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PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI. Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI Memahami dampak.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI. Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI Memahami dampak."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI

2 Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI Memahami dampak strategi bisnis terhadap perkembangan strategi SI/TI Tantangan perencanaan SI/TI di Indonesia

3 Agenda Konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi Evolusi SI dalam organisasi Faktor kesuksesan sistem informasi strategis Hubungan strategi SI/TI dan stsrategi bisnis Strategi SI/TI Strategi kompetitif dan implikasinya terhadap strategi SI/TI Perencanaan strategis sistem informasi di indonesia : local point of view

4 Konteks Strategis SI dalam Organisasi Makin banyak produk tersedia dalam bentuk digital- Sehungga e-delivery melalui SI (berikan contoh e-product) Makin banyak perdagangan (commerce) dilakukan secara elektronik (e-commerce-menciptakan peluang baru, transaksi online) Makin banyak aktivitas yang makin kompleks, memerlukan berbagai data dan informasi (data mining, enterprise information systems – ERP/enterprise resource planning) Keterhubungan aktivitas bisnis dalam perusahaan dan antar perusahaan (meningkatkan efisiensi dan produktivitas) Kemajuan teknologi yang dapat memproses data berskala besar dalam waktu yang relatif singkat (SPMB data)

5 The Evolution of Information Systems  Year 1960 – Data processing (DP) era  Year 1970 – Management IS (MIS) era  Year 1980 – Strategic IS (SIS-EIS) era  Year 1990 – E-business & e-commerce era  Year 2000 – Enterprise Resource Planning era  Setiap era memiliki karakteristik SI yang berbeda

6 Karakteristik Era Data Processing Pemrosesan secara sentralisasi Menggunakan multi-purpose Mainframe computer Batch processing (Batch processing adalah suatu model pengolahan data, dengan menghimpun data terlebih dahulu, dan diatur pengelompokkan datanya dalam kelompok-kelompok yang disebut batch) Penyimpanan Data: magnetic disk, tape Bahasa Pemrograman: Cobol, Basic, etc. Proses-proses berbasis otomasi informasi Apa sifat bisnis pada era DP?

7 Karakteristik Era SIM Mulai menggunakan minicomputer Menggunakan berbagai aplikasi bisnis Masih sentralisasi Menggunakan model portofolio aplikasi hierakis berdasarkan stratifikasi kegiatan manajemen : – Perencanaan strategis – Kontrol manajemen – Kontrol operasional Meningkatkan keefektifan manajemen dengan memenuhi kebutuhan informasinya untuk pengambilan keputusan- untuk membantu manajer Apa sifat bisnis era SIM?

8 Karakteristik Era SIS Mulai menggunakan Personal Computer (PC) Mulai menggunakan office automation Mulai menggunakan kapabilitas-kapabilitas baru: flexible access dan decision support Meningkatkan keunggulan/competitiveness dengan mengubah sifat atau cara melaksanakan bisnis (yaitu investasi SI/TI dapat menjadi sumber daya yang competitive advantage) Apa sifat bisnis pada era SIS?

9 Sales forecasting operating plans capacity planning, profit/earnings forecasts, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modeling Sales analysis budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/statistics, WIP control, requirements planning, supplier analysis, etc. Order entry, processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading, invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop-floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing Planning systems examples Control systems example Operational systems examples Early Views and Models of IS/IT in Organizations (Anthony, 65) SIS MIS DP

10 Jenis SIS SIS yang menghubungkan organisasi dengan pelanggan atau pemasoknya untuk berbagi informasi SIS yang secara efektif mengintegrasikan penggunaan inforamsi di dalam value chain organisasi SIS yang membuat organisasi mengembangkan produk atau jasa baru atau yang dikembangkan berdasarkan informasi SIS yang menyediakan manajer informasi yang lebih baik bagi pengembangan strategi Contoh : Tradenet, SABRE (American Airlines), Valuelink (Baxter Healthcare).

11 Faktor Kesuksesan SIS Berfokus pada lingkungan eksternal daripada internal, sebagai contoh : imager building Berfokus pada menambah value daripada mengurangi biaya, contoh : e-ticket Sharing manfaat/benefit secara internal maupun eksternal, contoh : ATM Memahami pelanggan dan kebutuhannya, contoh : customized product Business instead of technology driven innovation: i.e covering a wider customers Incremental instead of total development: i.e web-based application Menggunakan informasi yang diperoleh untuk mengembangkan bisnis, contoh : learning organization

12 Trends in the evolution of business IS/IT (source: adapted from R.D. Galliers and E. Somogyi)

13 Different views of strategic information systems

14 The Relationship Between the Business, SIS, MIS, and DP Business Strategic Management IS/IT Strategic Management IS Management Project and Computer Management Executive Management User Management User Operations Impact Analysis Information Analysis Systems Design

15 The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies

16 Contoh Keterkaitan Strategi Bisnis, Strategi IS, dan Strategi IT Membuka akses ke potensial pelanggan di seluruh Indonesia Mengembangkan aplikasi berbasis Web Menggunakan teknologi informasi berbasis sistem terbuka agar bisa di view oleh berbagai platform

17 An Applications Portfolio for the ‘Combined Era’ McFarlan ‘84

18 Memilih Strategi SI? Apakah masalah memerlukan solusi baru atau inovatif? Creative strategy e.g. Brainstorming Is the problem mechanistic? Logical strategy e.g. Logical Thinking Is the problem unclear & involve people? Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) Use common sense when choosing a problem solving method.

