an object –Very reusable –More understandable, better organized, and easier to maintain than procedural programming –Favor modularity

12  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Structured Programming Structured programming –Disciplined approach to writing programs –Clear, easy to test and debug and easy to modify Multitasking –Specifying that many activities run in parallel

13  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Basics of a Typical C Program Development Environment Phases of C++ Programs: 1.Edit 2.Preprocess 3.Compile 4.Link 5.Load 6.Execute Program is created in the editor and stored on disk. Preprocessor program processes the code. Loader puts program in memory. CPUtakes each instruction and executes it, possibly storing new data values as the program executes. Compiler creates object code and stores it on disk. Linker links the object code with the libraries Loader Primary Memory Compiler Editor Preprocessor Linker Primary Memory Dis k CPU Dis k

14  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Hardware Trends Every year or two the following approximately double: –Amount of memory in which to execute programs –Amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage) Used to hold programs and data over the longer term –Processor speeds The speeds at which computers execute their programs

15  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 General Notes About C and This Book Program clarity –Programs that are convoluted are difficult to read, understand, and modify C is a portable language –Programs can run on many different computers –However, portability is an elusive goal We will do a careful walkthrough of C –Some details and subtleties are not covered –If you need additional technical details Read the C standard document Read the book by Kernigan and Ritchie

16 16 Algoritma Algoritma ialah sekumpulan langkah- langkah atau instruksi-instruksi yang terbatas untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah. Kata Algoritma mulai diperkenalkan oleh seorang ilmuwan matematika Persia bernama Al Khwarizmi (ca. 780-ca. 850)

17 17 Dalam bidang pemrograman, algoritma didefinisikan sebagai : “Suatu metode yang terdiri dari serangkaian langkah-langkah yang terstruktur dan dituliskan secara sistematis untuk menyelesaikan masalah dengan bantuan komputer”.

18 18 Algoritma dan Pemrograman Algoritma dan pemrograman yang baik : Memiliki logika perhitungan/metode yang tepat dalam memecahkan masalah Menghasilkan output yang tepat dan benar dalam waktu yang singkat Ditulis dengan bahasa yang standar dan sistematis. Dituliskan dengan format yang mudah dipahami

19 19 Penyajian algoritma Teknik tulisan : Struktur english dan pseudocode Teknik gambar : flow chart.

20 20 Contoh algoritma Algoritma untuk mencari jumlah N bilangan bulat >0, yaitu N : 1.Set jumlah=0 dan pencacah c=1 2.Ulangi langkah selanjutnya hingga c>N a. Hitung jumlah=jumlah + c b. Naikkan nilai c dengan 1 3. Hasil yang diperoleh ialah jumlah total 4. Tampilkan jumlah total

21 21 Pseudocode Pseudocode ialah bahasa informal yang membantu kita mendevelop algoritma. Mirip dengan bahasa inggris standar Solusi : begin set jumlah=0 set c=1 input N repeat until c>N jumlah=jumlah +c c=c+1 loop display jumlah end

22 22 Implementasi #include void main() { int sum=0; int c=0; int N; printf ("\nMasukkan nilai N \n"); scanf ("%d",&N); while (c <= N) { sum=sum+c; c= c + 1; } printf ("Total ialah %d",sum); }

23 23 Penutup Algoritma yang tepat dan benar sangat penting untuk menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan.


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