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Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus represent radioactive resistant bacteria of the Deinococcaceae and Trueperaceae family and slightly.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus represent radioactive resistant bacteria of the Deinococcaceae and Trueperaceae family and slightly."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria

3 Phylum Deinococcus-Thermus represent radioactive resistant bacteria of the Deinococcaceae and Trueperaceae family and slightly thermophilic/thermophilic bacteria of Thermaceae family have been recognized solely on the basis of their branching patterns in 16S rRNA, no biochemical or physiological characteristic is currently known that is unique to this phylum. all members have outer membrane and stain gram-negative while others have outer membrane and also thick peptidoglycan layer that cause them stain gram-positive widely distributed proteins in this phylum include 8 proteins : seryl-tRNA synthetase, threonyltRNA synthetase, RNA polymerase β′ subunit, signal recognition particle protein Ffh/SR54, major sigma factor 70, ribosomal protein L1 and UvrA.

4 Taxonomy Phylum Deinococcus- Thermus Class Deinococci Order Deinococcales Family Deinococcaceae Genus Deinobacter Genus Deinococcus Family Truperaceae Genus TrueperaOrder Thermales Family Thermaceae MarinithermusMeiothermusOceanithermusThermusVulcanithermus So far there are 49 species and subsp.

5 Phylogenetic Tree based on 16S rRNA analysis

6 Genus Deinobacter (Dei. no. bac’ter. Gr. adj. deinos strange or unusual; M.L. n. bucter masculine equivalent of Gr. neut. n. bacterium a rod; M.L. masc. n. Deinobacter unusual rod Genus Deinococcus Deinococcus unusual cocci Famous species : Deinococcus radiodurans

7 potential for sewage treatment on long space flights, there is also speculation that we can use this bacteria in environmental engineering of Martian surface. producing synthetic organism Mycoplasma laboratorium by Craig Venter Institute (2006) because the DNA repair system of D.radiodurans is capable of joining fragments of DNA. Information storage that survive nuclear catastrophe. Information is translated into DNA sequences and inserted into the bacteria (2003).

8 Deinococcus radiodurans listed in Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s toughest bacterium can survive drought, lack of nutrients and a thousand times more radiation than a person can stand. radiodurans means ‘withstands radiation’ is the most radiation resistant organism known. have a DNA repair system known as RecA system that is highly effective in repairing damaged DNA

9 Application of Deinococcus radiodurans in Environmental cleanup – for sites contaminated with heavy metal, such as mercury, toxic chemicals and radioactive wastes. simulation to predict where to search life on Mars – because this bacteria was found in Antarctic dry valleys which closely resemble Mars

10 Genus Truepera Named in honor of the German microbiologist Hans G. Truper from a hot spring within a geothermal area located along an almost vertical wall and dry bed of a stream

11 Gram indeterminate Colonies are orange/red pigmented Endospores are not formed Alkaliphilic Slightly thermophilic Slightly halophilic mole G + C of the DNA of the type species is 67–68%. Characteristics

12 Truepera radiovictrix forms spherical shaped cells 1.25–2.0 lm in diameter The cells stain Gram-indeterminate Not motile Colonies are orange/red pigmented Extremely ionizing radiation resistant Facultatively halophilic mole G + C ratio of the DNA is 67.6–67.8% ra.di.o.vic trix. L. n. radius, beam, N. L. prefix radio- pertaining to radiation, L. fem. n. victrix, female winner, N. L. fem. n. radiovictrix, the vanquisher of radiation

13 Genus Vulcanithermus Vul.ca.ni.ther9mus. L. n. Vulcanus the Roman god of fire; Gr. adj. thermos hot; N.L. masc. n. Vulcanithermus heat-loving organism, living in the vicinity of volcanic areas from the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent field

14 non-motile Gram-negative rods Moderately thermophilic Neutrophilic Adapted to the salinity of sea water Microaerophilic Capable of aerobic growth Able to utilize a broad range of carbohydrates, some proteinaceous substrates, organic acids and alcohols Capable of anaerobic growth with nitrate, which is reduced to nitrite Characteristics

15 Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus me.di.at.lanti.cus. L. adj. medius middle; L. masc. adj. atlanticus Atlantic; N.L. adj. mediatlanticus from the middle of the Atlantic Optimal growth temperature is 70 C The optimal pH is around 6,7. The optimum salinity is 3% NaCl. The G+C content of the DNA of the type species is 68,4 mol%.

16 Genus Oceanithermus O.ce.a.ni.thermus. L. n. oceanus the ocean; Gr. fem. n. therme heat; N.L. masc. n. Oceanithermus warmth-loving organism living in the ocean isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

17 non-motile Gram-negative rods Moderate thermophile Neutrophile Adapted to the salinity of sea water Microaerophile Flagella and spores are not observed Characteristics

18 Oceanithermus profundus The optimal growth temperature is 60 C. The optimal pH is 7,5 The optimum salinity is 30 g/L The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 62,9 mol% (pro.fundus. L. gen. n. profundus of the abyss, the depths of the ocean

19 Meiothermus

20 Banyak ditemukan pada teresterial hotspring dengan pH netral atau basa. Berasal dari bahasa Yunani meion (sedikit) dan thermus (panas)

21 Karakterisasi : diameter um. Berfilamen, gram negatif, non-motil berwarna merah atau kuning respirasi aerobik, namun ada juga yang menggunakan nitrat sebagai akseptor elektron suhu optimum = 50 0 C C pH optimum = 8 menghidrolisis protein dan peptida hanya beberapa spesies yang menghidrolisis pati Membutuhkan yeast extract dan kofaktor untuk tumbuh %GC = mol % Meiothermus slime (www.biocenter.helsinki.fi)