19 So… What’s an IS/IT Strategy? IS/IT strategy is composed of two parts – IS component – IT component IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement for information systems to support the overall strategy of the business The IT strategy is outlining the vision of how the organization’s demand for information and systems will be supported by IT It addresses the provision of ICT capabilities and resources and services such as IT operations, systems development and user support

20 The Context of IS/IT Strategy (Sullivan, 1985) Opportunistic Traditional Complex Backbone Low High Infusion-degree of dependence of IS/IT of the business External competitive pressures: increasing the criticality of IS/IT to the business Diffusion: degree of decentrali- zation of IS/IT control in the organization Internal organization pressures: demanding further distribution of IS/IT control

21 Implications of Competitive Business Strategy to IS/IT Strategy How can IS/IT affect the nature and value of the product or service and its life cycle? – Generate a new product or a new line of business – Enable products to be designed or delivered more quickly – Be used to add additional features or services to increase the product’s value

22 How can IS/IT affect the demand for products and services, segments more effectively, extend them geographically, or provide new distribution channels to reach the market? – Enable to reach more appropriate customers – Enable to match our different products/services to customer appropriately – Enable the product/service to be distributed in new ways to the customers – Enable to get closer to the market-place rather than deal through intermediaries Continued..

23 How can IS/IT affect the cost base of the key processes in the industry or change the balance in the trade-off between flexibility and standardization? – Enable the product/service to be produced more economically – Enable production and associated logistics to be integrated to produce greater flexibility of resource use – Enable a higher quality of product or service to be offered at a much lower cost than traditionally Continued..

24 Examples of How IS/IT has affected the competitive forces in the airline industry How can IS/IT build barriers to new entry? By increasing IT entry cost for reservation systems. By tying in distribution channels (travel agencies). How can IS/IT build in switching costs for customer? By linking purchasing and remittance systems to reduce overheads of customer. Discount/volume packages to discourage piecemeal purchase. How can IS/IT change the basis of competition? Lower costs: optimize yield per aircraft. Differentiate service:reconfiguring aircraft due to demand. Niche/focus service into high yield sectors (business travel) How can IS/IT change the balance of power in supplier/customer relationship? Agent is constantly aware of seat availability of competing airlines. Airline can readily promote unsold capacity via chosen agents. How can IS/IT generate new products/services? Integrated travel package to high mileage business customers—by passing agencies. New routes/schedule to cater for demand.

25 Impact of Competitive Forces and Potential IS/IT Opportunities Key force impacting the industry Business implicationsPotential IS/IT effects Threat of new entrants Additional capacity Reduced prices New basis for competition Provide entry barriers or reduce access by: exploiting existing economies of scale, differentiate products or services, control distribution channels, segment markets Buyer power high Forces prices down Demand higher quality Require service flexibility Encourage competition Differentiate products or services and improve price or performance Increase switching costs of buyer Facilitate buyer product selection Supplier power high Raises prices or costs Reduced quality of supply Reduced availability Supplier sourcing systems Extended quality control into suppliers Forward planning with supplier Substitute products threatened Limits potential market and profit Price ceilings Improve price or performance Redefine products and services to increase value Redefine market segments Intense competition from rivals Price competition Product development Distribution and service critical Customer loyalty required Improve price or performance Differentiate products and services in distribution channel and to consumer Get closer to the end consumer—understand the requirements

26 Why is IS/T Planning Important? IT Strategy is the process of defining the strategic use of technology in an organization. The IS/T Planning process ensures efficient and effective investment of IT to support the business IT is More Critical to Corporate Success The use of IT is increasingly pervasive Enterprises are discovering that IT can influence the relative performance of most departments

27 Indonesia and IS Planning There is a tendency not to pay attention for ‘planning’ The attitude extends to IS/T planning Part of the problem is that there is no ‘tangible’ or ‘less realizable’ outcome resulting from IS/T planning We see more Indonesian organizations conduct IT projects – not preceded by formal IS/T Planning

28 Results of Lack of IS/T Planning Failed of IS/T projects We see IT projects which lacks direction, weak in scope, have little of no identification of Critical Success Factors. Inefficient use of investment in IT Bad name for IT professionals and due to failed IT implementations

29 IS/IT Planning for the Indonesian Need processes which are more facilitator- driven, higher involvement of consultants who has psychological and cultural sensitivity Need processes which are a combination between verbal (direct) and in-direct interactions – to ensure that ideas and opinions are fully expressed

30 IS/T Planning in Indonesian Organizations: Realities Justification for auditing purposes Idea often comes bottom up: hence the challenges Do not believe in documentation: hence the approach is often less formal Difficult to get buy-in from management who would rather see IT implementation projects Who’s project is this: an IT department project?

31 Trends in IS/T Planning We will see more ‘formal’ IS/T Planning activities with increase of IS/T dominance as an integral part of business IS/T Planning will need to be done faster, with the faster trend of technology development Clear definition between business plan, IS/T planning and IT implementation will become more and more blurred as technology will continue to drive businesses stronger


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