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ANALYZING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Chapter 3 Marketing Environment Marketing environment consist of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ANALYZING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Chapter 3 Marketing Environment Marketing environment consist of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 ANALYZING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Chapter 3

3 Marketing Environment Marketing environment consist of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and mantain successful relationships with target customers.

4 THE MICROENVIRONMENT 1

5 The Microenvironment Microenvironment is the actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers - the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics.

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7 The Company Dalam merancang rencana pemasaran, manajemen pemasaran memperhitungkan kelompok lain perusahaan (manajemen puncak, keuangan, riset dan pengembangan, pembelian, operasi dan akuntansi). Semua kelompok saling berhubungan membentuk lingkungan internal.

8 Suppliers Pemasok membentuk hubungan paling penting dalam keseluruhan sistem penghantar nilai perusahaan. Mereka menyediakan sumber daya yang diperlukan oleh perusahaan untuk menghasilkan barang dan jasanya.

9 Marketing Intermediaries o Marketing intermediaries help the company promote, sell, and distribute its products to final buyers. o They include resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries.

10 Marketing Intermediaries o Resellers are distribution channel firms that help the company find customers or make sales to them. o Physical distribution firms help the company stock and move goods from their points of origin to their destinatons. o Marketing services agencies are marketing research firms, advertising agencies, media firms, and marketing consulting firms that help the company target and promote its products to the right market. o Financial intermediaries include banks, credit companies, insurance companies, and other businesses that help finance transactions or insure against the risks associated with the buying and selling of goods.

11 Competitors Pemasar harus melakukan lebih dari sekadar menyesuaikan diri dengan kebutuhan konsumen sasaran. Mereka juga harus meraih manfaat strategis dengan menempatkan penawaran mereka secara kuat menghadapi penawaran pesaing dalam pikiran konsumen.

12 Publics Public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives. Types of publics: Financial Publics (Masyarakat Keuangan) – influences the company’s ability to obtain funds. Media Publics (Masyarakat Media) – carries news, features, and editorial opinion. Government Publics (Masyarakat Pemerintah) Citizen-action Publics (Masyarakat Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat) Local Publics (Masyarakat Lokal) General Publics (Masyarakat Umum) Internal Publics (Masyarakat Internal)

13 Customers – Lima jenis pasar pelanggan yaitu : Pasar Konsumen – Terdiri dari perorangan dan keluarga yang membeli barang dan jasa untuk konsumsi pribadi. Pasar Bisnis – Membeli barang dan jasa untuk pemrosesan lebih lanjut atau untuk digunakan dalam proses produksi mereka. Pasar Penjual Perantara – Membeli barang dan jas auntuk dijual kembali demi mendapatkan laba. Pasar Pemerintah – Tediri dari badan pemerintah yang membeli barang dan jasa untuk menghasilkan pelayanan umum atau menyalurkan barang dan jasa ke pihak lain yang membutuhkan. Pasar Internasional – Terdiri dari pembeli dari negara lain, termasuk konsumen, produsen, penjual perantara, dan pemerintah.

14 THE MACROENVIRONMENT 2

15 The Macroenvironment Macroenvironment is the larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment – demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural forces.

16 Major Forces in the Company’s Macroenvironment

17 THE DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 2.1

18 The Demographic Environment Demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statistics.

19 The Most Important Demographic trends The Changing Age Structure of the Population o Baby Boomers (Ledakan Bayi) is the 78 million people born during years following World War II and lasting until o Generation X is the 45 million people born between 1965 and 1976 in the “birth dearth” following the baby boom. o Millennials or Generation Y is the 83 million children of the baby boomers, born between 1977 and o Generational marketing The Changing American Family Geographic Shifts in Population o Periode ini adalah periode perpindahan (migrasi) besar-besaran antar dan dalam negeri. A Better-Educated, More White-Collar, More Professional Population Increasing Diversity o America sering disebut pot peleburan (melting pot)–tempat beragam kelompok bangsa dan budaya bertemu menjadi satu keseluruhan lebih homogen.

20 THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 2.2

21 The Economic Environment Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya beli dan pola pengeluaran konsumen. Sejumlah negara mempunyai ekonomi subsisten– mereka mengkonsumsi hasil pertanian dan industrinya sendiri. Negara ini menawarkan peluang pasar yang kecil. Tingkat ektrem yang lain ekonomi industri, yaitu menghasilkan pasar yang kaya untuk berbagai jenis barang yang berbeda.

22 The Most Important Economic trends Income Distribution – Pemasar harus memperhatikan distribusi pendapatan seperti halnya pendapatan rata-rata. – Konsumen kelas atas Yang pola pengeluarannya tidak dipengaruhi kejadian ekonomi terkini dan menjadi pasar utama barang-barang mewah. – Konsumen kelas menengah Yang nyaman dan berhati-hati dengan pengeluarnnya tetapi masih dapat menjangkau kehidupan yang layak pada sebagian besar waktunya. – Konsumen kelas pekerja Masih berkutat pada pemenuhan kebutuhan dasar akan pangan, pakaian, dan tempat berlindung dan harus bekerja keras untuk menabung. – Terakhir, Konsumen kelas bawah (Orang yang dijamin tunjangan kesejahteraan dan kebanyakan pensiunan) harus menghitung uang recehnya ketika membeli barang kebutuhan yang paling dasar sekalipun.

