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Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria

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2 Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria

3 Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus
represent radioactive resistant bacteria of the Deinococcaceae and Trueperaceae family and slightly thermophilic/thermophilic bacteria of Thermaceae family have been recognized solely on the basis of their branching patterns in 16S rRNA, no biochemical or physiological characteristic is currently known that is unique to this phylum. all members have outer membrane and stain gram-negative while others have outer membrane and also thick peptidoglycan layer that cause them stain gram-positive widely distributed proteins in this phylum include 8 proteins : seryl-tRNA synthetase, threonyltRNA synthetase, RNA polymerase β′ subunit, signal recognition particle protein Ffh/SR54, major sigma factor 70, ribosomal protein L1 and UvrA.

4 Taxonomy So far there are 49 species and subsp.
Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus Class Deinococci Order Deinococcales Family Deinococcaceae Genus Deinobacter Genus Deinococcus Family Truperaceae Genus Truepera Order Thermales Family Thermaceae Marinithermus Meiothermus Oceanithermus Thermus Vulcanithermus Taxonomy So far there are 49 species and subsp.

5 Phylogenetic Tree based on 16S rRNA analysis

6 Deinococcus radiodurans
Genus Deinobacter (Dei. no. bac’ter. Gr. adj. deinos strange or unusual; M.L. n. bucter masculine equivalent of Gr. neut. n. bacterium a rod; M.L. masc. n. Deinobacter unusual rod Genus Deinococcus Deinococcus unusual cocci Famous species : Deinococcus radiodurans

7 potential for sewage treatment on long space flights, there is also speculation that we can use this bacteria in environmental engineering of Martian surface. producing synthetic organism Mycoplasma laboratorium by Craig Venter Institute (2006) because the DNA repair system of D.radiodurans is capable of joining fragments of DNA. Information storage that survive nuclear catastrophe. Information is translated into DNA sequences and inserted into the bacteria (2003).

8 Deinococcus radiodurans
listed in Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s toughest bacterium can survive drought, lack of nutrients and a thousand times more radiation than a person can stand. radiodurans means ‘withstands radiation’ is the most radiation resistant organism known. have a DNA repair system known as RecA system that is highly effective in repairing damaged DNA

9 Application of Deinococcus radiodurans
in Environmental cleanup – for sites contaminated with heavy metal, such as mercury, toxic chemicals and radioactive wastes. simulation to predict where to search life on Mars – because this bacteria was found in Antarctic dry valleys which closely resemble Mars

10 Genus Truepera Named in honor of the German microbiologist Hans G. Truper from a hot spring within a geothermal area located along an almost vertical wall and dry bed of a stream

11 Characteristics Gram indeterminate Colonies are orange/red pigmented
Endospores are not formed Alkaliphilic Slightly thermophilic Slightly halophilic mole G + C of the DNA of the type species is 67–68%.

12 Truepera radiovictrix
ra.di.o.vic trix. L. n. radius, beam, N. L. prefix radio- pertaining to radiation, L. fem. n. victrix, female winner, N. L. fem. n. radiovictrix, the vanquisher of radiation forms spherical shaped cells 1.25–2.0 lm in diameter The cells stain Gram-indeterminate Not motile Colonies are orange/red pigmented Extremely ionizing radiation resistant Facultatively halophilic mole G + C ratio of the DNA is 67.6–67.8%

13 Genus Vulcanithermus L. n. Vulcanus the Roman god of fire; Gr. adj. thermos hot; N.L. masc. n. Vulcanithermus heat-loving organism, living in the vicinity of volcanic areas from the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent field

14 Characteristics non-motile Gram-negative rods Moderately thermophilic
Neutrophilic Adapted to the salinity of sea water Microaerophilic Capable of aerobic growth Able to utilize a broad range of carbohydrates, some proteinaceous substrates, organic acids and alcohols Capable of anaerobic growth with nitrate, which is reduced to nitrite

15 Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus L. adj. medius middle; L. masc. adj. atlanticus Atlantic; N.L. adj. mediatlanticus from the middle of the Atlantic Optimal growth temperature is 70 C The optimal pH is around 6,7. The optimum salinity is 3% NaCl. The G+C content of the DNA of the type species is 68,4 mol%.

16 Genus Oceanithermus L. n. oceanus the ocean; Gr. fem. n. therme heat; N.L. masc. n. Oceanithermus warmth-loving organism living in the ocean isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

17 Characteristics non-motile Gram-negative rods Moderate thermophile
Neutrophile Adapted to the salinity of sea water Microaerophile Flagella and spores are not observed

18 Oceanithermus profundus
(pro.fundus. L. gen. n. profundus of the abyss, the depths of the ocean The optimal growth temperature is 60 C. The optimal pH is 7,5 The optimum salinity is 30 g/L The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 62,9 mol%

19 Meiothermus

20 Banyak ditemukan pada teresterial hotspring dengan pH netral atau basa.
Berasal dari bahasa Yunani meion (sedikit) dan thermus (panas)

21 Karakterisasi : diameter 0.5-0.8 um.
Berfilamen, gram negatif, non-motil berwarna merah atau kuning respirasi aerobik, namun ada juga yang menggunakan nitrat sebagai akseptor elektron suhu optimum = 500C - 650C pH optimum = 8 menghidrolisis protein dan peptida hanya beberapa spesies yang menghidrolisis pati Membutuhkan yeast extract dan kofaktor untuk tumbuh %GC = mol % Meiothermus slime (