22 Contoh Spesies : Meiothermus ruber  Koloni berwarna merah  Temperatur pertumbuhan optimum pada C. Tidak tumbuh pada 70 0 C  Tidak menghidrolisis pati dan tidak mereduksi nitrat  % GC = 61-63% Meiothermus ruber (www.jgi.doe.gov/education/adoptagenome/index.htmlwww.jgi.doe.gov/education/adoptagenome/index.html

23 Meiothermus silvanus  membentuk koloni merah  pertumbuhan optimum pada 55 0 C. Tidak tumbuh pada 65 0 C  menghidrolisis pati dan mereduksi nitrat  menggunakan xylose dan ribitol untuk pertumbuhan  % GC = 63.6 mol%  kegunaan : Biofouler (bakteri yang dapat mendegradasi berbagai macam bahan, seperti kertas, baja, dsb) Meiothermus silvanus (www.jgi.doe.gov/education/adoptagenome/index.html)www.jgi.doe.gov/education/adoptagenome/index.html

24 Marinithermus

25 Banyak ditemukan pada deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney Berasal dari kata marine (laut) dan thermus (panas)

26 Karakterisasi : berbentuk batang, gram negatif, heterotrof aerobik thermophilic pertumbuhan cocok pada pH dan salinitas air laut kondisi optimum : Suhu = C pH = Salinitas = % NaCl dapat menggunakan substrat organik, asam amino, asam karboksilat, dan gula % GC = 68 mol %

27 Contoh Spesies : Marinithermus hydrothermalis  gram negatif, non-motil, batang  Ukuran : x um  koloni putih dengan diameter mm  serobic, thermophilic, neutrophilic heterotrof  kondisi optimum : suhu : C pH : 7 salinitas : 3% NaCl  % GC = 68.6 mol% Marinithermus hydrothermalis (Sako, 2003)

28

29 THERMUS

30 Ditemukan pada habitat thermal seperti thermal spring, hot tap water, dsb nama Thermus berasal dari bahasa Yunani, thermos, yang berarti panas

31 KARAKTERISASI : batang dan filamen, diameter um gram negatif. Tidak memiliki endospora dan flagella koloni kuning padat tidak butuh faktor untuk pertumbuhan kondisi optimum : Suhu : C pH : 7.5 – 7.8 sensitif terhadap streptomycin, penicillin, novobyocin, actinomycin D, chloramphenicol % GC = mol % Thermus aquaticus (Brock, 1969)

32 Contoh Spesies : Thermus aquaticus  nama Thermus aquaticus berasal dari bahasa latin, aqua, yang berarti air.  terinhibisi oleh tryptone dan yeast extrast dengan konsentrasi 1%  membentuk microbial mat  koloni kuning, gram negatif, non- motil, berbentuk batang  sensitif pada actinomycin D  utilitas : sumber enzim DNA Taq poltmerase, Taq I restriction enzyme, RNA polymerase, aldolase Thermus aquaticus (Brock, 1969)

33 References Brock TD, Freeze H Thermus aquaticus gen. n. and sp. n., a Nonsporulating Extreme Thermophile. J Bacteriol 98 : Griffith E, Gupta RS Identification of signature proteins that are distinctive of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum. Int Microbiol 10: Hobel, CFV Access to Biodiversity and New Genes from Thermophiles by Special Enrichment Methods. [Dissertation]. Iceland : University of Iceland. Luciana A, Catarina S, Fernanda N, Nicole MP, John RB, Manuel TS, Fred AR, Milton SC Truepera radiovictrix gen. nov., sp. nov., a new radiation resistant species and the proposal of Trueperaceae fam. nov. FEMS Microbiol 247 : 161–169 Madigan MT, et. al Brock’s Biology of Microorganisms. 12 th edition. San Fransisco : Benjamin Cummings. Miroshnichenko ML, et. al Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermaceae from a deep-sea hot vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 1143– Miroshnichenko ML, et. al Oceanithermus profundus gen. nov., sp. nov.,a thermophilic,microaerophilic, facultatively chemolithoheterotrophic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 747–752 Nobre MF, Truper HG, Costa MS Transfer of Thermus ruber Themus silvanus, and Themus chliarophilus to Meiothemzus gen. nov. as Meiothermus ruber comb.nov., Meiothermus silvanus comb. nov., and Meiothermus chliarophilus comb.nov., and Emendation of the Genus Thermus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 46 :

34 Oyaizu H, et. al A Radiation Resistant Rod-Shaped Bacterium, Deinobacter grandis gen.nov., sp. nov., with Peptidoglycan Containing Ornithine. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:62-67 Rainey FA, et. al Phylogenetic Diversity of the Deinococci as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequence Comparison. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2) : Sako Y, Nakagawa S, Takai K, Horikoshi K Marinithermus hydrothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov.,a strictly aerobic, thermophilic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : Salkiloja-Salonen M, Peltolla M, Kuosmanen T Biofouling Bacteria. [online] [13 October 2009]. Anonim What is The Adopt A Genome Program? [online]. [13 October 2009]. Anonim Detection and quantitation of colored deposit-forming Meiothermus spp. in paper industry processes and end products. Electr J Microbiol Biotech 34 (3). 211p. [online]. Issued March 2007 [13 October 2009] Anonim Texas Geothermal Energy. hotspring.jpg. Tanggal akses : 13 Oktober 2009http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/Images/re_geo- hotspring.jpg Anonim Hydrothermal Vent. ea%20hydrothermal%2 0vent-jj-001.jpg. Tanggal akses : 13 Oktober 2009http://i.treehugger.com/images/2007/10/24/deep- ea%20hydrothermal%2 0vent-jj-001.jpg


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