23 The Most Important Economic trends Changes in Costumers Spending – Hukum Engel Perbedaan yang dicatat lebih dari satu abad yang lalu tentang cara orang mengubah pengeluaran mereka terhadap makanan, perumahan, transportasi, perawatan kesehatan, dan kategori barang serta jasa lain ketika pendapatan meningkat. – Perubahan variabel ekonomi utama seperti pendaptan, biaya hidup, suku bunga, dan tabungan serta pola peminjaman mempunyai dampak besar pada pasar. – Dengan peringatan yang cukup, Bisnis dapat mengambil keuntungan dari perubahan lingkungan ekonomi ini.

24 THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 2.3

25 The Natural Environment Sumber daya alam yang diperlukan sebagai masukan bagi pemasar atau yang dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan pemasaran.

26 The Most Important Natural trends 1.Kelangkaan Bahan Mentah yang Semakin Meningkat. Polusi udara di banyak kota di dunia dan kelangkaan air sudah menjadi masalah besar di dunia. Sumber daya yang dapat diperbarui seperti hutan dan pangan, juga harus digunakan dengan bijaksana. Perusahaan penghasil produk dengan sumber daya yang tidak dapat diperbarui dan langka seperti minyak bumi, batu bara, menghadapi peningkatan biaya yang besar. 2.Peningkatan Polusi. Kegiatan Industri biasanya merusak kualitas lingkungan alam seperti limbah zat kimia dan limbah nuklir, tingkat merkuri yang membahayakan di samudra, dan bahan kemasan yang tidak dapat didaur ulang. 3.Peningkatan Intervensi Pemerintah dalam Manajemen Sumber Daya Alam. Pemerintah berbagai negara mempunyai beragam tingkat kepedulian dan usaha dalam mempromosikan lingkungan yang bersih, seperti di Amerika Serikat, Badan Perlindungan Lingkungan (the Environmental Protection Agency–EPA)

27 THE TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 2.4

28 The Technological Environment Technological environment is forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. The technological environment perhaps the most dramatic force now shaping our destiny. As products and technology become more complex, the public needs to know that these are safe. Thus, the goverment agencies investigate and ban potentially unsafe products.

29 THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 2.5

30 The Political and Social Environment Political environment consists of laws, goverment agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals a given society.

31 The Political and Social Environment Legislation Regulating Business Well-conceived regulation can encourage competition and ensure fair markets for goods and services. Thus, goverments develop public policy to guide commerce – sets of laws and regulations that limit business for the good of society as a whole. Increasing legislation Moreover, regulations are constantly changing, what was allowed last year may now be prohibited, and what was prohibited may now be allowed. Marketers must work hard to keep up with changes in regulations and their interpretations. Changing goverment agency enforcement News laws and their enforcement will continue to increase. And goverment agencies have some discretion in enforcing the laws, they can have a major impact on a company’s marketing performance.

32 The Political and Social Environment Increased Emphasis on Ethnic and Socially Responsible Actions Socially responsible behavior Enlightened companies encourage their managers to look beyond what the regulatory system allows and simply “do the right thing”. These socially responsible firms actively seek out ways to protect the long-run interests of their consumers and the environment.

33 The Political and Social Environment Increased Emphasis on Ethnic and Socially Responsible Actions Cause-related marketing To exercise their social responsibility and build more positive images, many companies are now linking themselves to worthwhile causes. It lets companies “do well by doing good” by linking purchase of the company’s products or services with fund-raising for worthwhile cause or chatitable organizations. Critics worry that cause-related marketing is more a strategy for selling than a strategy for giving – that “cause-related” marketing is really “cause-exploitative” marketing. However, if handled well, cause related marketing can greatly benefit both the company and the cause.

34 The Cultural Environment Cultural environment consists of institutions and other forces that affect a society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. Cultural characteristics can affect marketing decision making.

35 THE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT 2.6

36 The Cultural Environment The Persistence of Cultural Values People in a given society hold many beliefs and values. Their core beliefs and values have a high degree of persistence. These beliefs shape more specific attitudes and behaviors found in everyday life. And marketers just have a little chace of changing core values.

37 The Cultural Environment Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values People’s views of themselves People vary in their emphasis on serving themselves versus serving others. Marketers can target their products and services based on such self-views. People’s views of others Recently, many trend trackers have seen a new wave of “cocooning” or “nasting”. Due in part to the uncertain economy, people are going out less with others and are staying home more. People’s views of organizations Many people today see work not as a source of satisfaction but as a required chore to earn money to enjoy their nonwork hours. This trend suggest that organizations need to find new ways to win customer and employee confidence.

38 The Cultural Environment Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values People’s views of society People vary in their attitudes toward their society. People’s orientation to their society influences their consumption patterns and attitudes toward the marketplace. People’s views of nature A long-term trend has been people’s growing mastery over nature through technology and the belief that nature is bountiful. More recently, however, people have recognized that nature is finite and fragile, it can be destroyed or spoiled by human activities. People’s views of the universe Finally, people vary in their beliefs about the origin of the universe and their place in it, for example about religion.

39 RESPONDING TO THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 3

40 Reponding to the Marketing Environment Companies can passively accept the marketing environment as an uncontrollable element to which they must adapt, avoiding threats and taking advantage of opportunities as they arise. Or they can take a proactive stance, working to change the environment rather than simply reacting to it. Whenever possible, companies should try to be proactive rather than reactive.

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