22 Contoh Spesies : Meiothermus ruber Koloni berwarna merah
Temperatur pertumbuhan optimum pada C. Tidak tumbuh pada 700C Tidak menghidrolisis pati dan tidak mereduksi nitrat % GC = 61-63% Meiothermus ruber (

23 membentuk koloni merah
Meiothermus silvanus membentuk koloni merah pertumbuhan optimum pada 550C. Tidak tumbuh pada 650C menghidrolisis pati dan mereduksi nitrat menggunakan xylose dan ribitol untuk pertumbuhan % GC = 63.6 mol% kegunaan : Biofouler (bakteri yang dapat mendegradasi berbagai macam bahan, seperti kertas, baja, dsb) Meiothermus silvanus (

24 Marinithermus

25 Banyak ditemukan pada deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney
Berasal dari kata marine (laut) dan thermus (panas)

26 Karakterisasi : thermophilic
berbentuk batang, gram negatif, heterotrof aerobik thermophilic pertumbuhan cocok pada pH dan salinitas air laut kondisi optimum : Suhu = C pH = Salinitas = % NaCl dapat menggunakan substrat organik, asam amino, asam karboksilat, dan gula % GC = 68 mol %

27 Marinithermus hydrothermalis
Contoh Spesies : Marinithermus hydrothermalis gram negatif, non-motil, batang Ukuran : x um koloni putih dengan diameter mm serobic, thermophilic, neutrophilic heterotrof kondisi optimum : suhu : 67.50C pH : 7 salinitas : 3% NaCl % GC = 68.6 mol% Marinithermus hydrothermalis (Sako, 2003)



30 Ditemukan pada habitat thermal seperti thermal spring, hot tap water, dsb
nama Thermus berasal dari bahasa Yunani, thermos, yang berarti panas

31 KARAKTERISASI : batang dan filamen, diameter 0.8-0.8 um
gram negatif. Tidak memiliki endospora dan flagella koloni kuning padat tidak butuh faktor untuk pertumbuhan kondisi optimum : Suhu : C pH : 7.5 – 7.8 sensitif terhadap streptomycin, penicillin, novobyocin, actinomycin D, chloramphenicol % GC = mol % Thermus aquaticus (Brock, 1969)

32 Contoh Spesies : Thermus aquaticus
nama Thermus aquaticus berasal dari bahasa latin, aqua, yang berarti air. terinhibisi oleh tryptone dan yeast extrast dengan konsentrasi 1% membentuk microbial mat koloni kuning, gram negatif, non-motil, berbentuk batang sensitif pada actinomycin D utilitas : sumber enzim DNA Taq poltmerase, Taq I restriction enzyme, RNA polymerase, aldolase Thermus aquaticus (Brock, 1969)

33 References Brock TD, Freeze H Thermus aquaticus gen. n. and sp. n., a Nonsporulating Extreme Thermophile. J Bacteriol 98 : Griffith E, Gupta RS Identification of signature proteins that are distinctive of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum. Int Microbiol 10: Hobel, CFV Access to Biodiversity and New Genes from Thermophiles by Special Enrichment Methods. [Dissertation]. Iceland : University of Iceland. Luciana A, Catarina S, Fernanda N, Nicole MP, John RB, Manuel TS, Fred AR, Milton SC Truepera radiovictrix gen. nov., sp. nov., a new radiation resistant species and the proposal of Trueperaceae fam. nov. FEMS Microbiol 247 : 161–169 Madigan MT, et. al Brock’s Biology of Microorganisms. 12th edition. San Fransisco : Benjamin Cummings. Miroshnichenko ML, et. al Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermaceae from a deep-sea hot vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 1143– 1148. Miroshnichenko ML, et. al Oceanithermus profundus gen. nov., sp. nov.,a thermophilic,microaerophilic, facultatively chemolithoheterotrophic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 747–752 Nobre MF, Truper HG, Costa MS Transfer of Thermus ruber Themus silvanus, and Themus chliarophilus to Meiothemzus gen. nov. as Meiothermus ruber comb.nov., Meiothermus silvanus comb. nov., and Meiothermus chliarophilus comb.nov., and Emendation of the Genus Thermus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 46 :

34 Oyaizu H, et. al A Radiation Resistant Rod-Shaped Bacterium, Deinobacter grandis gen.nov., sp. nov., with Peptidoglycan Containing Ornithine. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:62-67 Rainey FA, et. al Phylogenetic Diversity of the Deinococci as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequence Comparison. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2) : Sako Y, Nakagawa S, Takai K, Horikoshi K Marinithermus hydrothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov.,a strictly aerobic, thermophilic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : Salkiloja-Salonen M, Peltolla M, Kuosmanen T Biofouling Bacteria. [online] [13 October 2009]. Anonim What is The Adopt A Genome Program? [online]. [13 October 2009]. Anonim Detection and quantitation of colored deposit-forming Meiothermus spp. in paper industry processes and end products. Electr J Microbiol Biotech 34 (3). 211p. [online]. Issued March 2007 [13 October 2009] Anonim Texas Geothermal Energy. Tanggal akses : 13 Oktober 2009 Anonim Hydrothermal Vent. 0vent-jj-001.jpg. Tanggal akses : 13 Oktober 2009

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