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Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 1/18 SISTEM PENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN sistem pendukung manajemen pendukung pengambilan keputusan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 1/18 SISTEM PENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN sistem pendukung manajemen pendukung pengambilan keputusan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 1/18 SISTEM PENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN sistem pendukung manajemen pendukung pengambilan keputusan bagimana teknologi komputer dapat membantu manajer menjalankan tugasnya Referensi lihat SAP : [5] Bab 1, [7] Chapter 1

2 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 2/18 Penunjang Keputusan dan dukungan terkomputerisasi Management Support Systems (MSS) Computerized technologies Objectives –Support managerial work –Support decision making Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

3 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 3/18 Overview Teknologi komputer dapat membantu para manajer menjalankan tugasnya. Perubahan struktur organisasi Kebutuhan Transformasi Bisnis Perubahan metode manajemen Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Mengapa dukungan terkomputerisasi ? kompetisi kecepatan The MANAGERS are always responsible for decision making

4 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 4/18 The Nature of Managers’ Work [Make Decisions!] Mintzberg (1980) (Table 1.1) Roles Interpersonal –Figurehead –Leader –Liason Informational –Monitor –Disseminator –Spokesperson Decisional –Entrepreneur –Disturbance Handler –Resource Allocator –Negotiator Managers need information and use computers to support decision making Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

5 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 5/18 Pengambilan Keputusan Manajerial & SI Manajemen adalah sebuah proses untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi dengan menggunakan berbagai sumber daya. Sumber daya : Input Pencapaian tujuan : Output Tingkat sukses organisasi : Produktivitas = Outputs / Inputs

6 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 6/18 Manajemen Manajemen adalah pengambilan keputusan. Manajer adalah pengambil keputusan. Perubahan cepat saat ini, menjadikan lingkungan bertambah kompleks. Trial-and-error: pendekatan yang tidak baik. Lihat gambar 1.1 : faktor yang memengaruhi pengambilan keputusan Teknologi Informasi/ komputer Kompleksitas struktural/ kompetisi Pasar internasional/ stabilitas politik / konsumerisme Perubahan/ fluktuasi

7 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 7/18 Manajer dan Dukungan Komputer Teknologi Informasi : penting untuk bisnis. Dukungan teknologi yang meluas perlu diimplementasikan. Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Aplikasi Komputer yang berkembang dari SPT dan SIM ke aplikasi yang proaktif ini (SPK) : Data access Online analytical processing (OLAP) Internet / Intranet / Web

8 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 8/18 Alasan mengapa sistem pendukung keputusan terkomputerisasi diperlukan : Kecepatan komputasi Peningkatan/ perbaikan komunikasi Peningkatan produktivitas Dukungan teknis Akses data warehouse Dukungan kualitas Berdaya saing Mengatasi keterbatasan kognitif dalam pemrosesan dan penyimpanan Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

9 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 9/18 Teknologi Pendukung Keputusan Management Support Systems (MSS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Group Support Systems (GSS) Enterprise (Executive) Information Systems (EIS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Supply-Chain Management (SCM) Knowledge Management Systems Expert Systems (ES) Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Hybrid Support Systems Intelligent DSS Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

10 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 10/18 Kerangka Kerja Pengambilan Keputusan Figure 1.2 (Gorry and Scott Morton, 1971) Combination of Simon (1977) Taxonomy Anthony (1965) Taxonomy Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Type of Control Operational Managerial Strategic Control ControlControl Type of Decision Structured Semistructur ed Unstructured

11 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 11/18 Simon : proses pengambilan keputusan berupa suatu kontinum Highly Structured (Programmed) Decisions Highly Unstructured (Nonprogrammed) Decisions Semistructured Decisions Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Intelligence--searching for conditions that call for decisions Design--inventing, developing, and analyzing possible courses of action Choice--selecting a course of action from those available Three Phase Decision-making Process

12 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 12/18 Unstructured problems often solved with human intuition Semistructured problems in between Solve with standard solution procedures and human judgment A Decision Support System can help managers understand problems in addition to providing solutions Goal of DSS: Increase the effectiveness of decision making Unstructured problem has no structured phases Semistructured problem has some (or some parts with) structured phases Structured problem has all structured phases –Procedures for obtaining the best solution are known –Objectives are clearly defined –Management support systems can be useful

13 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 13/18 Anthony’s Taxonomy (1965) Menggambarkan 3 kategori luas yang meliputi semua aktivitas manajerial : – Perencanaan strategis – Kontrol manajemen – Kontrol operasional Lihat gambar kerangka kerja PK. (figure 1.2) DSS for semistructured and unstructured decisions MIS and management science approaches insufficient Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

14 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 14/18 Computer Support for Structured Decisions Since the 1960s Repetitive in nature High level of structure Can abstract and analyze them, and classify them into prototypes Solve with quantitative formulas or models Management Science (MS) / Operations Research (OR) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Management Science Scientific approach to automate managerial decision making : 1. Define problem 2. Classify problem 3. Construct mathematical model 4. Find and evaluate potential solutions 5. Choose and recommend a solution Modeling: Transforming the real-world problem into an appropriate prototype structure

15 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 15/18 Mengapa SPK ? Perceived benefits –decision quality –improved communication –cost reduction –increased productivity –time savings –improved customer and employee satisfaction Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Alasan Utama Unstable economy Difficulty in tracking numerous business objectives Increased competition Electronic commerce Existing systems did not support decision making IS Department is too busy Special analysis Need accurate information Organizational winner New or timely information needed Mandated by management Cost reductions End-user computing

16 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 16/18 Evolutionary View of CBIS 1. Time Sequence mid-1950sTransaction Processing Systems (TPS) 1960sMIS 1970sOffice Automation Systems DSS 1980s DSS Expanded Commercial applications of expert systems Executive Information Systems 1990s Group Support Systems Neural Computing Integrated, hybrid computer systems Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 2. Computer evolved over time 3. Systemic linkages in how each system processes data into information Relationship among these and other technologies (Figure 1.3)

17 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 17/18 Relationship Among Technologies Each technology unique Technologies interrelated Each supports some aspects of managerial decision making Ever expanding role of information technology improving management Interrelationship and coordination evolving Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

18 Sistem (Pengantar) Penunjang Keputusan Sistem Pendukung Manajemen 18/18 Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Kesimpulan DSS has many definitions Complexity of managerial decision making is increasing Computer support for managerial decision making Several MSS technologies including hybrids


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